ResearchPad - research-article:-methods-new-tools https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Voltage Imaging of Cortical Oscillations in Layer 1 with Two-Photon Microscopy]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13341 Membrane voltage oscillations in layer 1 (L1) of primary sensory cortices might be important indicators of cortical gain control, attentional focusing, and signal integration. However, electric field recordings are hampered by the low seal resistance of electrodes close to the brain surface. To study L1 membrane voltage oscillations, we synthesized a new voltage-sensitive dye, di1-ANNINE (anellated hemicyanine)-6plus, that can diffuse into tissue. We applied it with a new surgery, leaving the dura intact but allowing injection of large quantities of staining solution, and imaged cortical membrane potential oscillations with two-photon microscopy depth-resolved (25–100 μm below dura) in anesthetized and awake mice. We found delta (0.5–4 Hz), theta (4–10 Hz), low beta (10–20 Hz), and low gamma (30–40 Hz) oscillations. All oscillations were stronger in awake animals. While the power of delta, theta, and low beta oscillations increased with depth, the power of low gamma was more constant throughout L1. These findings identify L1 as an important coordination hub for the dynamic binding process of neurons mediated by oscillations.

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<![CDATA[The Operant Plantar Thermal Assay: A Novel Device for Assessing Thermal Pain Tolerance in Mice]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N52646525-83a8-405f-8ab1-b4c7def14b2f

Abstract

Pain is a multidimensional experience of sensory-discriminative, cognitive, and affective processes; however, current basic research methods rely heavily on response to threshold stimuli, bypassing the supraspinal processing that ultimately gives rise to the pain experience. We developed the operant plantar thermal assay (OPTA), which utilizes a novel, conflict-based operant task requiring evaluation and active decision-making to obtain reward under thermally aversive conditions to quantify thermal pain tolerance. In baseline measures, male and female mice exhibited similar temperature preferences, however in the OPTA, female mice exhibited greater temperature-dependent tolerance, as defined by choice time spent in an adverse thermal condition to obtain reward. Increasing reward salience (4% vs 10% sucrose solution) led to increased thermal tolerance for males but not females. To determine whether neuropathic and inflammatory pain models alter thermal tolerance, animals with chronic constriction injury (CCI) or complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA), respectively, were tested in the OPTA. Surprisingly, neuropathic animals exhibited increased thermal tolerance, as shown by greater time spent in the reward zone in an adverse thermal condition, compared with sham animals. There was no effect of inflammation on thermal tolerance. Administration of clonidine in the CCI model led to increased thermal tolerance in both injured and sham animals. In contrast, the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory meloxicam was anti-hyperalgesic in the CFA model, but reduced thermal pain tolerance. These data support the feasibility of using the OPTA to assess thermal pain tolerance to gain new insights into complex pain behaviors and to investigate novel aspects of analgesic efficacy.

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