ResearchPad - research-articles https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Regulation of axonal morphogenesis by the mitochondrial protein Efhd1]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13940 During development, neurons adjust their energy balance to meet the high demands of robust axonal growth and branching. The mechanisms that regulate this tuning are largely unknown. Here, we show that sensory neurons lacking liver kinase B1 (Lkb1), a master regulator of energy homeostasis, exhibit impaired axonal growth and branching. Biochemical analysis of these neurons revealed reduction in axonal ATP levels, whereas transcriptome analysis uncovered down-regulation of Efhd1 (EF-hand domain family member D1), a mitochondrial Ca2+-binding protein. Genetic ablation of Efhd1 in mice resulted in reduced axonal morphogenesis as well as enhanced neuronal death. Strikingly, this ablation causes mitochondrial dysfunction and a decrease in axonal ATP levels. Moreover, Efhd1 KO sensory neurons display shortened mitochondria at the axonal growth cones, activation of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)–Ulk (Unc-51–like autophagy-activating kinase 1) pathway and an increase in autophagic flux. Overall, this work uncovers a new mitochondrial regulator that is required for axonal morphogenesis.

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<![CDATA[The Neural Origin of Nociceptive-Induced Gamma-Band Oscillations]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13787 Gamma-band oscillations (GBOs) elicited by transient nociceptive stimuli are one of the most promising biomarkers of pain across species. Still, whether these GBOs reflect stimulus encoding in the primary somatosensory cortex (S1) or nocifensive behavior in the primary motor cortex (M1) is debated. Here we recorded neural activity simultaneously from the brain surface as well as at different depths of the bilateral S1/M1 in freely-moving male rats receiving nociceptive stimulation. GBOs measured from superficial layers of S1 contralateral to the stimulated paw not only had the largest magnitude, but also showed the strongest temporal and phase coupling with epidural GBOs. Also, spiking of superficial S1 interneurons had the strongest phase coherence with epidural GBOs. These results provide the first direct demonstration that scalp GBOs, one of the most promising pain biomarkers, reflect neural activity strongly coupled with the fast spiking of interneurons in the superficial layers of the S1 contralateral to the stimulated side.

SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Nociceptive-induced gamma-band oscillations (GBOs) measured at population level are one of the most promising biomarkers of pain perception. Our results provide the direct demonstration that these GBOs reflect neural activity coupled with the spike firing of interneurons in the superficial layers of the primary somatosensory cortex (S1) contralateral to the side of nociceptive stimulation. These results address the ongoing debate about whether nociceptive-induced GBOs recorded with scalp EEG or epidurally reflect stimulus encoding in the S1 or nocifensive behavior in the primary motor cortex (M1), and will therefore influence how experiments in pain neuroscience will be designed and interpreted.

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<![CDATA[Identification of crucial aberrantly methylated and differentially expressed genes related to cervical cancer using an integrated bioinformatics analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13844 Methylation functions in the pathogenesis of cervical cancer. In the present study, we applied an integrated bioinformatics analysis to identify the aberrantly methylated and differentially expressed genes (DEGS), and their related pathways in cervical cancer. Data of gene expression microarrays (GSE9750) and gene methylation microarrays (GSE46306) were gained from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) databases. Hub genes were identified by ‘limma’ packages and Venn diagram tool. Functional analysis was conducted by FunRich. Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes Database (STRING) was used to analyze protein–protein interaction (PPI) information. Gene Expression Profiling Interactive Analysis (GEPIA), immunohistochemistry staining, and ROC curve analysis were conducted for validation. Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) was also performed to identify potential functions.We retrieved two upregulated-hypomethylated oncogenes and eight downregulated-hypermethylated tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) for functional analysis. Hypomethylated and highly expressed genes (Hypo-HGs) were significantly enriched in cell cycle and autophagy, and hypermethylated and lowly expressed genes (Hyper-LGs) in estrogen receptor pathway and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1), Erythrocyte membrane protein band 4.1 like 3 (EPB41L3), Endothelin receptor B (EDNRB), Inhibitor of DNA binding 4 (ID4) and placenta-specific 8 (PLAC8) were hub genes. Kaplan–Meier method was used to evaluate survival data of each identified gene. Lower expression levels of ESR1 and EPB41L3 were correlated with a shorter survival time. GSEA results showed that ‘cell adhesion molecules’ was the most enriched item. This research inferred the candidate genes and pathways that might be used in the diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of cervical cancer.

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<![CDATA[PINK1-dependent phosphorylation of Serine111 within the SF3 motif of Rab GTPases impairs effector interactions and LRRK2-mediated phosphorylation at Threonine72]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13881 Loss of function mutations in the PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) kinase are causal for autosomal recessive Parkinson's disease (PD) whilst gain of function mutations in the LRRK2 kinase cause autosomal dominant PD. PINK1 indirectly regulates the phosphorylation of a subset of Rab GTPases at a conserved Serine111 (Ser111) residue within the SF3 motif. Using genetic code expansion technologies, we have produced stoichiometric Ser111-phosphorylated Rab8A revealing impaired interactions with its cognate guanine nucleotide exchange factor and GTPase activating protein. In a screen for Rab8A kinases we identify TAK1 and MST3 kinases that can efficiently phosphorylate the Switch II residue Threonine72 (Thr72) in a similar manner as LRRK2 in vitro. Strikingly, we demonstrate that Ser111 phosphorylation negatively regulates the ability of LRRK2 but not MST3 or TAK1 to phosphorylate Thr72 of recombinant nucleotide-bound Rab8A in vitro and demonstrate an interplay of PINK1- and LRRK2-mediated phosphorylation of Rab8A in transfected HEK293 cells. Finally, we present the crystal structure of Ser111-phosphorylated Rab8A and nuclear magnetic resonance structure of Ser111-phosphorylated Rab1B. The structures reveal that the phosphorylated SF3 motif does not induce any major changes, but may interfere with effector-Switch II interactions through intramolecular H-bond formation and/or charge effects with Arg79. Overall, we demonstrate antagonistic regulation between PINK1-dependent Ser111 phosphorylation and LRRK2-mediated Thr72 phosphorylation of Rab8A indicating a potential cross-talk between PINK1-regulated mitochondrial homeostasis and LRRK2 signalling that requires further investigation in vivo.

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<![CDATA[Effect of miR-195-5p on cardiomyocyte apoptosis in rats with heart failure by regulating TGF-β1/Smad3 signaling pathway]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13841 Purpose: The present study set out to investigate the effect of miR-195-5p on cardiomyocyte apoptosis in rats with heart failure (HF) and its mechanism.

Methods: HF rat model and hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) cardiomyocyte model were established. miR-195-5p expression and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1)/signal transduction protein (Smad)3 signaling pathway in HF rats and H/R cardiomyocytes were interfered. miR-195-5p expression was tested by Rt-PCR, TGF-β1/Smad3 signaling pathway related proteins were detected by Western Blot, apoptosis of HF rat cardiomyocytes was tested by TUNEL, and apoptosis of cardiomyocytes induced by H/R was checked by flow cytometry.

Results: miR-195-5p was lowly expressed in myocardium of HF rats, while TGF-β1 and Smad3 proteins were high-expressed. Up-regulating miR-195-5p expression could obviously inhibit cardiomyocyte apoptosis of HF rats, improve their cardiac function, and inhibit activation of TGF-β1/Smad3 signaling pathway. Up-regulation of miR-195-5p expression or inhibition of TGF-β1/Smad3 signaling pathway could obviously inhibit H/R-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Dual-luciferase reporter enzyme verified the targeted relationship between miR-195-5p and Smad3.

Conclusion: miR-195-5p can inhibit cardiomyocyte apoptosis and improve cardiac function in HF rats by regulating TGF-β1/Smad3 signaling pathway, which may be a potential target for HF therapy.

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<![CDATA[VCAM-1-targeted and PPARδ-agonist-loaded nanomicelles enhanced suppressing effects on apoptosis and migration of oxidized low-density lipoprotein-induced vascular smooth muscle cells]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13842 Purpose: Nanomicelles (NMs) have been widely used for various biomedical applications due to its unique physiochemical properties. The present study aims to investigate the effects of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1)-targeted and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ (PPARδ) agonist (GW0742)-loaded NMs on apoptosis and migration in oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL)-induced human aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (HAVSMCs).

Methods: The GW0742-loaded NMs (M-GW) and VCAM-1-targeted NMs loaded with GW0742 (TM-GW) were prepared, and then the morphologies and the size distribution of M-GM and TM-GM were observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS), respectively. In vitro drug release assay of M-GM and TM-GM were performed as well. Next, HAVSMCs were cultured in medium containing ox-LDL to mimic atherosclerotic environment, and the effects of free GW0742, M-GM and TM-GM on endocytosis, cell migration and apoptosis, as well as the expression of VCAM-1, and proteins associated with migration and apoptosis were measured in HAVSMCs treated with ox-LDL.

Results: M-GM and TM-GM were successfully prepared. VCAM-1 was overexpressed in HAVSMCs treated with ox-LDL, and TM-GM had a strong targeting ability to HAVSMCs treated with ox-LDL compared with M-GM. In addition, compared with free GW0742, both M-GM and TM-GM significantly diminished cell apoptosis and migration in HAVSMCs treated with ox-LDL.

Conclusions: TM-GM had a superior suppressing effect on apoptosis and migration of ox-LDL-induced HAVSMCs.

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<![CDATA[Whole exome sequencing of a family revealed a novel variant in the <i>CHM</i> gene, c.22delG p.(Glu8Serfs*4), which co-segregated with choroideremia]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13840 Choroideremia is a complex form of blindness-causing retinal degeneration. The aim of the present study was to investigate the pathogenic variant and molecular etiology associated with choroideremia in a Chinese family. All available family members underwent detailed ophthalmological examinations. Whole exome sequencing, bioinformatics analysis, Sanger sequencing, and co-segregation analysis of family members were used to validate sequencing data and confirm the presence of the disease-causing gene variant. The proband was diagnosed with choroideremia on the basis of clinical manifestations. Whole exome sequencing showed that the proband had a hemizygous variant in the CHM gene, c.22delG p. (Glu8Serfs*4), which was confirmed by Sanger sequencing and found to co-segregate with choroideremia. The variant was classified as likely pathogenic and has not previously been described. These results expand the spectrum of variants in the CHM gene, thus potentially enriching the understanding of the molecular basis of choroideremia. Moreover, they may provide insight for future choroideremia diagnosis and gene therapy.

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<![CDATA[Fine-scale visualizing the hierarchical structure of mouse biliary tree with fluorescence microscopy method]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13843 The liver is a vital organ and the hepatic lobule serves as the most basic structural and functional unit which is mainly assembled with parenchymal cells including hepatocytes and biliary epithelial cells. The continuous tubular arrangement of biliary cells which constitutes the biliary tracts is critical for liver function, however, the biliary tracts are often disrupted in many liver diseases such as cirrhosis and some congenital disorders. Visualization of the biliary tracts in fine-scale and three-dimension will help to understanding the structure basis of these liver diseases. In the present study, we established several biliary tract injury mouse models by diet feeding, surgery or genetic modification. The cytoplasm and nuclei of the parenchymal cells were marked by active uptake of fluorescent dyes Rhodamine B (red) and Hoechst (blue), respectively. After the removal of liver en bloc, the biliary tracts were retrogradely perfused with green fluorescent dye, fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC). The liver was then observed under confocal microscopy. The fine-scale and three-dimensional (3D) structure of the whole biliary tree, particularly the network of the end-terminal bile canaliculi and neighboring hepatocytes were clearly visualized. The biliary tracts displayed clear distinct characteristics in normal liver and diseased liver models. Taken together, we have developed a simple and repeatable imaging method to visualize the fine-scale and hierarchical architecture of the biliary tracts spreading in the mouse liver.

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<![CDATA[Importance of γ-secretase in the regulation of liver X receptor and cellular lipid metabolism]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_12861 Presenilins (PS) are the catalytic components of γ-secretase complexes that mediate intramembrane proteolysis. Mutations in the PS genes are a major cause of familial early-onset Alzheimer disease and affect the cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein, thereby altering the production of the amyloid β-peptide. However, multiple additional protein substrates have been identified, suggesting pleiotropic functions of γ-secretase. Here, we demonstrate that inhibition of γ-secretase causes dysregulation of cellular lipid homeostasis, including up-regulation of liver X receptors, and complex changes in the cellular lipid composition. Genetic and pharmacological inhibition of γsecretase leads to strong accumulation of cytoplasmic lipid droplets, associated with increased levels of acylglycerols, but lowered cholesteryl esters. Furthermore, accumulation of lipid droplets was augmented by increasing levels of amyloid precursor protein C-terminal fragments, indicating a critical involvement of this γ-secretase substrate. Together, these data provide a mechanism that functionally connects γ-secretase activity to cellular lipid metabolism. These effects were also observed in human astrocytic cells, indicating an important function of γ-secretase in cells critical for lipid homeostasis in the brain.

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<![CDATA[How Attentional Guidance and Response Selection Boost Contextual Learning: Evidence from Eye Movement]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_12661 The contextual cueing effect (CCE) refers to the learned association between predictive configuration and target location, speeding up response times for targets. Previous studies have examined the underlying processes (initial perceptual process, attentional guidance, and response selection) of CCE but have not reached a general consensus on their contributions to CCE. In the present study, we used eye tracking to address this question by analyzing the oculomotor correlates of context-guided learning in visual search and eliminating indefinite response factors during response priming. The results show that both attentional guidance and response selection contribute to contextual learning.

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<![CDATA[SARS-CoV-2 infection protects against rechallenge in rhesus macaques]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_12573 An understanding of protective immunity to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is critical for vaccine and public health strategies aimed at ending the global coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. A key unanswered question is whether infection with SARS-CoV-2 results in protective immunity against reexposure. We developed a rhesus macaque model of SARS-CoV-2 infection and observed that macaques had high viral loads in the upper and lower respiratory tract, humoral and cellular immune responses, and pathologic evidence of viral pneumonia. After the initial viral clearance, animals were rechallenged with SARS-CoV-2 and showed 5 log10 reductions in median viral loads in bronchoalveolar lavage and nasal mucosa compared with after the primary infection. Anamnestic immune responses after rechallenge suggested that protection was mediated by immunologic control. These data show that SARS-CoV-2 infection induced protective immunity against reexposure in nonhuman primates.

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<![CDATA[DNA vaccine protection against SARS-CoV-2 in rhesus macaques]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_12572 The global coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has made the development of a vaccine a top biomedical priority. In this study, we developed a series of DNA vaccine candidates expressing different forms of the SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein and evaluated them in 35 rhesus macaques. Vaccinated animals developed humoral and cellular immune responses, including neutralizing antibody titers at levels comparable to those found in convalescent humans and macaques infected with SARS-CoV-2. After vaccination, all animals were challenged with SARS-CoV-2, and the vaccine encoding the full-length S protein resulted in >3.1 and >3.7 log10 reductions in median viral loads in bronchoalveolar lavage and nasal mucosa, respectively, as compared with viral loads in sham controls. Vaccine-elicited neutralizing antibody titers correlated with protective efficacy, suggesting an immune correlate of protection. These data demonstrate vaccine protection against SARS-CoV-2 in nonhuman primates.

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<![CDATA[Hepatic monoamine oxidase B is involved in endogenous geranylgeranoic acid synthesis in mammalian liver cells<a href="#fn1"><sup>[S]</sup></a>]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_10993 Geranylgeranoic acid (GGA) originally was identified in some animals and has been developed as an agent for preventing second primary hepatoma. We previously have also identified GGA as an acyclic diterpenoid in some medicinal herbs. Recently, we reported that in human hepatoma-derived HuH-7 cells, GGA is metabolically labeled from 13C-mevalonate. Several cell-free experiments have demonstrated that GGA is synthesized through geranylgeranial by oxygen-dependent oxidation of geranylgeraniol (GGOH), but the exact biochemical events giving rise to GGA in hepatoma cells remain unclear. Monoamine oxidase B (MOAB) has been suggested to be involved in GGOH oxidation. Here, using two human hepatoma cell lines, we investigated whether MAOB contributes to GGA biosynthesis. Using either HuH-7 cell lysates or recombinant human MAOB, we found that: 1) the MAO inhibitor tranylcypromine dose-dependently downregulates endogenous GGA levels in HuH-7 cells; and 2) siRNA-mediated MAOB silencing reduces intracellular GGA levels in HuH-7 and Hep3B cells. Unexpectedly, however, CRISPR/Cas9-generated MAOB-KO human hepatoma Hep3B cells had GGA levels similar to those in MAOB-WT cells. A sensitivity of GGA levels to siRNA-mediated MAOB downregulation was recovered when the MAOB-KO cells were transfected with a MAOB-expression plasmid, suggesting that MAOB is the enzyme primarily responsible for GGOH oxidation and that some other latent metabolic pathways may maintain endogenous GGA levels in the MAOB-KO hepatoma cells. Along with the previous findings, these results provide critical insights into the biological roles of human MAOB and provide evidence that hepatic MAOB is involved in endogenous GGA biosynthesis via GGOH oxidation.

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<![CDATA[Thrombospondin‐1 mediates Drp‐1 signaling following ischemia reperfusion in the aging heart]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_10598 Ischemia reperfusion (IR) injury leads to activation of dynamin‐related protein (Drp‐1), causing mitochondrial fission and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), but the molecular mechanisms that activate Drp‐1 are not known. The purpose of this study was to establish a link between Thbs‐1 and fission protein (Drp‐1) through Pgc‐1α following IR in advancing age.MethodsFemale Fischer‐344 rats were divided into four groups: Young Control, Young + IR, Old Control, and Old + IR. Heart function and coronary flow were evaluated at baseline and 72 hours after IR, hearts were explanted and mitochondrial ROS generation was measured using MitoPY1, as well as protein levels of Thbs‐1, Pgc‐1α, and Drp‐1. In vitro, rat aortic endothelial cells (RAEC) were treated with siRNA or plasmid for Pgc‐1α to evaluate Pgc‐1α effect on Drp‐1.ResultsMitochondrial ROS generation in heart tissue increased in both age groups following IR. Old animals exhibited diastolic dysfunction at baseline; after IR they displayed reduced systolic function and exacerbated diastolic dysfunction compared to young controls. IR increased Thbs‐1 and Drp‐1 expression in young and old hearts compared to control. siRNA to Pgc‐1α enhanced levels of Drp‐1 in RAECs and increased ROS generation after hypoxia, while Pgc‐1α plasmid ameliorates Drp‐1 expression in the presence of exogenous Thbs‐1.ConclusionThese results highlight a novel signaling pathway by which Thbs‐1 regulates mitochondrial fission protein (Drp‐1) and ROS generation during hypoxia, and presumably, following IR. Inhibiting Thbs‐1 immediately after IR may prevent Drp‐1‐mediated mitochondrial fission and is likely to improve the diastolic function of the heart by reducing ROS‐mediated cardiomyocyte damage in the aged population. ]]> <![CDATA[MicroRNA-92a-3p enhances functional recovery and suppresses apoptosis after spinal cord injury via targeting phosphatase and tensin homolog]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_9232 Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a neurological disease commonly caused by traumatic events on spinal cords. MiRNA-92a-3p is reported to be down-regulated after SCI. Our study investigated the effects of up-regulated miR-92a-3p on SCI and the underlying mechanisms. SCI mice model was established to evaluate the functional recovery of hindlimbs of mice through open-field locomotion and scored by Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB) locomotion scale. Apoptosis of spinal cord cells was determined by flow cytometry. The effects of miR-92a-3p on SCI were detected by intrathecally injecting miR-92a-3p agomiR (agomiR-92) into the mice prior to the establishment of SCI. Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) was predicted as a target of miR-29a-3p by TargetScan. We further assessed the effects of agomiR-92 or/and overexpressed PTEN on apoptosis rates and apoptotic protein expressions in SCI mice. Moreover, the activation of protein kinase B (AKT)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling was determined by Western blot. The results showed that compared with the sham-operated mice, SCI mice had much lower BBB scores, and theapoptosis rate of spinal cord cells was significantly increased. After SCI, the expression of miR-92a-3p was down-regulated, and increased expression of miR-92a-3p induced by agomiR-92 further significantly increased the BBB score and decreased apoptosis. PTEN was specifically targeted by miR-92a-3p. In addition, the phosphorylation levels of Akt and mTOR were up-regulated under the treatment of agomiR-92. Our data demonstrated that the neuroprotective effects of miR-92a-3p on spinal cord safter SCI were highly associated with the activation of the PTEN/AKT/mTOR pathway.

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<![CDATA[LINC00221 suppresses the malignancy of children acute lymphoblastic leukemia]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_9231 As the most common malignant disease in childhood, children acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a heterogeneous disease caused by the accumulated genetic alterations. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are reported as critical regulators in diseases. GEPIA database indicated that long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 221 (LINC00221) was conspicuously down-regulated in acute myeloid leukemia. However, its expression pattern in ALL has not been revealed. This work was carried out to study the role of LINC00221 in ALL cells. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) quantified LINC00221 expression in ALL cells. The function of LINC00221 in ALL was determined by ki-67 immunofluorescence staining, EdU, TUNEL, JC-1, and caspase-3/8/9 activity assays. RNA pull down and Ago2-RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP) assays investigated the interaction between miR-152-3p and LINC00221 or ATPase sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ transporting 2 (ATP2A2). Our study revealed the low expression of LINC00221 in ALL cells. Subsequently, LINC00221 was verified to bind with miR-152-3p. Moreover, functional assays pointed out that LINC00221 overexpression posed anti-proliferation and pro-apoptosis effects in ALL cells, and these effects could be separately reversed by miR-152-3p up-regulation. Afterward, LINC00221 was revealed to regulate ATP2A2 expression via sponging miR-152-3p. Additionally, ATP2A2 was verified to involve in regulating LINC00221-mediated ALL cell proliferation and apoptosis. In conclusion, LINC00221 suppressed ALL cell proliferation and boosted ALL cell apoptosis via sponging miR-152-3p to up-regulate ATP2A2.

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<![CDATA[Circular RNA hsa_circ_0072309 inhibits non-small cell lung cancer progression by sponging miR-580-3p]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_9229 Objective: Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) continues to top the list of cancer mortalities worldwide. Early diagnosis and therapeutic interventions targeting NSCLC is becoming the world’s significant challenge. Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are emerging as a group of potential cancer biomarkers.

Materials and methods: Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) was employed to examine the expression of circ_0072309 in NSCLC tissues and cell lines. Cell counting kit 8 (CCK-8), wound healing and Transwell assays were used to analyze cell proliferation, migration and invasion in A549 and H1299 cells. The relationship between circ_0072309 and miR-580-3 was analyzed by Luciferase reporter and RNA pull down assays.

Results: We screened circ_0072309 from Gene Expression Omnibus and found that circ_0072309 was lowly expressed in NSCLC tissues and cell lines. The transfection of circ_0072309-overexpressing vector significantly suppressed the cell proliferation, migration and invasion in A549 and H1299 cells. We predicted that miR-580-3p is a target of circ_0072309 by using publicly available bioinformatic algorithms Circinteractome tool and confirmed that circ_0072309 directly bound to miR-580-3p. Furthermore, the addition of miR-580-3p mitigated the blockage of cell proliferation, migration and invasion induced by circ_0072309.

Conclusions: These data showed that circ_0072309 inhibits the progression of NSCLC progression via blocking the expression of miR-580-3p. These findings revealed the anti-tumor role of circ_0072309 during the development of NSCLC and provided a novel diagnostic biomarker and potential therapy for NSCLC.

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<![CDATA[Mechanical stimulation induced osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs through TWIST/E2A/p21 axis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_9226 The relationship between mechanical force and alveolar bone remodeling is an important issue in orthodontics because tooth movement is dependent on the response of bone tissue to the mechanical force induced by the appliances used. Mechanical cyclical stretch plays an essential role in the cell osteogenic differentiation involved in bone remodeling. However, the underlying mechanisms are unclear, particularly the molecular pathways regulated by mechanical stimulation. In the present study, we reported a dynamic change of p21 level in response to mechanical cyclical stretch, and shRNA-p21 in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) induced osteogenic differentiation. The mechanism was mediated through TWIST/E2A/p21 axis. These results supported the mechanical stimulation-induced osteogenic differentiation is negatively regulated by p21.

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<![CDATA[MiR-139-5p influences hepatocellular carcinoma cell invasion and proliferation capacities via decreasing SLITRK4 expression]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_9224 The microRNA, miR-139-5p, has been proved to play important roles in regulating tumor progression, including prostate cancer, osteosarcoma, esophageal cancer, and so on, but its correlation of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) still remains unclear. Here we found that hsa-miR-139-5p (miR-139-5p) was decreased in HCC samples compared with normal liver tissues, and a lower expression of miR-139-5p was connected to a poorer prognosis. Mechanism study indicated that a decreased/increased miR-139-5p could increase/decrease HCC cells invasion and proliferation capacities via increasing SLITRK4 expression, what’s more, the reverse assays also confirmed the conclusion when we knocked down SLITRK4 in the miR-139-5p low-expression cells. Luciferase assay confirmed that miR-139-5p could directly bind to the 3′UTR of SLITRK4 mRNA to regulate its expression. Together, these findings show the importance of miR-139-5p/SLITRK4 pathway in HCC growth and progression and may provide new targets for us to better arrange the progression of HCC.

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<![CDATA[Silencing of LncRNA PVT1 inhibits the proliferation, migration and fibrosis of high glucose-induced mouse mesangial cells via targeting microRNA-93-5p]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_9222 Objective: The present study aimed to investigate the regulatory role of long non-coding RNA plasmacytoma variant translocation 1 (PVT1) on high glucose (HG)-induced mouse mesangial cells (MMCs).

Methods: PVT1 expression in diabetic nephropathy (DN) mice and HG-induced MMCs was detected by qRT-PCR. EdU and Colony formation, Annexin V-PI staining, Muse cell cycle, Scratch, and Transwell assays were performed to detect the cell proliferation, apoptosis, cell cycle, migration, and invasion, respectively. The contents of fibrosis factors in cell-culture supernatants were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Western blot was performed to detect the expression of factors involved in apoptosis, cell cycle, migration and invasion, fibrosis, and PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. The targeting relation between miR-93-5p and PVT1 was predicted by StarBase3.0 (an online software for analyzing the targeting relationship) and identified by Dual-luciferase reporter (DLR) assay.

Results: PVT1 was overexpressed in DN kidney tissues and HG-induced MMCs. HG-induced MMCs exhibited significantly increased EdU-positive cells, cell colonies, S and G2/M phase cells, migration and invasion ability, and contents of fibrosis factors, as well as significantly decreased apoptosis rate compared with NG-induced MMCs. HG significantly up-regulated Bcl-2, CyclinD1, CDK4, N-cadherin, vimentin, Col. IV, FN, TGF-β1 and PAI-1, and down-regulated Bax, cleaved caspase-3, cleaved PARP, and E-cadherin in MMCs. Silencing of PVT1 eliminated the effects of HG in MMCs and blocked PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. MiR-93-5p was a target of PVT1, which eliminated the effects of PVT1 on HG-induced MMCs.

Conclusions: PVT1 silencing inhibited the proliferation, migration, invasion and fibrosis, promoted the apoptosis, and blocked PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway in HG-induced MMCs via up-regulating miR-93-5p.

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