ResearchPad - research-brief https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Influenza-Related Communication and Community Mitigation Strategies: Results From the 2015 Pandemic Influenza Readiness Assessment]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_15527 Emergence of a novel infectious disease, such as pandemic influenza, is the one global crisis most likely to affect the greatest number of people worldwide. Because of the potentially severe and contagious nature of influenza, a rapid multifaceted pandemic response, which includes nonpharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) and effective strategies for communication with the public are essential for a timely response and mitigating the spread of disease. A web-based questionnaire was administered via email in July 2015 to 62 Public Health Emergency Preparedness (PHEP) directors across jurisdictions that receive funding through the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention PHEP cooperative agreement. This report focuses on two modules: Public Information and Communication and Community Mitigation. Consistent and targeted communication are critical for the acceptability and success of NPIs. All 62 jurisdictions have developed or are in the process of developing a communications plan. Community-level NPIs such as home isolation, school closures, and respiratory etiquette play a critical role in mitigating the spread of disease. Effective, ongoing communication with the public is essential to ensuring wide spread compliance of NPI’s, especially among non–English-speaking populations. Planning should also include reaching vulnerable populations and identifying the correct legal authorities for closing schools and canceling mass gatherings.

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<![CDATA[Human coronavirus NL63 in hospitalized children with respiratory infection: A 2-year study from Chongqing, China]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N1f9cf071-cfc1-497c-9124-a885df7323b0

Human coronavirus (HCoV) NL63, a newly discovered coronavirus, has been associated with acute lower respiratory tract infections (ALRTI). We detected HCoV-NL63 via reverse transcriptional PCR (RT-PCR) in eight out of 878 respiratory specimens freshly collected from hospitalized children with ALRTI between April 2006 and March 2008 in Children’s Hospital of Chongqing Medical University. Peak of HCoV-NL63 activity often appeared during the summer and autumn in Chongqing area. All children with HCoV-NL63 infection were <1 year of age. The diagnosis included bronchial pneumonia, bronchitis, interstitial pneumonia and bronchiolitis. All children recovered.

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<![CDATA[Level of underreporting including underdiagnosis before the first peak of COVID-19 in various countries: Preliminary retrospective results based on wavelets and deterministic modeling]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Na0126907-846f-4b96-bc52-1928bd7ee388 ]]> <![CDATA[Absence of contamination of personal protective equipment (PPE) by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N5d9924b9-93df-4f05-a872-21e093b5ed21 ]]> <![CDATA[Furosemide infusion in children with dengue fever and hypoxemia]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N43b99825-cffb-402b-9505-8cc5daae1f90

Objectives

To study the role of furosemide infusion in the management of Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) associated with dengue fever.

Methods

Children between the ages of 1 month to 18 years, who fulfilled the WHO clinical criteria for dengue infection and American European Consensus Criteria criteria for ARDS with Dengue IgM positivity, were evaluated. Patients were studied as group D (receiving diuretic therapy alone) and group B (both ventilation and diuretics), and compared to a historical control group V (ventilation alone). Furosemide infusion was administered at 0.05–0.1 mg/kg/hour for 48 hours, maintaining a urine output of 2–4 mL/kg/hour.

Results

There was a significant difference in survival in the three groups. Significant difference was noted between pre- and postintervention arterial blood gases with respect to PCO2 (P=0.02), pO2 (P=0.003), PaO2/FaO2 ratio (P<0.001) and alveolar-arteriolar oxygen gradient (P=0.002).

Conclusion

Diuretic infusion improves outcome in dengue with ARDS.

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<![CDATA[Evaluation of a polymorphism in MYBPC3 in patients with anthracycline induced cardiotoxicity]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c8eef87d5eed0c484f01f60

Cardiotoxicity is the most serious side effect of anthracyclines (doxorubicin, daunorubicin or epirubicin). The incidence of anthracycline induced late cardiac toxicity (AIC) that is overt clinically is 3–5% in the Indian population. Polymorphism in intron 32 (deletion of 25 bp) of MYBPC3 has been shown to be present exclusively in Asians and more so in South India (3–8%). The frequency of the polymorphism is significantly higher (13%) in patients with cardiomyopathy in India. Fifteen patients were identified to have cardiac dysfunction following treatment for malignant lymphoma with doxorubicin containing regimens. Peripheral blood DNA from control, amplified by polymerase chain reaction yielded a 467 bp fragment while in the presence of the 25 bp deletion only a 442 bp fragment was detected. To confirm the presence or absence of the polymorphism, amplified DNA was restricted using Bgl1 in all samples. Bgl1 restricted amplified DNA only if the 25 bp deletion was absent. A 467 base pair band was observed in all the 15 samples, which suggested the absence of polymorphism in MYBPC3. In a sample of DNA from a patient with a deletion in exon 33 (confirmed by sequencing) a 442 bp fragment was detected. Amplified DNA from this patient was not restricted with Bgl1. Wild type MYBPC3 when amplified gave a distinct restriction banding pattern consisting of two bands of 401 bp and 66 bp. Amplified DNA from all peripheral blood samples restricted with Bgl1 suggesting the absence of the polymorphism. In this preliminary report, MYBPC3 does not seem to play a role in anthracycline induced cardiotoxicity.

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<![CDATA[Utility of ankle-brachial index in screening for peripheral arterial disease in rural India: A cross-sectional study and review of literature]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c8eef82d5eed0c484f01ea5

Background

Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is an underdiagnosed illness often affecting the elderly population. Ankle brachial index (ABI) is a good diagnostic tool for PAD in outpatient practice, but remains underused.

Materials and methods

Patients were recruited from an outpatient medical camp in rural India, and assessed for symptoms and pre-existing risk factors. Measured ABI ≤ 0.9 was considered abnormal and considered PAD.

Results

Out of 100 patients recruited, PAD was diagnosed in 57 patients. Associated risk factors were like age >55 years (67%), hypertension (66%), smoking (69%) and diabetes mellitus (35%) were common.

Conclusion

PAD is a very common and underdiagnosed illness in rural India. A simple tool like ABI can help diagnosis in underserved areas.

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<![CDATA[Optimal Distribution and Utilization of Donated Human Breast Milk]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b04ccb0463d7e28ad572d93

Background:

The nutritional content of donated expressed breast milk (DEBM) is variable. Using DEBM to provide for the energy requirements of neonates is challenging.

Objective:

The authors hypothesized that a system of DEBM energy content categorization and distribution would improve energy intake from DEBM.

Methods:

We compared infants’ actual cumulative energy intake with projected energy intake, had they been fed using our proposed system. Eighty-five milk samples were ranked by energy content. The bottom, middle, and top tertiles were classified as red, amber, and green energy content categories, respectively. Data on 378 feeding days from 20 babies who received this milk were analyzed. Total daily intake of DEBM was calculated in mL/kg/day and similarly ranked. Infants received red energy content milk, with DEBM intake in the bottom daily volume intake tertile; amber energy content milk, with intake in the middle daily volume intake tertile; and green energy content milk when intake reached the top daily volume intake tertile.

Results:

Actual median cumulative energy intake from DEBM was 1612 (range, 15-11 182) kcal. Using DEBM with the minimum energy content from the 3 DEBM energy content categories, median projected cumulative intake was 1670 (range 13-11 077) kcal, which was not statistically significant (P = .418). Statistical significance was achieved using DEBM with the median and maximum energy content from each energy content category, giving median projected cumulative intakes of 1859 kcal (P = .0006) and 2280 kcal (P = .0001), respectively.

Conclusion:

Cumulative energy intake from DEBM can be improved by categorizing and distributing milk according to energy content.

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<![CDATA[Plasmodium berghei: Plasmodium perforin-like protein 5 is required for mosquito midgut invasion in Anopheles stephensi]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b7cd7e5463d7e2587c4a384

During its life cycle the malarial parasite Plasmodium forms three invasive stages which have to invade different and specific cells for replication to ensue. Invasion is vital to parasite survival and consequently proteins responsible for invasion are considered to be candidate vaccine/drug targets. Plasmodium perforin-like proteins (PPLPs) have been implicated in invasion because they contain a predicted pore-forming domain. Ookinetes express three PPLPs, and one of them (PPLP3) has previously been shown to be essential for mosquito midgut invasion. In this study we show through phenotypic analysis of loss-of-function mutants that PPLP5 is equally essential for mosquito infection. Δpplp5 ookinetes cannot invade midgut epithelial cells, but subsequent parasite development is rescued if the midgut is bypassed by injection of ookinetes into the hemocoel. The indistinguishable phenotypes of Δpplp5 and Δpplp3 ookinetes strongly suggest that these two proteins contribute to a common process.

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<![CDATA[Early Impact of the Affordable Care Act's Medicaid Expansion on Dental Care Use]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c16369bd5eed0c48439cf0f

Objective

To examine the impact of the Affordable Care Act on dental care use among poor adults ages 21–64 in 2014.

Data

2010–2014 Gallup‐Healthways Wellbeing Index Survey.

Study Design

Among poor adults with income at or below 138% of the Federal Poverty Level, a differences‐in‐differences analysis was used to compare the changes in dental care use in states with different Medicaid expansion and adult dental policies.

Principal Findings

Relative to the pre‐reform period and other states, in Medicaid expansion states with adult dental benefits, dental care use increased between 2 and 6 percent points in the second half of 2014, but most of these changes were not statistically significant.

Conclusions

Early evidence suggests that the Affordable Care Act may either not be having a substantial impact on dental care use or it is too early to assess the impact.

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