ResearchPad - research-note https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[The association of low serum salivary and pancreatic amylases with the increased use of lipids as an energy source in non-obese healthy women]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_11248 It is unknown whether low serum levels of salivary and pancreatic amylases are associated with the high combustion of carbohydrates or lipids for energy. Elevated blood ketones and a low respiratory quotient (RQ) can reflect the preferential combustion of lipids relative to carbohydrates. Therefore, using the data from our previous study, we investigated if low levels of serum amylases were associated with a high serum ketone level and low RQ in 60 healthy non-obese young women aged 20–39 years old.ResultsSerum ketones [3-hydroxybutyric acid (3-HBA) and acetoacetic acid (AA)] were inversely correlated with RQs, but not body mass index (BMI) or glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) levels. Logistic regression analysis showed that high levels of serum ketones (3-HBA ≥ 24 μmol/L and AA ≥ 17 μmol/L) and a low RQ (< 0.766) were significantly associated with low serum salivary (< 60 U/L) and pancreatic (< 29 U/L) amylase levels, respectively. These associations were not altered by further adjustments for age, BMI, HbA1c, and estimated glomerular filtration rate. These results confirm the high combustion of lipids for energy in individuals with low serum amylase levels, suggesting a close relationship between circulating amylases and internal energy production. ]]> <![CDATA[Measuring and Comparing Municipal Policy Responses to COVID-19]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_11121 Municipal governments are experts in social non-distancing. From swimming pools to libraries, streetcars to public parks, municipalities bring residents together and move them around—services vital to a vibrant community in ordinary times, but potentially disastrous in a pandemic. Municipal decisions to shutter these services and enforce social distancing are thus crucial for a successful COVID-19 response.

]]>
<![CDATA[How Right-Leaning Media Coverage of COVID-19 Facilitated the Spread of Misinformation in the Early Stages of the Pandemic in the U.S.]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_11119 We have yet to know the ultimate global impact of the novel coronavirus pandemic. However, we do know that delays, denials and misinformation about COVID-19 have exacerbated its spread and slowed pandemic response, particularly in the U.S. (e.g., Abutaleb et al., 2020).

]]>
<![CDATA[Negative social interactions and coping behaviors: experiences of Japanese mothers caring for children with special needs in disaster areas]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_9890 This study aims to identify the challenging experiences pertaining negative social interactions and the coping behaviors of mothers of children with special needs after two major earthquakes in Japan. A qualitative content analysis was conducted based on the interviews of 26 mothers of children with special needs who had experienced the Great East Japan Earthquake in 2011 or Kumamoto Earthquake in 2016.ResultsThe themes extracted were “perceiving pressures and unfairness,” “failing to obtain support and deeper understanding,” “realizing child’s characteristics that are difficult for others to understand,” and “tackling challenges on their own in different ways.” The experienced negative social interactions and coping behaviors were found to be similar in both earthquakes. Although the Japanese legislation was amended 2 years after the Great East Japan Earthquake, it may not have had necessarily improved the mothers’ situations. Thus, while it is important to provide specific support for families of children with special needs after natural disasters and organize food supplies with a focus on family units, it is also important to increase Japanese society’s understanding of the varied characteristics of disabilities. ]]> <![CDATA[Misconceptions about transmission, symptoms and prevention of HIV/AIDS among adolescents in Ebonyi state, South-east Nigeria]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_9045 Nigeria has the second largest number of adolescents and young people living with HIV/AIDS in the world. Misconceptions about HIV/AIDS contribute to spread of HIV, and constrain uptake of preventive services. This paper explored misconceptions about HIV/AIDS among adolescents in south-east Nigeria. A qualitative study was conducted in six urban and rural local government areas of Ebonyi state. Data were collected through twelve focus group discussions (FGD) with unmarried adolescents aged 13–18 who were either attending school or out-of-school. The FGDs were conducted using a pre-tested topic guide. Data were coded manually and analyzed using a thematic framework approach.ResultsThere are persistent misconceptions about transmission of HIV/AIDS through mosquito bites and sharing of personal belongings. Some adolescents had inaccurate notions that a HIV infected person could be identified through changes in physical features such as abdominal swelling and longer fingernails. A few of them also reported that HIV could be treated with antibiotics. These misconceptions were expressed by both male and female adolescents. Adolescents have some mistaken beliefs about HIV/AIDS which constrain them from taking necessary preventive measures. Hence, the need to target adolescents with health education interventions on HIV/AIDS. ]]> <![CDATA[Sociodemographic and Psychological Correlates of Compliance with the COVID-19 Public Health Measures in France]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N607779bd-6d97-429e-b431-6bb49c09464e The COVID-19 disease was first identified in Wuhan, China, in December 2019, having since spread rapidly across the world. The infection and mortality rates of the disease have forced governments to implement a wave of public health measures. Depending on the context, these range from the implementation of simple hygienic rules to measures such as social distancing or lockdowns that cause major disruptions in citizens’ daily lives. The success of these crucial public health measures rests on the public's willingness to comply. However, individual differences in following the official public health recommendations for stopping the spread of COVID-19 have not yet to our knowledge been assessed. This study aims to fill this gap by assessing the sociodemographic and psychological correlates of implementing public health recommendations that aim to halt the COVID-19 pandemic. We investigate these associations in the context of France, one of the countries that has been most severely affected by the pandemic, and which ended up under a nationwide lockdown on March 17. In the next sections we describe our theoretical expectations over the associations between sociodemographics, personality, ideology, and emotions with abiding by the COVID-19 public health measures. We then test these hypotheses using data from the French Election Study.

]]>
<![CDATA[A Critical Juncture in Fiscal Federalism? Canada's Response to COVID-19]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nb43ccb13-50ea-4a40-bf80-ac9a76e9a389 The COVID-19 crisis could trigger a critical juncture for several institutional arrangements in Canada, potentially leading to notable changes in fiscal federalism. This research note combines insights from historical institutionalism with recent economic and fiscal projections to explore avenues for reform in response to the COVID-19 crisis. Given the magnitude of the crisis, provincial governments may be unable to absorb the fiscal costs on their own. But vast differences in fiscal and economic circumstances across provinces make federal arrangements difficult to design. We argue that intergovernmental power dynamics and the principle of provincial autonomy are particularly important considerations in thinking about fiscal federalism post–COVID-19.

]]>
<![CDATA[The experience of polyethylene glycol (PEG) bowel preparation in adolescents undergoing colonoscopy]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nc47ef603-211e-4bf1-af85-2fbc2898fed7

Objective

The aim of this study was to describe the experience of polyethylene glycol (PEG) bowel preparation in adolescents undergoing colonoscopy.

Results

32 adolescents, 10–18 years of age self-reported a minimum of complications 1 week after colonoscopy when PEG was used for bowel preparation. 17 adolescents, 10–18 years were also interviewed about bowel preparation with PEG. Using qualitative content analysis, two categories were extracted from the data: “Being decisive makes it manageable” and “Be prepared for a horrible experience.” The adolescents reported PEG intake difficulty; the intake was, however, manageable if they received appropriate information.

]]>
<![CDATA[The social health impact of Eritrean refugees on the host communities: the case of May-ayni refugee camp, Northern Ethiopia]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N20e91598-7a58-4902-b8be-7b7834d3dcf0

Objective

Migration is a contemporary global issue and the exodus of refugees may potentially posit new social health challenges in the host communities. Ethiopia is a host to the second largest refugee population in Africa. The aim of this study was to explore the health impacts by the Eritrean refugees in May-ayni camp, North West Tigrai on the host community. The research used a qualitative exploratory approach. Participants were recruited using a purposive sampling technique. The primary sources of the data were in-depth interviews of 20 key informants, and focus group discussions with 30 refugees and 30 members of the host community. Transcription and translation was done verbatim and finally thematic analysis was done using an inductive approach.

Results

The findings of this research indicated that the refugees in the May-ayni camp created actual social and health threats to the members of the host communities. The socio-cultural norms of the host peoples were disrupted in terms of their social insecurity and introduction of health related challenges such as the spread of sexually transmitted infections and other reproductive health problems.

]]>
<![CDATA[Differences in expression of Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor-γ in early-onset preeclampsia and late-onset preeclampsia]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N60812ed9-91bc-4366-8f91-13c7e7025ed8

Objective

PPARγ is a ligand-binding transcription factor that has been reported to be implicated in lipid metabolism, immune function, and cellular growth and differentiation. It has been suspected to play a role in the pathophysiology of preeclampsia, although the mechanism is yet to be elaborated. This study aims to investigate the expression of PPARγ in early onset preeclampsia (EOPE), late onset preeclampsia (LOPE), and normal pregnancy. We conducted this study using primary trophoblastic cell culture incubated with serum from EOPE, LOPE, and normal pregnancy. The expression of PPARγ in these cells was analyzed using Western Blot. Statistical analysis was performed using one-way ANOVA and Bonferroni’s post hoc test. p < 0.05 is considered significant.

Results

Serum from normal pregnant women and EOPE did not induce any difference in the expression of PPAR-γ (p > 0.05). In contrast, expression of PPAR-γ was increased in those cells induced by serum from LOPE (p < 0.001). Therefore, we conclude that hypothetically PPAR-γ might play role in the pathophysiology of LOPE but not in EOPE. Other possibility is the activity of PPAR-γ in EOPE is inversely correlated with its expression, therefore the high enzymatic activity of PPAR-γ is tightly regulated by attenuating its expression.

]]>
<![CDATA[Laparoscopic surgery for diverticular colovesical fistula: single-center experience of 11 cases]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N07b4abd0-a913-441a-b46f-38f00d7054bf

Objective

Laparoscopic surgery for diverticular colovesical fistula (CVF) is technically challenging, and the incidence of conversion to open surgery (COS) is high. This study aimed to review our experience with laparoscopic surgery for diverticular CVF and identify preoperative risk factors for COS.

Results

This was a single institution, retrospective, observational study of 11 patients (10 males and 1 female) who underwent laparoscopic sigmoid colon resection with fistula resection for diverticular CVF from 2014 to 2019. Preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed to evaluate the fistula location in the bladder, patency of the rectovesical pouch (i.e., the destination of dissection procedure between sigmoid colon and bladder) and estimate the contact area between the sigmoid colon and bladder. The relationship between preoperative variables and COS incidence was analyzed between completed laparoscopy and COS groups. The overall incidence of postoperative morbidity (Clavien–Dindo classification Grade II or higher) was 36% (4/11). Severe morbidity, reoperation, and mortality were not observed. The incidence of COS was 27% (3/11). Posterior bladder fistulas were significantly associated with COS. CVFs located on the posterior bladder appears to be a risk factor for COS. Identifying risk factors for COS preoperatively could help guide the intraoperative course.

]]>
<![CDATA[A comprehensive environmental scanning and strategic analysis of Iranian Public Hospitals: a prospective approach]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N352d4943-c132-4815-bb45-b1c8f2079e7e

Objectives

This study was conducted to provide a strategic direction to public hospitals in Iran via environmental scanning in order to equip hospitals to plan and perform proactively and adapt with the everchanging environment.

Results

A mixed method study including in-depth interview and survey were used to determine influential environmental factors based on PESTLE (political, economic, social, technological, legal and environmental) and Douglas West framework to determine the effectiveness and feasibility of factors. Issues identified at micro environmental level were over prescription, inequality in distribution of healthcare services and high demands for luxurious health services. Issues identified at the macro environmental level were related to changes in disease patterns, inappropriate hospital budgeting, economic sanctions, government corruption and healthcare centralization. In order to tackle the issues identified, it is paramount to enhance bed distribution management, improve strategic policies for a more equitable payment system, and enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of services by implementing a strategic inventory control. Furthermore, the considerable impact of economic sanctions on financial resources of Iranian hospitals should not be ignored.

]]>
<![CDATA[A randomized controlled trial on the effects of oxymetazoline nasal spray after dacryocystorhinostomy among adult patients]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N919437c6-99b7-4288-ab3c-800f0e945520

Objectives

The study aimed to determine the effect of oxymetazoline nasal spray on the patency of the fistula created after dacryocystorhinostomy, specifically: to compare the success of fistula formation with oxymetazoline versus placebo, and to compare the incidence of post-operative congestion, pain and bleeding with oxymetazoline versus placebo.

Results

The study was a single-center, randomized controlled, triple-masked study involving the patients of the Plastic-Lacrimal service of a national university hospital. Block randomization was done. Dacryocystorhinostomy was performed by a single-masked surgeon. The intervention group used oxymetazoline. The placebo group used sodium chloride. The data were collected by another masked investigator. The study showed no significant difference in terms of congestion, pain and epistaxis between the two groups at day 2 post-operation. The patency, presence of silicone tube, granuloma formation, and presence of bleeding on both day 2 and day 16 post-operation had no difference between the two groups. This study doesn’t support the use of oxymetazoline nasal spray after DCR, since it does not decrease the symptoms of congestion, pain and epistaxis after DCR. Aside from being an additional expense for patients, it also does not affect fistula formation and success rate of the surgery.

Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trial Registry: ACTRN12619001394134, Date registered 10/11/2019, Retrospectively Registered.

]]>
<![CDATA[Is real time PCR preferable to the direct immunofluorescence in the diagnosis of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia in HIV-infected patients?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Ncb07208a-d0a3-4512-b3f7-5ea024b590a2

Objectives

In this study, we compared IFA and real-time PCR in bronchoalveolar lavage specimens of HIV infected patients. A total of 66 BALs from 62 HIV patients were included in the study. 30 IFA positive and 36 IFA negative specimens were tested with real-time PCR, targeting the major surface glycoprotein. We performed a retrospective analysis of the patient’s medical records, compared the results of the IFA and PCR tests and analyzed costs, expenditure of time and personal expenses.

Results

All of the 30 IFA positive samples were PCR positive. 35 of 36 IFA negative probes were also negative in the PCR assay. Considering the PCR results as a binary outcome (positive/negative) sensitivity was 100%, specificity 97.2%. The patient with negative IFA and positive PCR had a clear clinical picture of PCP and responded to PCP treatment. PCR was more than twice as expensive and time-consuming as IFA. Diagnostic accuracy for PCP of PCR and IFA was comparable in HIV-infected patients, but IFA was significantly less expensive and less time-consuming. Therefore, IFA testing can continue to be used as gold standard in the diagnosis of PCP in HIV patients. However, in special cases, IFA may lack sensitivity and PCR should be added to the diagnostic armamentarium.

]]>
<![CDATA[Effect of oncolytic ECHO-7 virus strain Rigvir on uveal melanoma cell lines]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N41b3201e-eb34-4785-91d1-383eb96c766b

Objective

Uveal melanoma is a rare intraocular malignancy. Half of the patients diagnosed will develop metastases within 10 to 30 years, most commonly in the liver. Although there has been a significant development in the treatment of melanoma, no effective treatment to prevent or treat metastases of uveal melanoma is available. Oncolytic viruses are now being studied for various types of cancers and show promising results. Preclinical results show cytolytic activity of enteric cytopathic human orphan virus type 7 (ECHO-7) strain Rigvir in human melanoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, gastric adenocarcinoma, lung carcinoma and pancreas adenocarcinoma cell lines. The aim of this study was to test the possible cytolytic activity in human uveal melanoma cell lines.

Results

The results suggest cytolytic activity of oncolytic ECHO-7 virus strain Rigvir in MP41, 92-1 and Mel-202 cell lines.

]]>
<![CDATA[Cost per insertion and couple year of protection for postpartum intrauterine devices and implants provided during service scale-up in Kigali, Rwanda]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N913d4895-2c06-4215-b705-fa582e0b417c

Introduction: In two high-volume government hospitals, their two affiliated health facilities, and two additional health facilities, we developed and implemented postpartum intrauterine device (PPIUD) and postpartum (PP) implant promotional counseling and service delivery procedures between May-July 2017 in Kigali, Rwanda. Between August 2017 and July 2018, 9,073 pregnant women received PPIUD/PP implant promotions who later delivered in one of our selected facilities. Of those, 2,633 had PPIUDs inserted, and 955 had PP implants inserted. The goal of the present analysis is to detail implementation expenditures and estimate incremental costs per insertion and couple years of protection (CYP) for PPIUD and PP implant users.

Methods: We detail the incremental costs during the implementation from the health system perspective (including both the implementation costs and the cost of contraceptive methods) and use of standard methods to estimate the cost per insertion and CYP for PPIUD and PP implant users. In addition to the incremental costs of labor and supplies, the costs of promotional activities are included. Research costs for formative work were excluded.

Results: A total of $74,147 USD was spent on the implementation between August 2017 and July 2018. The largest expense (34% of total expenses) went toward personnel, including doctoral-level, administrative, data management and nurse counseling staff. Training for PPIUD and implant providers and promoters comprised 8% of total expenses. Recruitment and reimbursements comprised 6% of expenses. Costs of implants to the government comprised 12% of the expenses, much higher than the cost of IUDs (1%). Costs per insertion were $25/PPIUDs and $77/PP implant. Costs per CYP were $5/PPIUDs and $20/PP implant.

Conclusion: Understanding the cost per PPIUD/PP implant inserted and CYP can help to inform the cost of scaling up PPIUD/PP implant service implementation activities and resource allocation decision-making by the Rwandan Ministry of Health.

]]>
<![CDATA[Is routine post-sleeve gastrografin needed? Profile of 98 cases]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nf96e705a-d5ff-421d-9d44-930a8dc96623

Objective

Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) is one of the most commonly performed bariatric procedures. Some surgeons still perform routine post-sleeve gastrografin (RSG) study believing that it would detect post-LSG complications, especially leak. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of RSG by considering the cost of the study, length of hospital stay and complications-related costs RSG could prevent.

Results

A total of 98 eligible patients were included. Of them, 54 patients underwent RSG and 44 did not. Excluding the cost of LSG procedure, the average cost for those who underwent RSG and those who did not in Saudi Riyal (£) was 5193.15 (1054.77) and 4222.27 (857.58), respectively. The average length of stay (ALOS) was practically the same regardless of whether or not the patient underwent RSG. 90.8% (n = 89) of all patients stayed for 3 days. None of the patients developed postoperative bleeding, stenosis or leak. The mean weight, body mass index (BMI) and percentage weight loss (PWL) 6 months postoperatively were found to be 87.71 kg (SD = 17.51), 33.89 kg/m2 (SD = 7.29) and 26.41% (SD = 9.79), respectively. The PWL 6 months postoperatively was 23.99% (SD = 8.47) for females and 30.57 (SD = 10.6) for males (p = 0.01).

]]>
<![CDATA[Assessing two methods for estimating excess mortality of chronic diseases from aggregated data]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nfc76bc6a-9117-467c-bea5-bfcfa1f21568

Objective

To assess the numerical properties of two recently published estimation techniques for excess mortality based on aggregated data about diabetes in Germany.

Results

Application of the new methods to the claims data yields implausible findings for the excess mortality of type 2 diabetes in ages below 50 years of age.

]]>
<![CDATA[The role of routine flexible sigmoidoscopy in patients presenting with fistula-in-ano: an observational study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Na4d0b485-7c2e-4939-86e8-6acd12e500e1

Objective

Flexible sigmoidoscopy is useful to look for an underlying aetiology in fistula-in-ano. This study was aimed to assess the yield of routine flexible sigmoidoscopy in patients presenting with fistula-in-ano. A retrospective analysis of 159 consecutive patients with fistula-in-ano who underwent routine flexible sigmoidoscopy was performed. Sigmoidoscopy findings were recorded on a standard uniform format using a computer database. Those with a known aetiology were excluded.

Results

The median age was 39 (range: 14–74) years and the majority were males (n = 128, 80.5%). Forty-nine patients (30.8%) presented with a recurrent fistula-in-ano. On flexible sigmoidoscopy, internal opening was seen in only 23 patients (14.4%). Furthermore, incidental findings of haemorrhoids (n = 5, 3.1%) and polyps (n = 7, 4.4%) were found. One patient (0.6%) had a healed anal fissure, 5 patients (3.1%) had inflamed mucosa and 2 patients (1.3%) had ulcers. Only two patients with inflamed mucosa were diagnosed to have Crohn’s disease on histology. Therefore, flexible sigmoidoscopy was not helpful in the majority to locate the internal opening. Only two patients had evidence of an underlying aetiology, which was Crohn’s disease. However, they had recurrent complex fistulae and other associated symptoms. Therefore, flexible sigmoidoscopy may be reserved for selected group of patients with symptoms of an underlying aetiology.

]]>
<![CDATA[BMPR-1B, BMP-15 and GDF-9 genes structure and their relationship with litter size in six sheep breeds reared in Egypt]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nda0d48c2-9df6-4abe-bb3f-8efbc76d90ac

Objective

The aim of this work was to investigate three different mutations; Fec-B, FecXG, Fec-GH at three candidate genes; Bone morphogenetic protein receptor IB, Bone morphogenetic protein 15 and Growth Differentiation Factor 9, respectively, in six sheep breeds reared in Egypt namely; Rahmani, Barki, Rahmani X Barki cross, Awassi, Awassi X Suffolk cross, and Ossimi and their association with litter size.

Results

Genomic DNA of 132 sheep was investigated for the Fec-B, FecXG, and Fec-GH mutations by Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism, Single-Stranded Conformation Polymorphism and DNA sequencing. The results revealed that all breeds did not carry Fec-B mutation. On the other side, the mutations of FecXG, and Fec-GH were detected in Rahmani, and Rahmani X Barki cross which is associated with the high twinning rate/litter size of Rahmani (1.28) and Rahmani X Barki cross (1.22). While, the average litter size for other breeds had almost a constant values rate over six parities, ranging between 1.00 and 1.04.

]]>