ResearchPad - research-validity https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Precision and reliability of tape measurements in the assessment of head and neck lymphedema]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_15733 Tape measurement is a commonly used method in the clinical assessment of lymphedema. However, few studies have assessed the precision and reliability of tape measurement in assessing head and neck lymphedema. This study aimed to evaluate the reliability and precision of using tape measurement, performed by different evaluators, for the assessment of head and neck lymphedema.MethodsThis study was conducted at a tertiary care cancer hospital. Between January and December 2019, 50 patients with head and neck cancers and 50 normal subjects were enrolled. Each subject was examined using tape measurements for 7 point-to-point distances of facial landmarks, 3 circumferences of the neck (upper, middle, and lower), and 2 circumferences of the face (vertical and oblique) by 3 random examiners. Test precision and reliability were assessed with the within-subject standard deviation (Sw) and intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC), respectively.ResultsOverall, the standard deviation of the tape measurements varied in the range of 4.6 mm to 18.3 mm. The measurement of distance between the tragus and mouth angle (Sw: 4.6 mm) yielded the highest precision, but the reliability (ICC: 0.66) was moderate. The reliabilities of neck circumference measurements (ICC: 0.90–0.95) were good to excellent, but the precisions (Sw: 8.3–12.3 mm) were lower than those of point-to-point facial measurements (Sw: 4.6–8.8 mm).ConclusionsThe different methods of tape measurements varied in precision and reliability. Thus, clinicians should not rely on a single measurement when evaluating head and neck lymphedema. ]]> <![CDATA[Standardized on-road tests assessing fitness-to-drive in people with cognitive impairments: A systematic review]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_15729 The on-road assessment is the gold standard because of its ecological validity. Yet existing instruments are heterogeneous and little is known about their psychometric properties. This study identified existing on-road assessment instruments and extracted data on psychometric properties and usability in clinical settings.MethodA systematic review identified studies evaluating standardized on-road evaluation instruments adapted for people with cognitive impairment. Published articles were searched on PubMed, CINHAL, PsycINFO, Web of Science, and ScienceDirect. Study quality and the level of evidence were assessed using the COSMIN checklist. The collected data were synthetized using a narrative approach. Usability was subjectively assessed for each instrument by extracting information on acceptability, access, cost, and training.ResultsThe review identified 18 published studies between 1994 and 2016 that investigated 12 different on-road evaluation instruments: the Performance-Based Driving Evaluation, the Washington University Road Test, the New Haven, the Test Ride for Practical Fitness to Drive, the Rhode Island Road Test, the Sum of Manoeuvres Score, the Performance Analysis of Driving Ability, the Composite Driving Assessment Scale, the Nottingham Neurological Driving Assessment, the Driving Observation Schedule, the Record of Driving Errors, and the Western University’s On-road Assessment. Participants were mainly male (64%), between 48 and 80 years old, and had a broad variety of cognitive disorders. Most instruments showed reasonable psychometric values for internal consistency, criterion validity, and reliability. However, the level of evidence was poor to support any of the instruments given the low number of studies for each.ConclusionDespite the social and health consequences of decisions taken using these instruments, little is known about the value of a single evaluation and the ability of instruments to identify expected changes. None of the identified on-road evaluation instruments seem currently adapted for clinical settings targeting rehabilitation and occupational priorities rather than road security alone.Study registrationPROSPERO registration number CRD42018103276. ]]> <![CDATA[National and regional prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder in sub-Saharan Africa: A systematic review and meta-analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14691 Repeated and prolonged exposure to violence, armed conflict, and mass-casualty events, combined with a lack of access to mental health treatment, may result in a substantial effect on the population burden of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA).While many studies of PTSD have been conducted in SSA, most of these studies derived their estimates from nonrepresentative samples or specific populations.Population-representative epidemiologic data are critical to understand the burden of PTSD in SSA and develop national and regional policies to address that burden.What did the researchers do and find?We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the prevalence of PTSD from representative national and regional studies in SSA.Pooled prevalence estimates were calculated across all studies, and then within subgroups including by sex, assessment time frame (i.e., 1 week, 1 month, 1 year), use of a screening or diagnostic measure, and whether populations were affected or not affected by mass-casualty war or armed conflict.We identified 25 unique studies (N = 58,887) across 10 of the 48 SSA countries.The pooled prevalence of probable PTSD across all studies was 22% (95% CI 13%–32%).The pooled prevalence of probable PTSD in participants from war-exposed regions was 30% (95% CI 20%–40%), while the estimate from war-unexposed regions was 8% (95% CI 3%–15%; p = 0.01).What do these findings mean?These data suggest that PTSD symptoms and probable PTSD are common in SSA.However, information was only found on 10 of the 48 SSA countries, and only 6 studies provided national-level data.Only one study used a measure of PTSD symptoms whose reliability and validity had been assessed previously in the population of interest.Our results suggest both that PTSD is a major public health problem in SSA and that large gaps in our knowledge of this problem remain. ]]> <![CDATA[Order of same-day concurrent training influences some indices of power development, but not strength, lean mass, or aerobic fitness in healthy, moderately-active men after 9 weeks of training]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14640 The importance of concurrent exercise order for improving endurance and resistance adaptations remains unclear, particularly when sessions are performed a few hours apart. We investigated the effects of concurrent training (in alternate orders, separated by ~3 hours) on endurance and resistance training adaptations, compared to resistance-only training.Materials and methodsTwenty-nine healthy, moderately-active men (mean ± SD; age 24.5 ± 4.7 y; body mass 74.9 ± 10.8 kg; height 179.7 ± 6.5 cm) performed either resistance-only training (RT, n = 9), or same-day concurrent training whereby high-intensity interval training was performed either 3 hours before (HIIT+RT, n = 10) or after resistance training (RT+HIIT, n = 10), for 3 d.wk-1 over 9 weeks. Training-induced changes in leg press 1-repetition maximal (1-RM) strength, countermovement jump (CMJ) performance, body composition, peak oxygen uptake (V˙O2peak), aerobic power (W˙peak), and lactate threshold (W˙LT) were assessed before, and after both 5 and 9 weeks of training.ResultsAfter 9 weeks, all training groups increased leg press 1-RM (~24–28%) and total lean mass (~3-4%), with no clear differences between groups. Both concurrent groups elicited similar small-to-moderate improvements in all markers of aerobic fitness (V˙O2peak ~8–9%; W˙LT ~16-20%; W˙peak ~14-15%). RT improved CMJ displacement (mean ± SD, 5.3 ± 6.3%), velocity (2.2 ± 2.7%), force (absolute: 10.1 ± 10.1%), and power (absolute: 9.8 ± 7.6%; relative: 6.0 ± 6.6%). HIIT+RT elicited comparable improvements in CMJ velocity only (2.2 ± 2.7%). Compared to RT, RT+HIIT attenuated CMJ displacement (mean difference ± 90%CI, -5.1 ± 4.3%), force (absolute: -8.2 ± 7.1%) and power (absolute: -6.0 ± 4.7%). Only RT+HIIT reduced absolute fat mass (mean ± SD, -11.0 ± 11.7%).ConclusionsIn moderately-active males, concurrent training, regardless of the exercise order, presents a viable strategy to improve lower-body maximal strength and total lean mass comparably to resistance-only training, whilst also improving indices of aerobic fitness. However, improvements in CMJ displacement, force, and power were attenuated when RT was performed before HIIT, and as such, exercise order may be an important consideration when designing training programs in which the goal is to improve lower-body power. ]]> <![CDATA[Psychometric testing of the Fall Risks for Older People in the Community screening tool (FROP-Com screen) for community-dwelling people with stroke]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14472 The Falls Risk for Older People in the Community assessment (FROP-Com) was originally developed using 13 risk factors to identify the fall risks of community-dwelling older people. To suit the practical use in busy clinical settings, a brief version adopting 3 most fall predictive risk factors from the original FROP-Com, including the number of falls in the past 12 months, assistance required to perform domestic activities of daily living and observation of balance, was developed for screening purpose (FROP-Com screen). The objectives of this study were to investigate the inter-rater and test-retest reliability, concurrent and convergent validity, and minimum detectable change of the FROP-Com screen in community-dwelling people with stroke.ParticipantsCommunity-dwelling people with stroke (n = 48) were recruited from a local self-help group, and community-dwelling older people (n = 40) were recruited as control subjects.ResultsThe FROP-Com screen exhibited moderate inter-rater (Intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC]2,1 = 0.79, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.65–0.87) and test-retest reliability (ICC3,1 = 0.70, 95% CI: 0.46–0.83) and weak associations with two balance measures, the Berg Balance Scale (BBS) (rho = -0.38, p = 0.008) and the Timed “Up & Go” (TUG) test (rho = 0.35, p = 0.016). The screen also exhibited a moderate association with the Chinese version of the Activities-specific Balance Confidence Scale (ABC-C) (ABC-C; rho = -0.65, p<0.001), a measure of subjective balance confidence.ConclusionsThe FROP-Com screen is a reliable clinical tool with convergent validity paralleled with subjective balance confidence measure that can be used in fall risk screening of community-dwelling people with stroke. However, one individual item, the observation of balance, will require additional refinement to improve the potential measurement error. ]]> <![CDATA[Operational method of reliability and content-validity analysis: Taking “trait-symptoms” screening of individuals at high-risk for OCD as an example]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13806 A well-designed self-reported scale is highly applicable to current clinical and research practices. However, the problems with the scale method, such as quantitative analysis of content validity and test-retest reliability analysis of state-like variables are yet to be resolved. The main purpose of this paper is to propose an operational method for solving these problems. Additionally, it aims to enhance understanding of the research paradigm for the scale method (excluding criterion-related validity). This paper used a study that involved screening of high-risk groups for OCD (Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder), conducted 5 rounds of tests, and developed scales, reliability, and validity analysis (using sample sizes of 496, 610, 600, 600 and 990). The operational method we propose is practical, feasible, and can be used to develop and validate a scale.

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<![CDATA[Psychometric characteristics and factorial structures of the Defensive Pessimism Questionnaire—Spanish Version (DPQ-SV)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nb6dcc03f-c5ae-4fce-8b03-b30a02ab227b

The aim of this study was to validate the Spanish version of the Defensive Pessimism Questionnaire. A sample of undergraduate students (N = 539) was measured on defensive pessimism using the Defensive Pessimism Questionnaire (DPQ), optimism and pessimism using the Life Orientation Test (LOT), positive and negative affect using the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, and anxiety using the trait subscale of the State and Trait Anxiety Inventory. A Spanish version of the DPQ (DPQ-SV) is presented. Exploratory and Robust Confirmatory Factor Analysis had a bi-dimensional structure (Reflectivity and Negative Expectation). Omega coefficient showed a high internal consistency and the temporal stability was high in each dimension. Both DPQ-SV subscales (Negative Expectation and Reflectivity) showed adequate convergence with LOT-optimism and LOT-pessimism. Reflectivity showed adequate criterion validity with trait-anxiety and negative affect, but inadequate criterion validity with positive affect. Negative Expectation showed excellent criterion validity with trait-anxiety and negative affect and good criterion validity with positive affect. Finally, mediation analysis showed that Negative Expectation had a significant indirect mediating effect between trait-anxiety and negative affect. Reflectivity had a significant indirect mediating effect between trait-anxiety and negative and positive affect. Analysis of the psychometric properties of the DPQ-SV subscale scores showed that it is a two factor adequate measurement tool for its use in this type of samples.

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<![CDATA[Retraction: DJ-1 Modulates α-Synuclein Aggregation State in a Cellular Model of Oxidative Stress: Relevance for Parkinson's Disease and Involvement of HSP70]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N05d3b52b-2e52-4bb2-9470-b0dedbc652af ]]> <![CDATA[The validity, reliability and minimal clinically important difference of the patient specific functional scale in snake envenomation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c8823c4d5eed0c484638faf

Objective

Valid, reliable, and clinically relevant outcome measures are necessary in clinical studies of snake envenomation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychometric (validity and reliability) and clinimetric (minimal clinically important difference [MCID]) properties of the Patient-Specific Functional Scale (PSFS) in snakebite envenomation.

Methods

We performed a secondary analysis of two existing snakebite trials that measured clinical outcomes using the PSFS as well as other quality of life and functional assessments. Data were collected at 3, 7, 10, and 17 days. Reliability was determined using Cronbach’s alpha for internal consistency and the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for temporal stability at 10 and 17 days. Validity was assessed using concurrent validity correlating with the other assessments. The MCID was evaluated using the following criteria: (1) the distribution of stable patients according to both standard error of measurement (SEM) and responsiveness techniques, and (2) anchor-based methods to compare between individuals and to detect discriminant ability of a positive change with a receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve and optimal cutoff point.

Results

A total of 86 patients were evaluated in this study. The average PSFS scores were 5.37 (SD 3.23), 7.95 (SD 2.22), and 9.12 (SD 1.37) at 3, 7, and 10 days, respectively. Negligible floor effect was observed (maximum of 8% at 3 days); however, a ceiling effect was observed at 17 days (25%). The PSFS showed good reliability with an internal consistency of 0.91 (Cronbach’s alpha) (95% CI 0.88, 0.95) and a temporal stability of 0.83 (ICC) (95% CI 0.72, 0.89). The PSFS showed a strong positive correlation with quality of life and functional assessments. The MCID was approximately 1.0 for all methods.

Conclusions

With an MCID of approximately 1 point, the PSFS is a valid and reliable tool to assess quality of life and functionality in patients with snake envenomation.

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<![CDATA[Independent working memory resources for egocentric and allocentric spatial information]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c784ff1d5eed0c484007976

Visuospatial working memory enables us to maintain access to visual information for processing even when a stimulus is no longer present, due to occlusion, our own movements, or transience of the stimulus. Here we show that, when localizing remembered stimuli, the precision of spatial recall does not rely solely on memory for individual stimuli, but additionally depends on the relative distances between stimuli and visual landmarks in the surroundings. Across three separate experiments, we consistently observed a spatially selective improvement in the precision of recall for items located near a persistent landmark. While the results did not require that the landmark be visible throughout the memory delay period, it was essential that it was visible both during encoding and response. We present a simple model that can accurately capture human performance by considering relative (allocentric) spatial information as an independent localization estimate which degrades with distance and is optimally integrated with egocentric spatial information. Critically, allocentric information was encoded without cost to egocentric estimation, demonstrating independent storage of the two sources of information. Finally, when egocentric and allocentric estimates were put in conflict, the model successfully predicted the resulting localization errors. We suggest that the relative distance between stimuli represents an additional, independent spatial cue for memory recall. This cue information is likely to be critical for spatial localization in natural settings which contain an abundance of visual landmarks.

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<![CDATA[Evaluation of the responsiveness of outcome measures after spine injection: A retrospective study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c803c65d5eed0c484ad8887

Discrepancies in patients’ responses to various outcome measures challenge clinicians’ evaluation of treatment outcomes. Therefore, we aimed to 1) evaluate the concordance of outcome measures after spine injection, 2) determine the patient variables that lead to discordant responses, and 3) suggest practical outcome measure for spine injections with good responsiveness. From October 2014 to November 2014, 164 patients with neck or low back pain who visited our outpatient clinics and had spine injections on the previous visit were enrolled. We asked patients to report changes in their symptom in the form of outcome measures: numeric rating scale, Oswestry disability index, neck disability index, residual symptom percentage and global perceived effect. The responses were categorized into three groups according to the degree of change; not improved, minimally improved, and significantly improved. The concordances of these categorized answers were evaluated. When “significantly improved” was considered as true improvement, 46 (28%) of the 164 patients had discordant responses to the four measures. There was no significant patients’ variable that affects discordance in the outcome measures. Good agreement was shown between the global perceived effect and residual symptom percentage, while the Oswestry disability index had poor agreement with the other measurements. The calculated numeric rating scale and residual symptom percentage also had low levels of agreement. However, patients with severe pre-treatment pain tended to have better agreement. In conclusion, this result suggest that the residual symptom percentage may be a more practical for clinicians and better represent patients’ improvements after spine injection.

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<![CDATA[Reliability of a new analysis to compute time to stabilization following a single leg drop jump landing in children]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6c75d0d5eed0c4843d024a

Although a number of different methods have been proposed to assess the time to stabilization (TTS), none is reliable in every axis and no tests of this type have been carried out on children. The purpose of this study was thus to develop a new computational method to obtain TTS using a time-scale (frequency) approach [i.e. continuous wavelet transformation (WAV)] in children. Thirty normally-developed children (mean age 10.16 years, SD = 1.52) participated in the study. Every participant performed 30 single-leg drop jump landings with the dominant lower limb (barefoot) on a force plate from three different heights (15cm, 20cm and 25cm). Five signals were used to compute the TTS: i) Raw, ii) Root mean squared, iii) Sequential average processing, iv) the fitting curve of the signal using an unbounded third order polynomial fit, and v) WAV. The reliability of the TTS was determined by computing both the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) and the Standard Error of the Measurement (SEM).In the antero-posterior and vertical axes, the values obtained with the WAV signal from all heights were similar to those obtained by raw, root mean squared and sequential average processing. The values obtained for the medio-lateral axis were relatively small. This WAV provided substantial-to-good ICC values and low SEM for almost all the axes and heights. The results of the current study thus suggest the WAV method could be used to compute overall TTS when studying children’s dynamic postural stability.

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<![CDATA[Reliable novelty: New should not trump true]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6c75c4d5eed0c4843d014a

Although a case can be made for rewarding scientists for risky, novel science rather than for incremental, reliable science, novelty without reliability ceases to be science. The currently available evidence suggests that the most prestigious journals are no better at detecting unreliable science than other journals. In fact, some of the most convincing studies show a negative correlation, with the most prestigious journals publishing the least reliable science. With the credibility of science increasingly under siege, how much longer can we afford to reward novelty at the expense of reliability? Here, I argue for replacing the legacy journals with a modern information infrastructure that is governed by scholars. This infrastructure would allow renewed focus on scientific reliability, with improved sort, filter, and discovery functionalities, at massive cost savings. If these savings were invested in additional infrastructure for research data and scientific code and/or software, scientific reliability would receive additional support, and funding woes—for, e.g., biological databases—would be a concern of the past.

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<![CDATA[Pressure redistributing in-seat movement activities by persons with spinal cord injury over multiple epochs]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6dc9fdd5eed0c48452a665

Pressure ulcers, by definition, are caused by external forces on the tissues, often in the regions of bony prominences. Wheelchair users are at risk to develop sitting-acquired pressure ulcers, which occur in the regions of the ischial tuberosities, sacrum/coccyx or greater trochanters. As a means to prevent pressure ulcers, instruction on performing pressure reliefs or weight shifts are a part of the rehabilitation process. The objective of this study was to monitor the weight shift activity of full-time wheelchair users with acute spinal cord injury over multiple epochs of time in order to determine consistency or routine within and across epochs. A second objective was to evaluate the accuracy of self-reported pressure relief frequency within each measurement epoch. A wheelchair in-seat activity monitor was used to measure weight shifts and other in-seat movement. The data was classified into multiple in-seat activity metrics using machine learning. Seventeen full-time wheelchair users with spinal cord injury were measured within multiple epochs, each lasting more than 1 week. Across all in-seat activity metrics, no consistent pattern of activity changes emerged. None of the in-seat activity metric changed in any one direction across a majority of subjects. Subjects tended to over-estimate their frequency of performing pressure reliefs. Self-reported pressure relief behaviors are not reliable, and therefore, cannot be used to evaluate preventative behaviors either clinically or within research. This study had the capability of fully investigating in-seat movements of wheelchair users. The results indicated that in-seat movement does not reflect a routine, either in pressure reliefs, weight shifts or other functional in-seat movements. This study has illustrated the complexity of assigning causation of pressure ulcer occurrence to seated behaviors of wheelchair users and identifies the need for improved clinical techniques designed to develop routine behaviors to prevent pressure ulcers.

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<![CDATA[Seeking certainty about Intolerance of Uncertainty: Addressing old and new issues through the Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale-Revised]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6b269bd5eed0c484289d6b

Intolerance of Uncertainty is a trans-diagnostic process that spans a range of emotional disorders and it is usually measured through the Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale-12. The current study aims at investigating some issues in the assessment of Intolerance of Uncertainty (IU) through the Italian Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale-Revised, a measure adapted from the Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale-12 to assess IU across the lifespan. In particular we address the factor structure among a large community sample, measurement invariance across gender, age, and over time, together with reliability and validity of the overall scale and its subscales. The questionnaire was administered to community (N = 761; mean age = 35.86 ± 14.01 years) and undergraduate (N = 163; mean age = 21.16 ± 2.64 years) participants, together with other self-report measures assessing constructs theoretically related to IU. The application of a bifactor model shows that the Italian Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale-Revised possesses a robust general factor, thus supporting the use of the unit-weighted total score of the questionnaire as a measure of the construct. Furthermore, measurement invariance across gender, age, and over time is supported. Finally, the Italian Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale-Revised appears to possess adequate reliability and validity. These findings support the unidimensionality of the measure, a conceptually reasonable result in line with the trans-diagnostic nature of Intolerance of Uncertainty. In addition, this study and comparison with published factor structures of the Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale-12 and of the Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale-Revised identify some issues for the internal structure of the measure. In particular, concern is expressed for the Prospective IU subscale. In light of the promising psychometric properties, the use of the Italian Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale-Revised as a univocal measure is encouraged in both research and clinical practice.

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<![CDATA[Development and validation of a questionnaire to assess the doctors and nurses knowledge of acute oxygen therapy]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c61e924d5eed0c48496f865

Background

Prescription and administration of oxygen in emergencies by healthcare providers are reported to be inappropriate in most settings. There is a huge gap in the knowledge of health care providers on various aspects of oxygen therapy, and this may be a barrier to optimal oxygen administration. Hence, it is essential to ascertain providers’ knowledge of acute oxygen therapy so that appropriate educational interventions are instituted for better delivery. There is no available validated instrument to assess knowledge of acute oxygen therapy. The study aimed to develop, validate and evaluate the test-retest reliability of a questionnaire to determine the doctors and nurses understanding of acute oxygen therapy.

Methods

This study involved the development of the questionnaire contents by a literature review, assessment of face validity (n = 5), content validity, using a panel of experts (n = 10), item analysis and test-retest reliability among a sample (n = 121) of doctors and nurses.

Results

Face validity indicated that the questionnaire was quick to complete (10–15 min), most items were easy to follow and comprehensible. The global content validity index (S-CVI) was 0.85. The test-retest reliability statistics showed a kappa coefficient of 0.546–0.897 (all P<0.001) and percentage agreement of 80–98.3% indicating high temporal stability in the target population. In total, 90% of the items fulfilled the reliability acceptance criteria. Item discrimination analysis showed that most questions were at an acceptable level. The final questionnaire included 37 item questions and eight sections.

Conclusion

The designed questionnaire is a reliable and valid tool for assessing knowledge of acute oxygen therapy among doctors and nurses.

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<![CDATA[How do artistic creative activities regulate our emotions? Validation of the Emotion Regulation Strategies for Artistic Creative Activities Scale (ERS-ACA)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c633959d5eed0c484ae6515

There is a rich literature exploring emotional responses to engaging in artistic creative activities such as making music, writing, dancing and crafts. However, it remains unclear how such activities affect our emotions; specifically which mental processes (‘strategies’) are used to regulate our emotional responses. This paper therefore describes the design and validation of a novel instrument measuring types of emotional regulation strategies (ERSs) used when engaging in artistic creative activities: the Emotion Regulation Strategies for Artistic Creative Activities Scale (ERS-ACA). Using data from an initial pilot study (n = 740 adults, 80.4% female, median age 25–34) and a follow-up large internet sample (n = 47,924, 56.7% female, average age 47.3 ± 14.6 years), we followed a theory-driven iterative factor analysis process. Our analyses converged on a final 18-item scale comprising an overall ‘general’ factor of ERSs alongside three subscales: a 7-item factor comprising ‘avoidance strategies’ (such as distraction, suppression and detachment), a 6-item factor comprising ‘approach strategies’ (such as acceptance, reappraisal and problem solving), and a 5-item factor comprising ‘self-development strategies’ (such as enhanced self-identify, improved self-esteem and increased agency). All factors showed strong internal reliability (Cronbach’s alpha: General Factor = 0.93, Factor 1 = 0.9, Factor 2 = 0.88, Factor 3 = 0.88). We confirmed strong convergent and divergent validity, construct validity, consistency of internal reliability and test-retest reliability of the scale in a third study (n = 165, 82.2% female, average age 46.3 ± 12.2 years). In conclusion, artistic creative activities appear to affect our emotions via a number of ERSs that can be broadly classified into three categories: avoidance, approach and self-development. The ERS-ACA scale presented and validated here should support further research into the use of ERSs when engaging in artistic creative activities and enhance our understanding about how these activities affect mental health.

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<![CDATA[Quality of Research Practice – An interdisciplinary face validity evaluation of a quality model]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5df31fd5eed0c484580d4e

There are few acknowledged multidisciplinary quality standards for research practice and evaluation. This study evaluates the face validity of a recently developed comprehensive quality model that includes 32 defined concepts based on four main areas (credible, contributory, communicable, and conforming) describing indicators of research practice quality. Responses from 42 senior researchers working within 18 different departments at three major universities showed that the research quality model was–overall–valid. The vast majority believed all concepts in the model to be important, and did not indicate the need for further development. However, some of the sub-concepts were indicated as being slightly less important. Further, there were significant differences concerning ‘communicable’ between disciplines and academic levels, and for ‘conforming’ between genders. Our study indicates that the research quality model proposes the opportunity to move to a more systematic and multidisciplinary approach to research quality improvement, which has implications for how scientific knowledge is obtained.

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<![CDATA[Effects of playing position, pitch location, opposition ability and team ability on the technical performance of elite soccer players in different score line states]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c633972d5eed0c484ae67a3

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of playing position, pitch location, team ability and opposition ability on technical performance variables (pass, cross, corner, free kick accuracy) of English Premier League Soccer players in difference score line states. A validated automatic tracking system (Venatrack) was used to code player actions in real time for passing accuracy, cross accuracy, corner accuracy and free kick accuracy. In total 376 of the 380 games played during the 2011–12 English premier League season were recorded, resulting in activity profiles of 570 players and over 35’000 rows of data. These data were analysed using multi-level modelling. Multi-level regression revealed a “u” shaped association between passing accuracy and goal difference (GD) with greater accuracy occurring at extremes of GD e.g., when the score was either positive or negative. The same pattern was seen for corner accuracy away from home e.g., corner accuracy was lowest when the score was close with the lowest accuracy at extremes of GD. Although free kicks were not associated with GD, team ability, playing position and pitch location were found to predict accuracy. No temporal variables were found to predict cross accuracy. A number of score line effects were present across the temporal factors which should be considered by coaches and managers when preparing and selecting teams in order to maximise performance. The current study highlighted the need for more sensitive score line definitions in which to consider score line effects.

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<![CDATA[A tactical comparison of the 4-2-3-1 and 3-5-2 formation in soccer: A theory-oriented, experimental approach based on positional data in an 11 vs. 11 game set-up]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5b52cdd5eed0c4842bd050

The presented field experiment in an 11 vs. 11 soccer game set-up is the first to examine the impact of different formations (e.g. 4-2-3-1 vs. 3-5-2) on tactical key performance indicators (KPIs) using positional data in a controlled experiment. The data were gathered using player tracking systems (1 Hz) in a standardized 11 vs. 11 soccer game. The KPIs were measured using dynamical positioning variables like Effective Playing Space, Player Length per Width ratio, Team Separateness, Space Control Gain, and Pressure Passing Efficiency. Within the experimental positional data analysis paradigm, neither of the team formations showed differences in Effective Playing Space, Team Separateness, or Space Control Gain. However, as a theory-based approach predicted, a 3-5-2 formation for the Player Length per Width ratio and Pressure Passing Efficiency exceeded the 4-2-3-1 formation. Practice task designs which manipulate team formations therefore significantly influence the emergent behavioral dynamics and need to be considered when planning and monitoring performance. Accordingly, an experimental positional data analysis paradigm is a useful approach to enable the development and validation of theory-oriented models in the area of performance analysis in sports games.

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