ResearchPad - respiratory-medicine https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Severe Asthma Toolkit: an online resource for multidisciplinary health professionals—needs assessment, development process and user analytics with survey feedback]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_9115 Severe asthma imposes a significant burden on individuals, families and the healthcare system. New treatment and management approaches are emerging as effective options for severe asthma. Translating new knowledge to multidisciplinary healthcare professionals is a priority. We developed ‘The Severe Asthma Toolkit’ (https://toolkit.severeasthma.org.au) to increase awareness of severe asthma, provide evidence-based resources and support decisionmaking by healthcare providers.SettingRoundtable discussions and a survey of Australians clinicians were conducted to determine clinician preferences, format and content for a severe asthma resource.ParticipantsA reference group from stakeholder and consumer bodies and severe asthma experts provided advice and feedback. A multidisciplinary team of international experts was engaged to develop content. Written content was based on up-to-date literature. Peer and editorial review were performed to finalise content and inform web design. Website design focused on user experience, navigation, engagement, interactivity and tailoring of content for a clinical audience.ResultsA web-based resource was developed. Roundtable discussions and a needs assessment survey identified the need for dedicated severe asthma management resources to support skills training. The end-product, which launched 26 March 2018, includes an overview of severe asthma, diagnosis and assessment, management, medications, comorbidities, living with severe asthma, establishing a clinic, paediatrics/adolescents and clinical resources. Analytics indicate access by users worldwide (32 169 users from 169 countries). User survey results (n=394) confirm access by the target audience (72% health professionals), who agreed the toolkit increased their knowledge (73%) and confidence in managing severe asthma (66%), and 75% are likely to use the resource in clinic.ConclusionsThe Severe Asthma Toolkit is a unique, evidence-based internet resource to support healthcare professionals providing optimal care for people with severe asthma. It is a comprehensive, accessible and independent resource developed by leading severe asthma experts to improve clinician knowledge and skills in severe asthma management. ]]> <![CDATA[Achieving Control of Asthma in Children in Africa (ACACIA): protocol of an observational study of children’s lung health in six sub-Saharan African countries]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_9090 Little is known about asthma control in the rising number of African children who suffer from this condition. The Achieving Control of Asthma in Children in Africa (ACACIA) study is an observational study collecting evidence about paediatric asthma in urban areas of Ghana, Malawi, Nigeria, South Africa, Uganda and Zimbabwe. The primary objectives are: (1) to identify 3000 children aged between 12 years and 14 years with asthma symptoms; and (2) to assess their asthma control, current treatment, knowledge of and attitudes to asthma and barriers to achieving good control. Secondary objective is to develop interventions addressing identified barriers to good symptom control.Methods and analysisEach centre will undertake screening to identify 500 school children with asthma symptoms using questions from the Global Asthma Network’s questionnaire. Children identified to have asthma symptoms will fill in a digital survey, including: Asthma Control Test, questions on medication usage and adherence, medical care, the Brief-Illness Perception questionnaire and environmental factors. Exhaled nitric oxide testing and prebronchodilator and postbronchodilator spirometry will be performed. A subgroup of children will participate in focus group discussions. Results will be analysed using descriptive statistics and comparative analysis. Informed by these results, we will assess the feasibility of potential interventions, including the adaption of a UK-based theatre performance about asthma attitudes and digital solutions to improve asthma management.Ethics and disseminationThe ACACIA study has been reviewed by the Queen Mary University of London Ethics of Research Committee in the UK. All African centres have received local ethical approval for this study. Study results will be published in academic journals and at conferences. Study outputs will be communicated to the public via newsfeeds on the ACACIA website and Twitter, and through news media outlets and other local dissemination.Trial registration number269211. ]]> <![CDATA[Spirometric traits show quantile-dependent heritability, which may contribute to their gene-environment interactions with smoking and pollution]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_8412 “Quantile-dependent expressivity” refers to a genetic effect that is dependent upon whether the phenotype (e.g., spirometric data) is high or low relative to its population distribution. Forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), and the FEV1/FVC ratio are moderately heritable spirometric traits. The aim of the analyses is to test whether their heritability (h2) is constant over all quantiles of their distribution.MethodsQuantile regression was applied to the mean age, sex, height and smoking-adjusted spirometric data over multiple visits in 9,993 offspring-parent pairs and 1,930 sibships from the Framingham Heart Study to obtain robust estimates of offspring-parent (βOP), offspring-midparent (βOM), and full-sib regression slopes (βFS). Nonparametric significance levels were obtained from 1,000 bootstrap samples. βOPs were used as simple indicators of quantile-specific heritability (i.e., h2 = 2βOP/(1+rspouse), where rspouse was the correlation between spouses).ResultsβOP ± standard error (SE) decreased by 0.0009 ± 0.0003 (P = 0.003) with every one-percent increment in the population distribution of FEV1/FVC, i.e., βOP ± SE were: 0.182 ± 0.031, 0.152 ± 0.015; 0.136 ± 0.011; 0.121 ± 0.013; and 0.099 ± 0.013 at the 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, and 90th percentiles of the FEV1/FVC distribution, respectively. These correspond to h2 ± SEs of 0.350 ± 0.060 at the 10th, 0.292 ± 0.029 at the 25th, 0.262 ± 0.020 at the 50th, 0.234 ± 0.025 at the 75th, and 0.191 ± 0.025 at the 90th percentiles of the FEV1/FVC ratio. Maximum mid-expiratory flow (MMEF) h2 ± SEs increased 0.0025 ± 0.0007 (P = 0.0004) with every one-percent increment in its distribution, i.e.: 0.467 ± 0.046, 0.467 ± 0.033, 0.554 ± 0.038, 0.615 ± 0.042, and 0.675 ± 0.060 at the 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, and 90th percentiles of its distribution. This was due to forced expiratory flow at 75% of FVC (FEF75%), whose quantile-specific h2 increased an average of 0.0042 ± 0.0008 for every one-percent increment in its distribution. It is speculated that previously reported gene-environment interactions may be partially attributable to quantile-specific h2, i.e., greater heritability in individuals with lower FEV1/FVC due to smoking or airborne particles exposure vs. nonsmoking, unexposed individuals.ConclusionHeritabilities of FEV1/FVC, MMEF, and FEF75% from quantile-regression of offspring-parent and sibling spirometric data suggest their quantile-dependent expressivity. ]]> <![CDATA[Prevalence and risk factors for wheeze, decreased forced expiratory volume in 1 s and bronchoconstriction in young children living in Havana, Cuba: a population-based cohort study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N9c0f72e8-35ee-45c3-9f4c-4e5d3ef32212 Asthma has not been extensively studied in low-income and middle-income countries, where risk factors and access to treatment may differ from more affluent countries. We aimed to identify the prevalence of asthma and local risk factors in Havana, Cuba.SettingFour municipalities in Havana, Cuba.ParticipantsA population-based cohort study design of young children living in Havana, Cuba. Children were recruited from primary care centres at age 12–15 months.Primary and secondary outcome measuresData on wheeze in the past 12 months, asthma treatment and environmental exposures collected regularly until the age of 6 years, when forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and reversibility to aerosolised salbutamol were also measured.Results1106 children provided data at the age of 6 years old. The prevalence of wheeze in the previous 12 months was 422 (38%), and 294 (33%) of the study population had bronchodilatation of 12% or more in FEV1 after administration of inhaled salbutamol. In the previous 12 months, 182 (16%) of the children had received inhaled corticosteroids, 416 (38%) salbutamol inhalers and 283 (26%) a course of systemic steroids.Wheeze in the first year and a family history of asthma were both positively associated with bronchodilatation to inhaled salbutamol (1.94%; 95% CI 0.81 to 3.08 and 1.85%; CI 0.14 to 3.57, respectively), while paracetamol use in the first year was associated with wheeze at 6 years (OR 1.64, 95% CI 1.14 to 2.35). There were large differences in FEV1, bronchodilatation and risk of wheeze across different geographical areas.ConclusionsAsthma is common in young children living in Havana, and the high prevalence of systemic steroids administrated is likely to reflect the underuse of regular inhaled corticosteroids. If replicated in other comparable low-income and middle-income countries, this represents an important global public health issue. ]]> <![CDATA[Defining high probability when making a diagnosis of asthma in primary care: mixed-methods consensus workshop]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Ndbf1a2fe-f607-414f-b975-774b73c536d9 Making the diagnosis of asthma is challenging. Guidelines recommend that clinicians identify a group at ‘high probability’ of asthma. High probability, however, is not numerically defined giving rise to uncertainty. The aim of this work was to build consensus on what constitutes a high probability of asthma in primary care. High probability was defined as the probability threshold at which there is enough information to make a firm diagnosis of asthma, and a subsequent negative test would not alter that opinion (assumed to be a false negative).DesignMixed-methods study.SettingA consensus workshop using modified nominal group technique was held during an international respiratory conference.ParticipantsInternational conference attendees eligible if they had knowledge/experience of working in primary care, respiratory medicine and spoke English.MethodsParticipants took part in facilitated discussions and voted over three rounds on what constituted a high probability of asthma diagnosis. The workshop was audio-recorded, transcribed and qualitatively analysed.ResultsBased on final votes, the mean value for a high probability of asthma in primary care was 75% (SD 7.6), representing a perceived trade-off between limiting the number of false positives (more likely if a lower threshold was used) and pragmatism on the basis that first-line preventive therapies (ie, low-dose inhaled corticosteroids) are relatively low risk. The need to review response to treatment was strongly emphasised for detecting non-responders and reviewing the diagnosis.ConclusionA consensus probability of 75% was the threshold at which the primary care participants in this workshop felt confident to establish the diagnosis of asthma, albeit with the caveat that a review of treatment response was essential. Contextual factors, including availability and timing of tests and the ease with which patients could be reviewed, influenced participants’ decision making. ]]> <![CDATA[Bi-Level ventilation decreases pulmonary shunt and modulates neuroinflammation in a cardiopulmonary resuscitation model]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nfc29e3d5-af29-453c-bdc8-d5378300b77b

Background

Optimal ventilation strategies during cardiopulmonary resuscitation are still heavily debated and poorly understood. So far, no convincing evidence could be presented in favour of outcome relevance and necessity of specific ventilation patterns. In recent years, alternative models to the guideline-based intermittent positive pressure ventilation (IPPV) have been proposed. In this randomized controlled trial, we evaluated a bi-level ventilation approach in a porcine model to assess possible physiological advantages for the pulmonary system as well as resulting changes in neuroinflammation compared to standard measures.

Methods

Sixteen male German landrace pigs were anesthetized and instrumented with arterial and venous catheters. Ventricular fibrillation was induced and the animals were left untreated and without ventilation for 4 minutes. After randomization, the animals were assigned to either the guideline-based group (IPPV, tidal volume 8–10 ml/kg, respiratory rate 10/min, FiO21.0) or the bi-level group (inspiratory pressure levels 15–17 cmH2O/5cmH2O, respiratory rate 10/min, FiO21.0). Mechanical chest compressions and interventional ventilation were initiated and after 5 minutes, blood samples, including ventilation/perfusion measurements via multiple inert gas elimination technique, were taken. After 8 minutes, advanced life support including adrenaline administration and defibrillations were started for up to 4 cycles. Animals achieving ROSC were monitored for 6 hours and lungs and brain tissue were harvested for further analyses.

Results

Five of the IPPV and four of the bi-level animals achieved ROSC. While there were no significant differences in gas exchange or hemodynamic values, bi-level treated animals showed less pulmonary shunt directly after ROSC and a tendency to lower inspiratory pressures during CPR. Additionally, cytokine expression of tumour necrosis factor alpha was significantly reduced in hippocampal tissue compared to IPPV animals.

Conclusion

Bi-level ventilation with a constant positive end expiratory pressure and pressure-controlled ventilation is not inferior in terms of oxygenation and decarboxylation when compared to guideline-based IPPV ventilation. Additionally, bi-level ventilation showed signs for a potentially ameliorated neurological outcome as well as less pulmonary shunt following experimental resuscitation. Given the restrictions of the animal model, these advantages should be further examined.

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<![CDATA[Association of weaning preparedness with extubation outcome of mechanically ventilated patients in medical intensive care units: a retrospective analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N7206b26f-7976-4083-b76a-7f64164faba8

Background

Assessment of preparedness of weaning has been recommended before extubation for mechanically ventilated patients. We aimed to understand the association of a structured assessment of weaning preparedness with successful liberation.

Methods

We retrospectively investigated patients with acute respiratory failure who experienced an extubation trial at the medical intensive care units of a medical center and compared the demographic and clinical characteristics between those patients with successful and failed extubation. A composite score to assess the preparedness of weaning, the WEANSNOW score, was generated consisting of eight components, including Weaning parameters, Endotracheal tube, Arterial blood gas analysis, Nutrition, Secretions, Neuromuscular-affecting agents, Obstructive airway problems and Wakefulness. The prognostic ability of the WEANSNOW score for extubation was then analyzed.

Results

Of the 205 patients included, 138 (67.3%) patients had successful extubation. Compared with the failure group, the success group had a significantly shorter duration of MV before the weaning attempt (11.2 ± 11.6 vs. 31.7 ± 26.2 days, p < 0.001), more with congestive heart failure (42.0% vs. 25.4%, p = 0.020), and had different distribution of the types of acute respiratory failure (p = 0.037). The failure group also had a higher WEANSNOW score (1.22 ± 0.85 vs. 0.51 ± 0.71, p < 0.001) and worse Rapid Shallow Breathing Index (93.9 ± 63.8 vs. 56.3 ± 35.1, p < 0.001). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that a WEANSNOW Score = 1 or higher (OR = 2.880 (95% CI [1.291–6.426]), p = 0.010) and intubation duration >21 days (OR = 7.752 (95% CI [3.560–16.879]), p < 0.001) were independently associated with an increased probability of extubation failure.

Conclusion

Assessing the pre-extubation status of intubated patients in a checklist-based approach using the WEANSNOW score might provide valuable insights into extubation failure in patients in a medical ICU for acute respiratory failure. Further prospective studies are warranted to elucidate the practice of assessing weaning preparedness.

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<![CDATA[The STELVIO trial, a game changer for bronchoscopic lung volume reduction in patients with severe emphysema]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Na9a61c63-9ff1-494f-9328-dd5bc0b6a92c

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterised by persistent respiratory symptoms and airflow limitation, which is caused by small airway disease (bronchiolitis) and alveolar destruction (emphysema) [1]. Patients primarily suffering from severe emphysema are often limited in exercise capacity due to the consequences of hyperinflation [2].

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<![CDATA[Impact of examined lymph node count on long-term survival of T1-2N0M0 double primary NSCLC patients after surgery: a SEER study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N270bfab1-03be-4183-bc65-e32a9174aca4

Purpose

The relationship between examined lymph nodes (ELN) and survival has been confirmed in several single early-stage malignancies. We studied the association between the ELN count and the long-term survival of T1-2N0M0 double primary non-small cell lung cancer (DP-NSCLC) patients after surgery, based on the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database.

Methods

A total of 948 patients were identified and their independent prognostic factors were analyzed. These factors included the ELN count, which related to overall survival (OS) and the cancer-specific survival (CSS) of synchronous (n = 426) and metachronous (n = 522) T1-2N0M0 DP-NSCLC patients after surgery.

Results

X-tile analysis indicated that the cutoff value for the sum of ELNs was 22 for both OS and CSS in the synchronous DP-NSCLC group. Patients with a sum of ELNs >22 were statistically more likely to survive than those with ≤22 ELNs. X-tile analysis revealed that the ELN count of the second lesion was related to both OS and CSS in the metachronous DP-NSCLC group. The optimal cutoff value was nine. These results were confirmed using univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses.

Conclusion

Our findings indicate that ELN count was highly correlated with the long-term survival of T1-2N0M0 double primary NSCLC patients after surgery.

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<![CDATA[Protein expression profile changes of lung tissue in patients with pulmonary hypertension]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N16e5c298-d5bb-4417-8155-457d40bc8f57

Background

Pulmonary hypertension occurs in approximately 1% of the global population, and the prognosis for such patients may be poor. However, the mechanisms underlying the development of this disease remain unclear. Thus, understanding the development of pulmonary hypertension and finding new therapeutic targets and approaches are important for improved clinical outcomes.

Methods

Lung tissue specimens were collected from six patients with atrial septal defect and pulmonary hypertension (all women, with a mean age of 46.5 ± 4.7 years, and their condition could not be corrected with an internal medical occlusion device) and from nine control patients with lung cancer who underwent lobectomy (six men and three women, with a mean age of 56.7 ± 1.7 years). Isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry analyses were used to detect protein expression levels.

Results

We found 74 significantly upregulated and 88 significantly downregulated differentially expressed proteins between control and pulmonary hypertensive lung tissue specimens. Gene ontology analyses identified the top 20 terms in all three categories, that is, biological process, cellular component, and molecular function. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes and protein–protein interaction analyses determined the top 10 signaling pathways and found that the six hub proteins associated with the differentially expressed upregulated proteins (PRKAA1, DHPR, ACTB, desmin, ACTG1, and ITGA1) were all involved in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy, and dilated cardiomyopathy.

Conclusion

Our results identified protein expression profile changes in lung tissue derived from patients with pulmonary hypertension, providing potential new biomarkers for clinical diagnosis and prognosis for patients with pulmonary hypertension and offering candidate protein targets for future therapeutic drug development.

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<![CDATA[Protocol for a multicentre randomised controlled trial to investigate the effect on asthma-related quality of life from breathing retraining in patients with incomplete asthma control attending specialist care in Denmark]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N2d89c861-3997-4a83-9f7b-6f44d11eb604

Introduction and aim

Uncontrolled asthma is a global health challenge with substantial impact on quality of life (QoL) and overall healthcare costs. Unrecognised and/or unmanaged comorbidities often contribute to presence of uncontrolled asthma. Abnormalities in breathing pattern are termed dysfunctional breathing and are not only common in asthma but also lead to asthma-like symptoms and reduced QoL, and, in keeping with this, improvement with breathing normalisation. Evidence-based guidelines recommend breathing retraining interventions as an adjuvant treatment in uncontrolled asthma. Physiotherapy-based breathing pattern modification interventions incorporating relaxation have been shown to improve asthma-related QoL in primary care patients with impaired asthma control. Despite anecdotal reports, effectiveness of breathing retraining in patients referred to secondary care with incomplete asthma control has not been formally assessed in a randomised controlled trial (RCT). We aim to investigate the effect of breathing exercises on asthma-related QoL in patients with incomplete asthma control despite specialist care.

Methods and analysis

This two-armed assessor-blinded multicentre RCT will investigate the effect of physiotherapist-delivered breathing retraining on asthma QoL questionnaire (MiniAQLQ) in addition to usual specialist care, recruiting from seven outpatient departments and one specialised clinic representing all regions of Denmark during 2017–2019. We will include 190 consenting adults with incomplete asthma control, defined as Asthma Control Questionnaire 6-item score ≥0.8. Participants will randomly be allocated to either breathing exercise programme in addition to usual care (BrEX +UC) or UC alone. BrEX compiles three physiotherapy sessions and encouragement to perform home exercise daily. Both groups continue usual secondary care management. Primary outcome is between-group difference in MiniAQLQ at 6 months. Secondary outcomes include patient-reported outcome measures, spirometry and accelerometer.

Ethics and dissemination

Ethics Committee, Region Zealand (SJ-552) and Danish Data Protection Agency (REG-55–2016) approved the trial. Results will be reported in peer-reviewed scientific journals.

Trial registration number

NCT03127059; Pre-results.

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<![CDATA[Vitamin D in the prevention of exacerbations of asthma in preschoolers (DIVA): protocol for a multicentre randomised placebo-controlled triple-blind trial]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N034fe1b2-904d-483d-82e8-ab37afe218e3

Introduction

Preschoolers have the highest rate of emergency visits and hospitalisations for asthma exacerbations of all age groups, with most triggered by upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) and occurring in the fall or winter. Vitamin D insufficiency is highly prevalent in Canadian preschoolers with recurrent asthma exacerbations, particularly in winter. It is associated with more URTIs and, in patients with asthma, more oral corticosteroid (OCS) use. Although evidence suggests that vitamin D supplements significantly decrease URTIs and asthma exacerbations requiring OCS, there is insufficient data in preschoolers. This study aims to determine the impact of vitamin D3 supplementation on exacerbations requiring OCS, in preschoolers with recurrent URTI-induced asthma exacerbations.

Methods and analysis

This is a phase III, randomised, triple-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group multicentre trial of vitamin D3 supplementation in children aged 1–5 years, with asthma triggered by URTIs and a recent history of frequent URTIs and OCS use. Children (n=865) will be recruited in the fall and early winter and followed for 7 months. They will be randomised to either the (1) intervention: two oral boluses of 100 000 international unit (IU) vitamin D3 (3.5 months apart) with 400 IU vitamin D3 daily; or (2) control: identical placebo boluses with daily placebo. The primary outcome is the number of exacerbations requiring OCS per child, documented by medical and pharmacy records. Secondary outcomes include number of laboratory-confirmed viral URTIs, exacerbation duration and severity, parent functional status, healthcare use, treatment deintensification, cost and safety.

Ethics and dissemination

This study has received ethical approval from all sites. Results will be disseminated via international conferences and manuscripts targeting paediatricians and respirologists, and to families of asthmatic children via our Quebec parents–partners outreach programme. If proven effective, findings may markedly influence the management of URTI-induced asthma in high-morbidity preschoolers and could be directly implemented into practice with an update to clinical guidelines.

Trial registration number

NCT03365687.

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<![CDATA[Is Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome A Postmenopausal Disorder?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N2f31a2ca-f270-49fc-85d8-45fcfaf08417

Previous studies have assessed the role of gender and menopause in Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA). It is well known that menopause is a major risk factor for OSA. However, analogous studies on obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome (OHS) are limited. Recent studies have suggested that OHS is more prevalent in postmenopausal women. Moreover, women with OHS seem to have excess comorbidities, including hypothyroidism, hypertension, pulmonary hypertension, and diabetes mellitus, compared to men. In the present perspective, we discuss recent data on the prevalence and comorbidities associated with OHS in women, as well as the use of noninvasive ventilation in women with OHS, and try to answer the question, “Is OHS a disorder of postmenopausal women?”

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<![CDATA[Direct costs of overdiagnosed asthma: a longitudinal, population-based cohort study in British Columbia, Canada]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N1f10a115-614a-4d18-ba4a-25165a6d1346

Objectives

A current diagnosis of asthma cannot be objectively confirmed in many patients with physician-diagnosed asthma. Estimates of resource use in overdiagnosed cases of asthma are necessary to measure the burden of overdiagnosis and to evaluate strategies to reduce this burden. We assessed differences in asthma-related healthcare resource use between patients with a confirmed asthma diagnosis and those with asthma ruled out.

Design

Population-based, prospective cohort study.

Setting

Participants were recruited through random-digit dialling of both landlines and mobile phones in the province of British Columbia, Canada.

Participants

We included 345 individuals ≥12 years of age with a self-reported physician diagnosis of asthma. The diagnosis of asthma was reassessed at the end of 12 months of follow-up using a structured algorithm, which included a bronchodilator reversibility test, methacholine challenge test, and if necessary medication tapering and a second methacholine challenge test.

Primary and secondary outcome measures

Self-reported annual asthma-related direct healthcare costs (2017 Canadian dollars), outpatient physician visits and medication use from the perspective of the Canadian healthcare system.

Results

Asthma was ruled out in 86 (24.9%) participants. The average annual asthma-related direct healthcare costs for participants with confirmed asthma were $C497.9 (SD $C677.9) and for participants with asthma ruled out, $C307.7 (SD $C424.1). In the adjusted analyses, a confirmed diagnosis was associated with higher direct healthcare costs (relative ratio (RR)=1.60, 95% CI 1.14 to 2.22), increased rate of specialist visits (RR=2.41, 95% CI 1.05 to 5.40) and reliever medication use (RR=1.62, 95% CI 1.09 to 2.35), but not primary care physician visits (p=0.10) or controller medication use (p=0.11).

Conclusions

A quarter of individuals with a physician diagnosis of asthma did not have asthma after objective re-evaluation. These participants still consumed a significant amount of asthma-related healthcare resources. The population-level economic burden of asthma overdiagnosis could be substantial.

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<![CDATA[Feasibility trial of a digital self-management intervention ‘My Breathing Matters’ to improve asthma-related quality of life for UK primary care patients with asthma]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N746cd635-a8f4-42b2-bbd1-2d21cc3f9700

Objective

To assess the feasibility of a randomised controlled trial (RCT) and acceptability of an asthma self-management digital intervention to improve asthma-specific quality of life in comparison with usual care.

Design and setting

A two-arm feasibility RCT conducted across seven general practices in Wessex, UK.

Participants

Primary care patients with asthma aged 18 years and over, with impaired asthma-specific quality of life and access to the internet.

Interventions

‘My Breathing Matters’ (MBM) is a digital asthma self-management intervention designed using theory, evidence and person-based approaches to provide tailored support for both pharmacological and non-pharmacological management of asthma symptoms.

Outcomes

The primary outcome was the feasibility of the trial design, including recruitment, adherence and retention at follow-up (3 and 12 months). Secondary outcomes were the feasibility and effect sizes of specific trial measures including asthma-specific quality of life and asthma control.

Results

Primary outcomes: 88 patients were recruited (target 80). At 3-month follow-up, two patients withdrew and six did not complete outcome measures. At 12 months, two withdrew and four did not complete outcome measures. 36/44 patients in the intervention group engaged with MBM (median of 4 logins, range 0–25, IQR 8). Consistent trends were observed to improvements in asthma-related patient-reported outcome measures.

Conclusions

This study demonstrated the feasibility and acceptability of a definitive RCT that is required to determine the clinical and cost-effectiveness of a digital asthma self-management intervention.

Trial registration number

ISRCTN15698435.

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<![CDATA[Endotype-driven prediction of acute exacerbations in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (EndAECOPD): protocol for a prospective cohort study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N39dbe70a-2400-4479-ae19-28b5c8aab211

Introduction

Current strategies for the prevention of acute exacerbations in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are primarily based on clinical measurements but fail to target the pathophysiological mechanisms, namely endotypes, of the disease. Studies identifying endotypes underlying exacerbation susceptibility and discovering specific biomarkers may lead to the development of targeted therapeutics but are lacking. This study aims to assess a broad spectrum of biomarkers at multiple biological levels (genetics, airway inflammation and respiratory microbiome) for their ability in predicting acute exacerbations of COPD, thus enables high-resolution disease endotyping and may lead to precision treatment of the disease.

Methods and analysis

In this prospective cohort study, participants with stable COPD (n=600) will be recruited and assessed for demographics, symptom scores, spirometry, medication use and comorbidities at baseline. Blood will be obtained for genotyping variants in a panel of nine genes. Induced sputum will be collected for the profile of microbiota using 16S rRNA gene sequencing, quantification of bacterial load, inflammatory mediators assay and sputum cytometry. Participants will be followed up for their exacerbations till 12 months and reassessed for the clinical measurements as baseline. The primary outcomes are total number of exacerbations, severe exacerbations, moderate exacerbations and time to first exacerbation. The secondary outcomes are changes in lung function and symptom scores. The effect of biomarkers representing genetic variants, airway inflammation and respiratory microbiome on predicting the frequent exacerbator phenotype and exacerbation frequency will be analysed with multivariable modelling, and time to first exacerbation with a Cox regression model.

Ethics and dissemination

The study has been approved by the Clinical Trial and Biomedical Ethics Committee of West China Hospital of Sichuan University (No. 2018–298). The results of the study will be published on peer-reviewed journals.

Trial registration number

ChiCTR1800019063.

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<![CDATA[Early ward-based acute noninvasive ventilation: a paper that changed practice]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c0270fad5eed0c4843ee51d

Noninvasive ventilation (NIV) is now an established evidence-based treatment for acute hypercapnic respiratory failure (AHRF), predominantly for defined patients admitted with exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but also a range of other conditions including obesity-related respiratory failure and chest wall deformities requiring an acute hospital admission. Over the past two decades, there has been a significant shift towards greater use of NIV in place of invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) in this group of patients. Here we set out to discuss a landmark paper in this respect: the report of the YONIV trial (Yorkshire Noninvasive Ventilation Trial), published in June 2000, which addressed the key practical questions around the early use of ward-based NIV at the time [1]. A recent narrative review on the epidemiology of NIV for acute respiratory failure in COPD patients concluded that this dramatic increase in NIV use is probably due to the increased experience of the medical teams, treating sicker patients with comorbidities and utilising NIV outside the intensive care unit (ICU), further confirming the pivotal role of the original trial enabling the early use of acute NIV on medical wards [2].

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<![CDATA[Relationship of asymmetric dimethylarginine levels with disease severity and pulmonary hypertension in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b59c3a6463d7e7b3acb09a8

Background:

Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) has emerged as a risk marker for many conditions related to pulmonary hypertension (PH); however, little is known about ADMA and symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) plasma concentrations in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Our interest centers on the role of ADMA in regulation of endothelial function in COPD and secondary PH. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the serum ADMA, SDMA, and L-arginine concentrations in COPD and its association with PH.

Methods:

Patients with diagnosis of COPD underwent pulmonary function tests, echocardiography, and laboratory investigations including ADMA, SDMA, and L-arginine.

Results:

Serum concentrations of ADMA, SDMA, and L-arginine tend to increase as COPD progresses. Patients with PH had higher concentrations of ADMA, SDMA, and L-arginine compared to cases with normal pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP); the difference was not statistically significant.

Conclusions:

Our results show that increased ADMA, SDMA, and L-arginine concentrations are associated with increased PAP measurements in patients with COPD, however, the relationship is not statistically significant.

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<![CDATA[Comparison of acid fast bacilli (AFB) smear for Mycobacterium tuberculosis on adult pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and without type 2 DM]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b591a14463d7e552e096289

Background

According to the Global Tuberculosis Report 2015, Indonesia ranked as second country in the world with the highest number of pulmonary tuberculosis cases. By 2015, the number of pulmonary TB new cases in Indonesia has increased to 330.910 cases of 2014 where 324.539 cases. DM is one of the most important factors that influence the occurrence worsening TB. Now is known that DM patients have body's immune response disorder thereby facilitating M. tuberculosis infection and causing TB.

Method

This research is cross sectional design. The sample in this research are adult pulmonary TB patients at General Hospital Grade C period October 1, 2013–March 31, 2016 as much as 225 patients.

Result

AFB smear results in patients with type 2 DM with smear 3 + was 14 (17.28%), 2 + was 15 (18.52%), 1 + was 15 (18.52%) and negative (−) was 37 (45.68%). AFB smear results in patients without type 2 DM with smear 3 + was 3 (2.08%), 2 + was 6 (4.17%), 1 + was 19 (13.19%), negative (−) was 112 (77.78%) and have no sputum was 4 (2.78%). Number of adult pulmonary TB patients were 225 patients. Of the 225 patients, found 81 patients with type 2 DM and 144 patients without type 2 DM.

Conclusion

AFB smear positive found more in adult pulmonary TB patients with type 2 DM compared to TB patient without type 2 DM. It also found statistically significant between type 2 DM with the AFB smear results on adult pulmonary TB patients.

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<![CDATA[Use of a 4-week up-titration regimen of roflumilast in patients with severe COPD]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5bfacb16d5eed0c4847cd633

Background

The oral selective phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitor roflumilast (ROF) reduces exacerbations in patients with severe COPD. Adverse events (AEs) can cause early ROF discontinuation. Alternative dosing strategies may help patients continue their therapy.

Methods

In this multicenter, double-blind trial, 1,321 patients with severe COPD were randomized 1:1:1 to 4 weeks’ treatment with ROF 250 µg once daily (OD), 500 µg every other day (EOD), or 500 µg OD, each followed by ROF 500 µg OD for 8 weeks, plus standard therapy. The primary end point was the percentage of patients prematurely discontinuing study treatment.

Results

Patients in the 250 µg OD/500 µg OD group had significantly fewer treatment discontinuations (odds ratio [OR] 0.66 [95% CI 0.47–0.93], p=0.017) and lower rates of AEs of interest such as diarrhea, nausea, headache, decreased appetite, insomnia and abdominal pain (OR 0.63 [95% CI 0.47–0.83], p=0.001) compared with those in the 500 µg OD group. Although rates of discontinuation and AEs of interest were numerically lower with ROF 500 µg EOD/500 µg OD, the difference was not significant (OR 0.76, p=0.114, and OR 0.78, p=0.091, respectively) compared with ROF 500 µg OD.

Conclusion

A dose of ROF 250 µg OD for 4 weeks before escalation to the approved maintenance dose of 500 µg OD resulted in reduced treatment discontinuation and improved tolerability.

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