ResearchPad - retina https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Automatic analysis of normative retinal oximetry images]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_15756 Retinal oximetry is an important screening tool for early detection of retinal pathologies due to changes in the vasculature and also serves as a useful indicator of human-body-wide vascular abnormalities. We present an automatic technique for the measurement of oxygen saturation in retinal arterioles and venules using dual-wavelength retinal oximetry images. The technique is based on segmenting an optic-disc-centered ring-shaped region of interest and subsequent analysis of the oxygen saturation levels. We show that the two dominant peaks in the histogram of the oxygen saturation levels correspond to arteriolar and venular oxygen saturations from which the arterio-venous saturation difference (AVSD) can be calculated. For evaluation, we use a normative database of Asian Indian eyes containing 44 dual-wavelength retinal oximetry images. Validations against expert manual annotations of arterioles and venules show that the proposed technique results in an average arteriolar oxygen saturation (SatO2) of 87.48%, venular SatO2 of 57.41%, and AVSD of 30.07% in comparison with the expert ground-truth average arteriolar SatO2 of 89.41%, venular SatO2 of 56.32%, and AVSD of 33.09%, respectively. The results exhibit high consistency across the dataset indicating that the automated technique is an accurate alternative to the manual procedure.

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<![CDATA[Neuroprotective effects of exogenous erythropoietin in Wistar rats by downregulating apoptotic factors to attenuate N-methyl-D-aspartate-mediated retinal ganglion cells death]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N85685bba-c047-422b-abfc-358a98ed1fe7

The aim of this study was to investigate whether exogenous erythropoietin (EPO) administration attenuates N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-mediated excitotoxic retinal damage in Wistar rats. The survival rate of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) were investigated by flat mount analysis and flow cytometry. A total of 125 male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to five groups: negative control, NMDA80 (i.e., 80 nmoles NMDA intravitreally injected), NMDA80 + 10ng EPO, NMDA80 + 50ng EPO, and NMDA80 + 250ng EPO. The NMDA80 + 50ng EPO treatment group was used to evaluate various administrated points (pre-/co-/post- administration of NMDA80). Meanwhile, the transferase dUTP Nick-End Labeling (TUNEL) assay of RGCs, the inner plexiform layer (IPL) thickness and the apoptotic signal transduction pathways of μ-calpain, Bax, and caspase 9 were assessed simultaneously using an immunohistochemical method (IHC). When EPO was co-administered with NMDA80, attenuated cell death occurred through the downregulation of the apoptotic indicators: μ-calpain was activated first (peak at ~18hrs), followed by Bax and caspase 9 (peak at ~40hrs). Furthermore, the images of retinal cross sections have clearly demonstrated that thickness of the inner plexiform layer (IPL) was significantly recovered at 40 hours after receiving intravitreal injection with NMDA80 and 50ng EPO. Exogenous EPO may protect RGCs and bipolar cell axon terminals in IPL by downregulating apoptotic factors to attenuate NMDA-mediated excitotoxic retinal damage.

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<![CDATA[Retinal Nonperfusion Relationship to Arteries or Veins Observed on Widefield Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Diabetic Retinopathy]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N07b63962-4c95-4646-956c-4cf6fc409c18

Purpose

To evaluate whether retinal capillary nonperfusion is found predominantly adjacent to arteries or veins in eyes with diabetic retinopathy (DR).

Methods

Sixty-three eyes from 44 patients with proliferative DR (PDR) or non-PDR (NPDR) were included. Images (12 × 12-mm) foveal-centered optical coherence tomography (OCT) angiography (OCTA) images were taken using the Zeiss Plex Elite 9000. In 37 eyes, widefield montages with five fixation points were also obtained. A semiautomatic algorithm that detects nonperfusion in full-retina OCT slabs was developed, and the percentages of capillary nonperfusion within the total image area were calculated. Retinal arteries and veins were manually traced. Based on the shortest distance, nonperfusion pixels were labeled as either arterial-side or venous-side. Arterial-adjacent and venous-adjacent nonperfusion and the A/V ratio (arterial-adjacent nonperfusion divided by venous-adjacent nonperfusion) were quantified.

Results

Twenty-two eyes with moderate NPDR, 16 eyes with severe NPDR, and 25 eyes with PDR were scanned. Total nonperfusion area in PDR (median: 8.93%) was greater than in moderate NPDR (3.49%, P < 0.01). Arterial-adjacent nonperfusion was greater than venous-adjacent nonperfusion for all stages of DR (P < 0.001). The median A/V ratios were 1.93 in moderate NPDR, 1.84 in severe NPDR, and 1.78 in PDR. The A/V ratio was negatively correlated with the total nonperfusion area (r = −0.600, P < 0.0001). The results from the widefield montages showed similar patterns.

Conclusions

OCTA images with arteries and veins traced allowed us to estimate the nonperfusion distribution. In DR, smaller nonperfusion tends to be arterial-adjacent, while larger nonperfusion tends toward veins.

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<![CDATA[Cone Structure Persists Beyond Margins of Short-Wavelength Autofluorescence in Choroideremia]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nffc9ecb5-eac5-4f3a-a70a-e5572d07a27c

Purpose

We studied the relationship between structure and function of the choriocapillaris (CC), retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), and photoreceptors in patients with choroideremia (CHM).

Methods

Six CHM patients (12 eyes) and four normal subjects (six eyes) were studied with fundus-guided microperimetry, confocal and nonconfocal adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (AOSLO), near-infrared and color fundus photos, short wavelength fundus autofluorescence (SW-AF), and swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) and angiography (SS-OCTA) images. Cone spacing was represented using Z-scores (standard deviations from the mean at that eccentricity). CC flow voids were defined using a threshold of 1 SD below the normal mean.

Results

Cone spacing Z-scores were not significantly correlated with distance from the borders of preserved RPE, determined using either the SS-OCT or SW-AF scans. Cone spacing Z-scores were significantly correlated with CC flow voids and retinal sensitivity. Flow voids were abnormal in regions of preserved RPE and increased progressively from within −2° of the preserved area to +2° beyond the border. Visual sensitivity decreased as CC flow voids increased approaching and beyond the border of preserved structure.

Conclusions

In CHM, cone spacing Z-scores correlated with CC flow voids, and were negatively correlated with retinal sensitivity, suggesting cone degeneration accompanied reduced CC perfusion. Functional cones were found outside the presumed borders of preserved outer-retina/RPE as defined by SW-AF, but not outside the borders determined by SS-OCT. The use of SW-AF to identify the border of preserved structures may underestimate regions with cells that may be amenable to treatment.

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<![CDATA[Regeneration of the zebrafish retinal pigment epithelium after widespread genetic ablation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c59fefbd5eed0c484135888

The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is a specialized monolayer of pigmented cells within the eye that is critical for maintaining visual system function. Diseases affecting the RPE have dire consequences for vision, and the most prevalent of these is atrophic (dry) age-related macular degeneration (AMD), which is thought to result from RPE dysfunction and degeneration. An intriguing possibility for treating RPE degenerative diseases like atrophic AMD is the stimulation of endogenous RPE regeneration; however, very little is known about the mechanisms driving successful RPE regeneration in vivo. Here, we developed a zebrafish transgenic model (rpe65a:nfsB-eGFP) that enabled ablation of large swathes of mature RPE. RPE ablation resulted in rapid RPE degeneration, as well as degeneration of Bruch’s membrane and underlying photoreceptors. Using this model, we demonstrate for the first time that zebrafish are capable of regenerating a functional RPE monolayer after RPE ablation. Regenerated RPE cells first appear at the periphery of the RPE, and regeneration proceeds in a peripheral-to-central fashion. RPE ablation elicits a robust proliferative response in the remaining RPE. Subsequently, proliferative cells move into the injury site and differentiate into RPE. BrdU incorporation assays demonstrate that the regenerated RPE is likely derived from remaining peripheral RPE cells. Pharmacological disruption using IWR-1, a Wnt signaling antagonist, significantly reduces cell proliferation in the RPE and impairs overall RPE recovery. These data demonstrate that the zebrafish RPE possesses a robust capacity for regeneration and highlight a potential mechanism through which endogenous RPE regenerate in vivo.

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<![CDATA[Abrogation of Stem Loop Binding Protein (Slbp) function leads to a failure of cells to transition from proliferation to differentiation, retinal coloboma and midline axon guidance deficits]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c59feb3d5eed0c48413530b

Through forward genetic screening for mutations affecting visual system development, we identified prominent coloboma and cell-autonomous retinal neuron differentiation, lamination and retinal axon projection defects in eisspalte (ele) mutant zebrafish. Additional axonal deficits were present, most notably at midline axon commissures. Genetic mapping and cloning of the ele mutation showed that the affected gene is slbp, which encodes a conserved RNA stem-loop binding protein involved in replication dependent histone mRNA metabolism. Cells throughout the central nervous system remained in the cell cycle in ele mutant embryos at stages when, and locations where, post-mitotic cells have differentiated in wild-type siblings. Indeed, RNAseq analysis showed down-regulation of many genes associated with neuronal differentiation. This was coincident with changes in the levels and spatial localisation of expression of various genes implicated, for instance, in axon guidance, that likely underlie specific ele phenotypes. These results suggest that many of the cell and tissue specific phenotypes in ele mutant embryos are secondary to altered expression of modules of developmental regulatory genes that characterise, or promote transitions in, cell state and require the correct function of Slbp-dependent histone and chromatin regulatory genes.

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<![CDATA[Neuroprotective effects of PPARα in retinopathy of type 1 diabetes]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c61e91ad5eed0c48496f806

Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a common neurovascular complication of type 1 diabetes. Current therapeutics target neovascularization characteristic of end-stage disease, but are associated with significant adverse effects. Targeting early events of DR such as neurodegeneration may lead to safer and more effective approaches to treatment. Two independent prospective clinical trials unexpectedly identified that the PPARα agonist fenofibrate had unprecedented therapeutic effects in DR, but gave little insight into the physiological and molecular mechanisms of action. The objective of the present study was to evaluate potential neuroprotective effects of PPARα in DR, and subsequently to identify the responsible mechanism of action. Here we reveal that activation of PPARα had a robust protective effect on retinal function as shown by Optokinetic tracking in a rat model of type 1 diabetes, and also decreased retinal cell death, as demonstrated by a DNA fragmentation ELISA. Further, PPARα ablation exacerbated diabetes-induced decline of visual function as demonstrated by ERG analysis. We further found that PPARα improved mitochondrial efficiency in DR, and decreased ROS production and cell death in cultured retinal neurons. Oxidative stress biomarkers were elevated in diabetic Pparα-/- mice, suggesting increased oxidative stress. Mitochondrially mediated apoptosis and oxidative stress secondary to mitochondrial dysfunction contribute to neurodegeneration in DR. Taken together, these findings identify a robust neuroprotective effect for PPARα in DR, which may be due to improved mitochondrial function and subsequent alleviation of energetic deficits, oxidative stress and mitochondrially mediated apoptosis.

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<![CDATA[Quantity and quality of image artifacts in optical coherence tomography angiography]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6448bed5eed0c484c2ed28

Objective

To analyze quality and frequency of OCTA artifacts and to evaluate their impact on the interpretability of OCTA images.

Design

75 patients with diabetic retinopathy (DR), retinal artery occlusion (RAO), retinal vein occlusion (RVO), or neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) and healthy controls were enrolled in this cross-sectional study in the outpatient department of a tertiary eye care center.

Methods

All participants underwent an OCTA examination (spectral domain OCT Cirrus 5000 equipped with the AngioPlex module). OCTA scans were analyzed independently by two experienced ophthalmologists. Frequency of various artifacts for the entire OCTA scan and for different segmentation layers and the grading of OCTA interpretability were investigated.

Results

The analysis of 75 eyes of 38 women and 37 men between 24 and 94 years were included. Six eyes had no retinal disease, 19 eyes had nAMD, 16 had DR, 19 eyes had RVO, and 15 eyes showed RAO. A macular edema (ME) was present in 40 of the diseased eyes. Projection artifacts occurred in all eyes in any structure below the superficial retinal vessel layer, segmentation and motion artifacts were found in 55% (41/75) and 49% (37/75) of eyes, respectively. Other artifacts occurred less frequently. Segmentation artifacts were significantly more frequent in diseased than in healthy eyes (p<0.01). Qualitative assessment of OCTA images was graded as excellent in 65% and sufficient in 25% of cases, adding up to 91% images deemed acceptable for examination. Presence of ME was associated with a significantly poorer interpretability (p<0.01).

Conclusion and Relevance

Various artifacts appear at different frequencies in OCTA images. Nevertheless, a qualitative assessment of the OCTA images is almost always possible. Good knowledge of possible artifacts and critical analysis of the complete OCTA dataset are essential for correct clinical interpretation and determining a precise clinical diagnosis.

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<![CDATA[Neuroprotective and neuroregenerative effects of CRMP-5 on retinal ganglion cells in an experimental in vivo and in vitro model of glaucoma]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c521853d5eed0c484797c19

Purpose

To analyze the potential neuro-protective and neuro-regenerative effects of Collapsin-response-mediator-protein-5 (CRMP-5) on retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) using in vitro and in vivo animal models of glaucoma.

Methods

Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) was induced in adult female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats by cauterization of three episcleral veins. Changes in CRMP-5 expression within the retinal proteome were analyzed via label-free mass spectrometry. In vitro, retinal explants were cultured under elevated pressure (60 mmHg) within a high-pressure incubation chamber with and without addition of different concentrations of CRMP-5 (4 μg/l, 200 μg/l and 400 μg/l). In addition, retinal explants were cultured under regenerative conditions with and without application of 200 μg/l CRMP-5 after performing an optic nerve crush (ONC). Thirdly, an antibody against Protein Kinase B (PKB) was added to examine the possible effects of CRMP-5. RGC count was performed. Number and length of the axons were determined and compared. To undermine a signal-transduction pathway via CRMP-5 and PKB microarray and immunohistochemistry were performed.

Results

CRMP-5 was downregulated threefold in animals showing chronically elevated IOP. The addition of CRMP-5 to retinal culture significantly increased RGC numbers under pressure in a dose-dependent manner and increased and elongated outgrowing axons in retinal explants significantly which could be blocked by PKB. Especially the number of neurites longer than 400 μm significantly increased after application of CRMP-5. CRMP-5 as well as PKB were detected higher in the experimental than in the control group.

Conclusion

CRMP-5 seems to play an important role in an animal model of glaucoma. Addition of CRMP-5 exerts neuro-protective and neuro-regenerative effects in vitro. This effect could be mediated via activation of PKB affecting intra-cellular apoptosis pathways.

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<![CDATA[Mouse model of ocular hypertension with retinal ganglion cell degeneration]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c466550d5eed0c4845188e3

Objectives

Ocular hypertension is a primary risk factor for glaucoma and results in retinal ganglion cell (RGC) degeneration. Current animal models of glaucoma lack severe RGC cell death as seen in glaucoma, making assessment of physiological mediators of cell death difficult. We developed a modified mouse model of ocular hypertension whereby long-lasting elevation of intraocular pressure (IOP) is achieved, resulting in significant reproducible damage to RGCs.

Results

In this model, microbeads are mixed with hyaluronic acid and injected into the anterior chamber of C57BL/6J mice. The hyaluronic acid allows for a gradual release of microbeads, resulting in sustained blockage of Schlemm’s canal. IOP elevation was bimodal during the course of the model’s progression. The first peak occurred 1 hours after beads injection, with an IOP value of 44.69 ± 6.00 mmHg, and the second peak occurred 6–12 days post-induction, with an IOP value of 34.91 ± 5.21 mmHg. RGC damage was most severe in the peripheral retina, with a loss of 64.1% compared to that of untreated eyes, while the midperiphery exhibited a 32.4% loss, 4 weeks following disease induction.

Conclusions

These results suggest that sustained IOP elevation causes more RGC damage in the periphery than in the midperiphery of the retina. This model yields significant and reproducible RGC degeneration.

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<![CDATA[Prospective Evaluation of Patients With X-Linked Retinoschisis During 18 Months]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c2a78bfd5eed0c48422b952

Purpose

Prospective evaluation of patients with X-linked retinoschisis (XLRS).

Methods

Fifty-six males XLRS patients, age ≥7 years, had retinal structure and function tests performed every 6 months during an 18-month period.

Results

Best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was abnormal (mean ± SD logMAR 0.57 ± 0.32 OD and 0.50 ± 0.27 OS), with weak correlation between visual acuity and age (R = −0.24, P = 0.0095). Mean cyst cavity volume (CCV) determined on optical coherence tomography showed weak correlation with age (R = −0.33, P = 0.0009) and no correlation with visual acuity. Subjects had modest reduction in mean kinetic and static perimetry results, reduced b-wave amplitude on electroretinography, abnormal reading speed results, and decreased visual function quality of life scores. Contrast sensitivity results were normal in 85 of 99 eyes tested. Most subjects had no meaningful change in BCVA during follow-up. Subjects who started carbonic anhydrase inhibitor (CAI) treatment at enrollment had improved BCVA (mean ± SD change 3.15 ± 7.8 ETDRS letters, with increase of ≥15 ETDRS letters at 8 of 110 visits [in 3 subjects]). There were no significant changes in other parameters tested.

Conclusions

Structural and functional results were stable during the 18-month follow-up period. Some patients starting CAI treatment at the baseline visit showed improvement in BCVA that was not correlated with changes in CCV. Natural history data such as these will be important for comparisons to the changes in measures of retinal structure and function following gene replacement therapy in patients with XLRS.

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<![CDATA[In Vivo Photovoltaic Performance of a Silicon Nanowire Photodiode–Based Retinal Prosthesis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c2a78c1d5eed0c48422b9c5

Purpose

For more than 20 years, there has been an international, multidisciplinary effort to develop retinal prostheses to restore functional vision to patients blinded by retinal degeneration. We developed a novel subretinal prosthesis with 1512 optically addressed silicon nanowire photodiodes, which transduce incident light into an electrical stimulation of the remaining retinal circuitry. This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of optically driving the subretinal prosthesis to produce visual cortex activation via electrical stimulation of the retina.

Methods

We measured electrically evoked potential responses (EEPs) in rabbit visual cortex in response to illumination of the subretinal nanowire prosthesis with pulsed 852-nm infrared (IR) light. We compared the EEP responses to visually evoked potential responses (VEPs) to pulsed 532-nm visible light (positive control) and pulsed 852-nm IR light (negative control).

Results

Activating the devices with IR light produced EEP responses with a significantly higher trough-to-peak amplitude (54.17 ± 33.4 μV) than IR light alone (24.07 ± 22.1 μV) or background cortical activity (23.22 ± 17.2 μV). EEP latencies were significantly faster than focal VEP latencies. Focal VEPs produced significantly higher amplitudes (94.88 ± 43.3 μV) than EEPs. We also demonstrated how an electrode placed on the cornea can be used as a noninvasive method to monitor the function of the implant.

Conclusions

These results show that subretinal electrical stimulation with nanowire electrodes can elicit EEPs in the visual cortex, providing evidence for the viability of a subretinal nanowire prosthetic approach for vision restoration.

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<![CDATA[Patterning the insect eye: From stochastic to deterministic mechanisms]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5bf71f6dd5eed0c484dcb59a

While most processes in biology are highly deterministic, stochastic mechanisms are sometimes used to increase cellular diversity. In human and Drosophila eyes, photoreceptors sensitive to different wavelengths of light are distributed in stochastic patterns, and one such patterning system has been analyzed in detail in the Drosophila retina. Interestingly, some species in the dipteran family Dolichopodidae (the “long legged” flies, or “Doli”) instead exhibit highly orderly deterministic eye patterns. In these species, alternating columns of ommatidia (unit eyes) produce corneal lenses of different colors. Occasional perturbations in some individuals disrupt the regular columns in a way that suggests that patterning occurs via a posterior-to-anterior signaling relay during development, and that specification follows a local, cellular-automaton-like rule. We hypothesize that the regulatory mechanisms that pattern the eye are largely conserved among flies and that the difference between unordered Drosophila and ordered dolichopodid eyes can be explained in terms of relative strengths of signaling interactions rather than a rewiring of the regulatory network itself. We present a simple stochastic model that is capable of explaining both the stochastic Drosophila eye and the striped pattern of Dolichopodidae eyes and thereby characterize the least number of underlying developmental rules necessary to produce both stochastic and deterministic patterns. We show that only small changes to model parameters are needed to also reproduce intermediate, semi-random patterns observed in another Doli species, and quantification of ommatidial distributions in these eyes suggests that their patterning follows similar rules.

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<![CDATA[Functional architecture of the foveola revealed in the living primate]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c0841b8d5eed0c484fca8ba

The primate foveola, with its high cone density and magnified cortical representation, is exquisitely specialized for high-resolution spatial vision. However, uncovering the wiring of retinal circuitry responsible for this performance has been challenging due to the difficulty in recording receptive fields of foveal retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in vivo. In this study, we use adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (AOSLO) to image the calcium responses of RGCs in the living primate, with a stable, high precision visual stimulus that allowed us to localize the receptive fields of hundreds of foveal ganglion cells. This approach revealed a precisely radial organization of foveal RGCs, despite the many distortions possible during the extended developmental migration of foveal cells. By back projecting the line connecting RGC somas to their receptive fields, we have been able to define the ‘physiological center’ of the foveola, locating the vertical meridian separating left and right hemifields in vivo.

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<![CDATA[Adaptive feature detection from differential processing in parallel retinal pathways]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5bfdb370d5eed0c4845c97bf

To transmit information efficiently in a changing environment, the retina adapts to visual contrast by adjusting its gain, latency and mean response. Additionally, the temporal frequency selectivity, or bandwidth changes to encode the absolute intensity when the stimulus environment is noisy, and intensity differences when noise is low. We show that the On pathway of On-Off retinal amacrine and ganglion cells is required to change temporal bandwidth but not other adaptive properties. This remarkably specific adaptive mechanism arises from differential effects of contrast on the On and Off pathways. We analyzed a biophysical model fit only to a cell’s membrane potential, and verified pharmacologically that it accurately revealed the two pathways. We conclude that changes in bandwidth arise mostly from differences in synaptic threshold in the two pathways, rather than synaptic release dynamics as has previously been proposed to underlie contrast adaptation. Different efficient codes are selected by different thresholds in two independently adapting neural pathways.

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<![CDATA[Comparison between optical coherence tomography angiography and immunolabeling for evaluation of laser-induced choroidal neovascularization]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c0c04e2d5eed0c48481ce98

This study aimed to investigate the differences between images obtained by optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) with those from immunohistochemical labeling of laser-induced choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in a mouse model. CNV was induced by laser photocoagulation (GYC-2000, NIDEK; wavelength 532 nm) in the left eyes of 10 female C57BL/6J mice aged 6 weeks. The laser parameters included a 100-μm spot, 100-ms pulse duration and 200-mW incident power to rupture Bruch’s membrane. OCT and OCTA CNV images were obtained using the RS-3000 Advance (NIDEK) 5 days post-laser photocoagulation. After OCTA imaging, the isolated choroid/retinal pigment epithelium complexes were fluorescently labeled with CD31 (an endothelial cell marker), platelet-derived growth factor receptor β (PDGFRβ, a pericyte-like scaffold marker), α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and collagen I. Area measurements of the lesions obtained by enface OCTA were compared with immunolabeled CD31+ CNV lesions in choroid flat-mounts. We also examined structural correlations between the PDGFRβ+ pericyte-like scaffold and OCTA images. Laser-induced CNV was clearly detected by enface OCTA, appearing as a hyperflow lesion surrounded by a dark halo. Area measurements of the CNV lesion by immunolabeling were significantly larger than those obtained by enface OCTA (p = 0.006). The CNV lesion beneath the periphery of the pericyte-like scaffold was not clearly visible by enface OCTA due to the dark halo; however, the lesion was detectable as blood flow by cross-sectional OCTA and was also highly labeled by CD31. The periphery of the pericyte-like scaffold appeared to develop into subretinal fibrosis and this region was rich in myofibroblasts. Enface OCTA was unable to detect the entire area of laser-induced CNV in mice, with an undetectable portion located beneath the fibrotic periphery of the pericyte-like scaffold. Due to this OCTA fibrosis artifact, OCTA imaging has limited potential for accurately estimating CNV lesions.

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<![CDATA[Changes in macular pigment optical density after membrane peeling]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b0436b2463d7e0f0e6b97b7

Introduction

To highlight the differences in macular pigment optical density (MPOD) between eyes with vitreoretinal interface syndrome and healthy control eyes, to assess the changes in MPOD in eyes treated with macular peeling, to investigate the relationships between MPOD changes and measures of retinal sensitivity such as best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and microperimetry.

Methods

In this cross-sectional comparative study, 30 eyes affected by idiopathic epiretinal membrane (iERM, 15eyes) or full-thickness macular hole (FTMH, 15eyes) were compared with 60 eyes from 30 healthy age-matched patients. MPOD values (mean MPOD, maximum MPOD, MPOD area, and MPOD volume) were measured in a range of 4°–7° of eccentricity around the fovea, using the one-wavelength reflectometry method (Visucam 200, Carl-Zeiss Meditec). Patients affected by iERM and FTMH were treated with vitrectomy and epiretinal membrane-inner limiting membrane (ERM-ILM) peeling, with follow-up examinations performed preoperatively and 6 months postoperatively. The main outcome measures were the differences in MPOD between eyes with vitreoretinal interface syndrome and healthy eyes, changes in MPOD after ERM-ILM peeling, and relationships between MPOD and functional changes.

Results

Mean MPOD differed significantly between control eyes and those with iERM (P = .0001) or FTMH (P = .0006). The max MPOD and MPOD area increased, but not significantly. After peeling, the only significant change in MPOD was in MPOD volume (P = .01). In the ERM group, postoperative mean MPOD correlated significantly with best-corrected visual acuity (r = .739, P = .002).

Conclusions

MPOD was reduced in patients with iERM or FTMH compared with healthy eyes. We found a significant correlation between the mean postoperative MPOD and postoperative BCVA, hypothesizing that the postoperative increase in mean MPOD could be due to a change in distribution for unfolding and expansion of the fovea after the peeling. MOPD may be considered as a prognostic factor associated with a good visual prognosis in patients with iERM.

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<![CDATA[The role of insulin resistance in experimental diabetic retinopathy—Genetic and molecular aspects]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db5cab0ee8fa60be02b7

Background

Diabetic retinopathy is characterized by defects in the retinal neurovascular unit. The underlying mechanisms of impairment–including reactive intermediates and growth-factor dependent signalling pathways and their possible interplay are incompletely understood. This study aims to assess the relative role of hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia alone or in combination on the gene expression patterning in the retina of animal models of diabetes.

Material and methods

As insulinopenic, hyperglycemic model reflecting type 1 diabetes, male STZ-Wistar rats (60mg/kg BW; i.p. injection at life age week 7) were used. Male obese ZDF rats (fa/fa) were used as type-2 diabetes model characterized by persisting hyperglycemia and transient hyperinsulinemia. Male obese ZF rats (fa/fa) were used reflecting euglycemia and severe insulin resistance. All groups were kept till an age of 20 weeks on respective conditions together with appropriate age-matched controls. Unbiased gene expression analysis was performed per group using Affymetrix gene arrays. Bioinformatics analysis included analysis for clustering and differential gene expression, and pathway and upstream activator analysis. Gene expression differences were confirmed by microfluidic card PCR technology.

Results

The most complex genetic regulation in the retina was observed in ZDF rats with a strong overlap to STZ-Wistar rats. Surprisingly, systemic insulin resistance alone in ZF rats without concomitant hyperglycemia did not induce any significant change in retinal gene expression pattern. Pathway analysis indicate an overlap between ZDF rats and STZ-treated rats in pathways like complement system activation, acute phase response signalling, and oncostatin-M signalling. Major array gene expression changes could be confirmed by subsequent PCR. An analysis of upstream transcriptional regulators revealed interferon-γ, interleukin-6 and oncostatin-M in STZ and ZDF rats. CONCLUSIONS: Systemic hyperinsulinaemia without hyperglycemia does not result in significant gene expression changes in retina. In contrast, persistent systemic hyperglycemia boosts much stronger expression changes with a limited number of known and new key regulators.

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<![CDATA[Macular Bruch’s membrane defect and dome-shaped macula in high myopia]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db5cab0ee8fa60be0178

Purpose

To examine an association between macular Bruch’s membrane defects (MBMD) and a dome-shaped appearance of the macula (DSM).

Design

Retrospective, observational case series study.

Methods

The study included highly myopic individuals who were consecutively examined between May 2014 and December 2015. The patients underwent swept-source optical coherence tomography (OCT) for visualization of DSM and MBMDs defined as Bruch´s membrane defects located at a distance of maximal 1500 μm from the foveola.

Results

Out of 1983 highly myopic eyes (1057 patients), 166 eyes (8.4%; 95% confidence interval (CI):7.2%,9.6%)) showed a DSM and 534 eyes showed a MBMD. In multivariate binary regression analysis, higher prevalence of DSM was associated with a higher prevalence of a MBMD (P<0.001; OR: 1.96; 95%CI: 1.40, 2.75) after adjusting for longer axial length (P<0.001; odds ratio (OR): 1.27; 95%CI: 1.16, 1.38). In eyes with a DSM partially surrounded by a MBMD, the retina, retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and choroid appeared relatively unchanged in the central region with Bruch´s membrane (BM) preserved. In the ring-like BM-free region surrounding the central prominent island of the DSM, the RPE, the outer and middle retinal layers, the choriocapillaris and the middle-sized choroidal vessel layer were absent. In association with a DSM, three MBMD types were differentiated: MBMDs in patchy chorioretinal atrophy, MBMDs in choroidal neovascularization-related macular atrophy, and MBMDs as temporally extending large parapapillary gamma zone.

Conclusions

Presence of a DSM was significantly associated with the presence of MBMDs. The morphology of the DSM in association with MBMDs may be associated with a focal relaxation of the posterior sclera, no longer pushed outward by an expanding BM but allowed to partially bulge inward, leading to the formation of a DSM.

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<![CDATA[Human Visual System as a Double-Slit Single Photon Interference Sensor: A Comparison between Modellistic and Biophysical Tests]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dae9ab0ee8fa60bbe869

This paper describes a computational approach to the theoretical problems involved in the Young's single-photon double-slit experiment, focusing on a simulation of this experiment in the absence of measuring devices. Specifically, the human visual system is used in place of a photomultiplier or similar apparatus. Beginning with the assumption that the human eye perceives light in the presence of very few photons, we measure human eye performance as a sensor in a double-slit one-photon-at-a-time experimental setup. To interpret the results, we implement a simulation algorithm and compare its results with those of human subjects under identical experimental conditions. In order to evaluate the perceptive parameters exactly, which vary depending on the light conditions and on the subject’s sensitivity, we first review the existing literature on the biophysics of the human eye in the presence of a dim light source, and then use the known values of the experimental variables to set the parameters of the computational simulation. The results of the simulation and their comparison with the experiment involving human subjects are reported and discussed. It is found that, while the computer simulation indicates that the human eye has the capacity to detect the corpuscular nature of photons under these conditions, this was not observed in practice. The possible reasons for the difference between theoretical prediction and experimental results are discussed.

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