ResearchPad - retrospective-studies https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Prevalence, Severity and Mortality associated with COPD and Smoking in patients with COVID-19: A Rapid Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7662 Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an evolving infectious disease that dramatically spread all over the world in the early part of 2020. No studies have yet summarized the potential severity and mortality risks caused by COVID-19 in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and we update information in smokers.MethodsWe systematically searched electronic databases from inception to March 24, 2020. Data were extracted by two independent authors in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Study quality was assessed using a modified version of the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. We synthesized a narrative from eligible studies and conducted a meta-analysis using a random-effects model to calculate pooled prevalence rates and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI).ResultsIn total, 123 abstracts were screened and 61 full-text manuscripts were reviewed. A total of 15 studies met the inclusion criteria, which included a total of 2473 confirmed COVID-19 patients. All studies were included in the meta-analysis. The crude case fatality rate of COVID-19 was 7.4%. The pooled prevalence rates of COPD patients and smokers in COVID-19 cases were 2% (95% CI, 1%–3%) and 9% (95% CI, 4%–14%) respectively. COPD patients were at a higher risk of more severe disease (risk of severity = 63%, (22/35) compared to patients without COPD 33.4% (409/1224) [calculated RR, 1.88 (95% CI, 1.4–2.4)]. This was associated with higher mortality (60%). Our results showed that 22% (31/139) of current smokers and 46% (13/28) of ex-smokers had severe complications. The calculated RR showed that current smokers were 1.45 times more likely [95% CI: 1.03–2.04] to have severe complications compared to former and never smokers. Current smokers also had a higher mortality rate of 38.5%.ConclusionAlthough COPD prevalence in COVID-19 cases was low in current reports, COVID-19 infection was associated with substantial severity and mortality rates in COPD. Compared to former and never smokers, current smokers were at greater risk of severe complications and higher mortality rate. Effective preventive measures are required to reduce COVID-19 risk in COPD patients and current smokers. ]]> <![CDATA[Evaluation of the responsiveness of outcome measures after spine injection: A retrospective study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c803c65d5eed0c484ad8887

Discrepancies in patients’ responses to various outcome measures challenge clinicians’ evaluation of treatment outcomes. Therefore, we aimed to 1) evaluate the concordance of outcome measures after spine injection, 2) determine the patient variables that lead to discordant responses, and 3) suggest practical outcome measure for spine injections with good responsiveness. From October 2014 to November 2014, 164 patients with neck or low back pain who visited our outpatient clinics and had spine injections on the previous visit were enrolled. We asked patients to report changes in their symptom in the form of outcome measures: numeric rating scale, Oswestry disability index, neck disability index, residual symptom percentage and global perceived effect. The responses were categorized into three groups according to the degree of change; not improved, minimally improved, and significantly improved. The concordances of these categorized answers were evaluated. When “significantly improved” was considered as true improvement, 46 (28%) of the 164 patients had discordant responses to the four measures. There was no significant patients’ variable that affects discordance in the outcome measures. Good agreement was shown between the global perceived effect and residual symptom percentage, while the Oswestry disability index had poor agreement with the other measurements. The calculated numeric rating scale and residual symptom percentage also had low levels of agreement. However, patients with severe pre-treatment pain tended to have better agreement. In conclusion, this result suggest that the residual symptom percentage may be a more practical for clinicians and better represent patients’ improvements after spine injection.

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<![CDATA[A retrospective claims analysis: Compliance and discontinuation rates among Canadian patients with multiple sclerosis treated with disease-modifying therapies]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c466569d5eed0c4845190c0

Background

Compliance to disease modifying therapy (DMT) is associated with a reduced risk of relapse, lower healthcare resource utilization, and improved health-related quality of life in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Our objective was to assess the compliance and discontinuation rates of fingolimod relative to other oral, injectable, and infusible DMTs available on the market at the time of the study in Canada in patients with relapsing—remitting MS (RRMS).

Methods and findings

We conducted a retrospective claims analysis. Patients with RRMS with ≥ 1 prescription for each DMT were included. Compliance (medication possession ratio of ≥ 80%) and discontinuation (gap > 30 days from the end of the index prescription) were calculated at the 6-, 12- and 24-month time points. Compliance with fingolimod at the 6-, 12- and 24-month time points was 75%, 75% and 70%, respectively; compared with DMF [70% (P < 0.001), 68% (P < 0.001), and 56% (P < 0.001), respectively], and BRACE [53% (P < 0.001), 47% (P < 0.001), and 35% (P < 0.001), respectively]. Compliance with fingolimod was comparable to teriflunomide at each time point, but was higher compared to natalizumab [70% versus 57% (P < 0.001)] at the 24-month time point. At the 6-, 12- and 24-month time points, patients on fingolimod had the lowest discontinuation rate (26%, 24%, and 29%, respectively) compared to BRACE [49% (P < 0.001), 44% (P < 0.001), and 57% (P < 0.001)], respectively], and natalizumab [33% (P < 0.001), 29% (P < 0.001), and 45% (P < 0.001), respectively], and was similar to teriflunomide (26%, 25%, and 31%, respectively).

Conclusions

The compliance rate in fingolimod treated patients at the 24 month time point was higher than that observed in natalizumab treated patients. The discontinuation rate was lower with fingolimod compared to other DMTs at all time points but was similar to teriflunomide.

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<![CDATA[Surgery and protontherapy in Grade I and II skull base chondrosarcoma: A comparative retrospective study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c21515cd5eed0c4843f9db2

Objective

Skull base chondrosarcoma is a rare tumour usually treated by surgery and proton therapy. However, as mortality rate is very low and treatment complications are frequent, a less aggressive therapeutic strategy could be considered. The objective of this study was to compare the results of surgery only vs surgery and adjuvant proton therapy, in terms of survival and treatment adverse effects, based on a retrospective series.

Methods

Monocentric retrospective study at a tertiary care centre. All patients treated for a skull base grade I and II chondrosarcoma were included. We collected data concerning surgical and proton therapy treatment and up-to-date follow-up, including Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) scores.

Results

47 patients (23M/24F) were operated on between 2002 and 2015; mean age at diagnosis was 47 years-old (10–85). Petroclival and anterior skull base locations were found in 34 and 13 patients, respectively. Gross total resection was achieved in 17 cases (36%) and partial in 30 (64%). Adjuvant proton therapy (mean total dose 70 GyRBE,1.8 GyRBE/day) was administered in 23 cases. Overall mean follow-up was 91 months (7–182). Of the patients treated by surgery only, 8 (34%) experienced residual tumour progression (mean delay 51 months) and 5 received second-line proton therapy. Adjuvant proton therapy was associated with a significantly lower rate of relapse (11%; p = 0.01). There was no significant difference in 10-year disease specific survival between patients initially treated with or without adjuvant proton therapy (100% vs 89.8%, p = 0.14). Difference in high-grade toxicity was not statistically significant between patients in both groups (25% (7) vs 11% (5), p = 0.10). The most frequent adverse effect of proton therapy was sensorineural hearing loss (39%).

Conclusion

Long-term disease specific survival was not significantly lower in patients without adjuvant proton therapy, but they experienced less adverse effects. We believe a surgery only strategy could be discussed, delaying as much as possible proton therapy in cases of relapse. Further prospective studies are needed to validate this more conservative strategy in skull base chondrosarcoma.

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<![CDATA[Evaluation of optic nerve subarachnoid space in primary open angle glaucoma using ultrasound examination]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c0841f8d5eed0c484fcb518

Objectives

To measure Optic Nerve Subarachnoid Space (ONSAS) in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and controls using A-scan ultrasound and to evaluate the measurement of the ONSAS in relation to age patient and OCT parameters.

Methods

This retrospective study included 53 consecutive eyes of 27 patients with POAG and 64 normal eyes of 32 controls. Both glaucomatous and control groups were divided into 2 subgroups according to age: <60 age (glaucomatous and control group 1) and 61–90 age (glaucomatous and control group 2).

Results

The ONSAS was significantly lower in all glaucomatous eyes (3.54 ± 0.38) versus normal eyes (3.87 ± 0.32) (p = 0.001). Significant reduction of ONSAS was showed in control group 2 (3.63 mm ± 0.37) compared to control group 1 (3.87 mm ± 0.32) (p = 0.014) and between glaucoma group 1 (3.54 mm ± 0.38) and control group 1 (p = 0.001). While no significant differences were observed between glaucomatous group 2 (3.48 mm ± 0.41) and control group 2 (p = 0.17) and between glaucoma group 1 and glaucoma group 2 (p = 0.609). Lastly, the ONSAS was not significantly associated with GCC and RNFL parameters except for Focal Loss Volume (FLV), Superior RNFL and ONSAS in glaucoma group 1 and for FLV and ONSAS in all glaucomatous group.

Conclusion

Standardized A-scan ultrasound is a non invasive imaging technique with which it is possible to monitor ONSAS changes in glaucomatous patients. The reduction of ONSAS confirm the importance of the lower orbital CSFP as further risk factor in the progression of glaucoma disease.

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<![CDATA[Review of Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever Fatal Cases Seen Among Adults: A Retrospective Study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db4dab0ee8fa60bdaf10

Background

Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral disease endemic in many countries in the tropics and sub-tropics. The disease affects mainly children, but in recent years it is becoming more of an adult disease. Malaysia experienced a large dengue outbreak in 2006 to 2007, involving mostly adults, with a high number of deaths.

Methodology/Principal Findings

We undertook a retrospective study to examine dengue death cases in our hospital from June 2006 to October 2007 with a view to determine if there have been changes in the presentation of severe to fatal dengue. Nine of ten fatal cases involved adult females with a median age of 32 years. All had secondary dengue infection. The mean duration of illness prior to hospitalization was 4.7 days and deaths occurred at an average of 2.4 days post-admission. Gastrointestinal pain, vomiting, diarrhea, intravascular leakages and bleeding occurred in the majority of cases. DSS complicated with severe bleeding, multi-organ failure and coagulopathy were the primary causes of deaths. Seven patients presented with thrombocytopenia and hypoalbuminemia, five of which had hemoconcentration and increased ALT and AST indicative of liver damage. Co-morbidities particularly diabetes mellitus was common in our cohort. Prominent unusual presentations included acute renal failure, acute respiratory distress syndrome, myocarditis with pericarditis, and hemorrhages over the brain and heart.

Conclusions

In our cohort, dengue fatalities are seen primarily in adult females with secondary dengue infection. The majority of the patients presented with common clinical and laboratory warning signs of severe dengue. Underlying co-morbidities may contribute to the rapid clinical deterioration in severe dengue. The uncommon presentations of dengue are likely a reflection of the changing demographics where adults are now more likely to contract dengue in dengue endemic regions.

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<![CDATA[Predicting Progression of IgA Nephropathy: New Clinical Progression Risk Score]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9ecab0ee8fa60b6cc8c

IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is a common cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in Asia. In this study, based on a large cohort of Chinese patients with IgAN, we aim to identify independent predictive factors associated with disease progression to ESRD. We collected retrospective clinical data and renal outcomes on 619 biopsy-diagnosed IgAN patients with a mean follow-up time of 41.3 months. In total, 67 individuals reached the study endpoint defined by occurrence of ESRD necessitating renal replacement therapy. In the fully adjusted Cox proportional hazards model, there were four baseline variables with a significant independent effect on the risk of ESRD. These included: eGFR [HR = 0.96(0.95–0.97)], serum albumin [HR = 0.47(0.32–0.68)], hemoglobin [HR = 0.79(0.72–0.88)], and SBP [HR = 1.02(1.00–1.03)]. Based on these observations, we developed a 4-variable equation of a clinical risk score for disease progression. Our risk score explained nearly 22% of the total variance in the primary outcome. Survival ROC curves revealed that the risk score provided improved prediction of ESRD at 24th, 60th and 120th month of follow-up compared to the three previously proposed risk scores. In summary, our data indicate that IgAN patients with higher systolic blood pressure, lower eGFR, hemoglobin, and albumin levels at baseline are at a greatest risk of progression to ESRD. The new progression risk score calculated based on these four baseline variables offers a simple clinical tool for risk stratification.

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<![CDATA[Sonographic and Clinical Features of Papillary Thyroid Microcarcinoma Less than or Equal to Five Millimeters: A Retrospective Study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9dbab0ee8fa60b6788e

Objective

To retrospectively compare the sonographic and clinical features of papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC) ≤5 mm and PTMC >5 mm to improve the diagnostic value of ultrasonography.

Methods

A total of 367 cases of PTMC between January 2013 and December 2014 was included in this study. The patients were classified into group A (≤5 mm, n = 181) or group B (>5 mm, n = 186), and the sonographic and clinical features were reviewed and compared between the two groups.

Results

There was no significant difference in the shape, ratio of length/width, boundary, peripheral halo ring, echogenicity, cystic change and accompanying Hashimoto's thyroiditis between these two groups. However, the calcification (61.3% vs. 72.6%) and hypervascularity (13.8% vs. 24.7%) were more frequent in group B (p = 0.026 and 0.008, respectively). The patients were younger, and more patients were aged less than 45 years (41.4% vs. 57.0%) in group B. Capsular invasion (7.2% vs. 34.4%), multifocality (21.5% vs. 48.9%), bilaterality (17.1% vs. 39.8%), central lymph node metastasis (13.8% vs. 38.2%) and lateral lymph node metastasis (1.1% vs. 5.4%) were more frequent in group B. No clinical or sonographic feature was related to cervical lymph node metastasis in group A, while less than 45 years in age (p = 0.010), male gender (p = 0.040), capsular invasion (p<0.001), multifocality (p = 0.016) and calcification (p = 0.042) were related to cervical lymph node metastasis in group B.

Conclusions

The sonographic features of PTMC ≤5 mm were similar to those of PTMC >5 mm, including an irregular shape, a length/width ratio of ≥1, an unclear boundary, no peripheral halo ring, hypoechogenicity, no cystic change, calcification, no hypervascularity and no accompanying Hashimoto's thyroiditis. The clinical features of PTMC ≤5 mm were less aggressive than those of PTMC >5 mm.

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<![CDATA[A Retrospective Overview of Enterovirus Infection Diagnosis and Molecular Epidemiology in the Public Hospitals of Marseille, France (1985–2005)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dafaab0ee8fa60bc4486

Human enteroviruses (HEV) are frequent human pathogens and, associated in particular with large outbreaks of aseptic meningitis. Here, we have compiled a database of clinical HEV isolates from the Public Hospitals of Marseille, from 1985 to 2005. Amongst 654 isolates that could be characterized by complete sequencing of the VP1 gene, 98% belonged to species HEV-B; the most frequently isolated serotypes were Echovirus E30, E11, E7, E6 and E4. The high incidence of E30 and the recent emergence of E13 are consistent with reports worldwide and peak HEV isolation occurred mostly in the late spring and summer months. The proportion of echoviruses has decreased across the years, while that of coxsackieviruses has increased. Stool (the most frequent sample type) allowed detection of all identified serotypes. MRC5 (Human lung fibroblasts) cell line was the most conducive cell line for HEV isolation (84.9% of 10 most common serotype isolates, 96.3% in association with BGM (Buffalo green monkey kidney cells)). Previous seroneutralization-based serotype identification demonstrated 55.4% accuracy when compared with molecular VP1 analysis. Our analysis of a large number of clinical strains over 20 years reinforced the validity of VP1 serotyping and showed that comparative p-distance scores can be coupled with phylogenetic analysis to provide non-ambiguous serotype identification. Phylogenetic analysis in the VP1, 2C and 3D regions also provided evidence for recombination events amongst clinical isolates. In particular, it identified isolates with dissimilar VP1 but almost identical nonstructural regions.

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<![CDATA[The Real Importance of Pre-Existing Comorbidities on Long-Term Mortality after Acute Kidney Injury]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9fbab0ee8fa60b720c1

Background

The causes of death on long-term mortality after acute kidney injury (AKI) have not been well studied. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the role of comorbidities and the causes of death on the long-term mortality after AKI.

Methodology/Principal Findings

We retrospectively studied 507 patients who experienced AKI in 2005–2006 and were discharged free from dialysis. In June 2008 (median: 21 months after AKI), we found that 193 (38%) patients had died. This mortality is much higher than the mortality of the population of São Paulo City, even after adjustment for age. A multiple survival analysis was performed using Cox proportional hazards regression model and showed that death was associated with Khan’s index indicating high risk [adjusted hazard ratio 2.54 (1.38–4.66)], chronic liver disease [1.93 (1.15–3.22)], admission to non-surgical ward [1.85 (1.30–2.61)] and a second AKI episode during the same hospitalization [1.74 (1.12–2.71)]. The AKI severity evaluated either by the worst stage reached during AKI (P = 0.20) or by the need for dialysis (P = 0.12) was not associated with death. The causes of death were identified by a death certificate in 85% of the non-survivors. Among those who died from circulatory system diseases (the main cause of death), 59% had already suffered from hypertension, 34% from diabetes, 47% from heart failure, 38% from coronary disease, and 66% had a glomerular filtration rate <60 previous to the AKI episode. Among those who died from neoplasms, 79% already had the disease previously.

Conclusions

Among AKI survivors who were discharged free from dialysis the increased long-term mortality was associated with their pre-existing chronic conditions and not with the severity of the AKI episode. These findings suggest that these survivors should have a medical follow-up after hospital discharge and that all efforts should be made to control their comorbidities.

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<![CDATA[Anti-Retroviral Treatment Outcomes among Older Adults in Zomba District, Malawi]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da54ab0ee8fa60b8e811

Background

There are approximately 3 million people aged 50 and older in sub-Saharan Africa who are HIV-positive. Despite this, little is known about the characteristics of older adults who are on treatment and their treatment outcomes.

Methods

A retrospective cohort analysis was performed using routinely collected data with Malawi Ministry of Health monitoring tools from facilities providing antiretroviral therapy services in Zomba district. Patients aged 25 years and older initiated on treatment from July 2005 to June 2010 were included. Differences in survival, by age group, were determined using Kaplan–Meier survival plots and Cox proportional hazards regression models.

Results

There were 10,888 patients aged 25 and older. Patients aged 50 and older (N = 1419) were more likely to be male (P<0.0001) and located in rural areas (P = 0.003) than those aged 25–49. Crude survival estimates among those aged 50–59 were not statistically different from those aged 25–49 (P = 0.925). However, survival among those aged 60 and older (N = 345) was worse (P = 0.019) than among those 25–59. In the proportional hazards model, after controlling for sex and stage at initiation, survival in those aged 50–59 did not differ significantly from those aged 25–49 (hazard ratio 1.00 (95% CI: 0.79 to 1.27; P = 0.998) but the hazard ratio was 1.46 (95% CI: 1.03 to 2.06; P = 0.032) for those aged 60 and older compared to those aged 25–49.

Conclusions

Treatment outcomes of those aged 50–59 are similar to those aged 25–49. A better understanding of how older adults present for and respond to treatment is critical to improving HIV services.

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<![CDATA[The Potential Influence of Common Viral Infections Diagnosed during Hospitalization among Critically Ill Patients in the United States]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db44ab0ee8fa60bd7c58

Viruses are the most common source of infection among immunocompetent individuals, yet they are not considered a clinically meaningful risk factor among the critically ill. This work examines the association of viral infections diagnosed during the hospital stay or not documented as present on admission to the outcomes of ICU patients with no evidence of immunosuppression on admission. This is a population-based retrospective cohort study of University HealthSystem Consortium (UHC) academic centers in the U.S. from the years 2006 to 2009. The UHC is an alliance of over 90% of the non-profit academic medical centers in the U.S. A total of 209,695 critically ill patients were used in this analysis. Eight hospital complications were examined. Patients were grouped into four cohorts: absence of infection, bacterial infection only, viral infection only, and bacterial and viral infection during same hospital admission. Viral infections diagnosed during hospitalization significantly increased the risk of all complications. There was also a seasonal pattern for viral infections. Specific viruses associated with poor outcomes included influenza, RSV, CMV, and HSV. Patients who had both viral and bacterial infections during the same hospitalization had the greatest risk of mortality RR 6.58, 95% CI (5.47, 7.91); multi-organ failure RR 8.25, 95% CI (7.50, 9.07); and septic shock RR 271.2, 95% CI (188.0, 391.3). Viral infections may play a significant yet unrecognized role in the outcomes of ICU patients. They may serve as biological markers or play an active role in the development of certain adverse complications by interacting with coincident bacterial infection.

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<![CDATA[Childhood Tuberculosis in Household Contacts of Newly Diagnosed TB Patients]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da15ab0ee8fa60b7af34

Introduction

Childhood tuberculosis (TB), although estimated to account for a major proportion of the global TB disease burden, has a lower public health priority. Reliable research and surveillance data on childhood TB is limited in most regions of the world. This study was conducted to assess the burden of childhood TB among the household contacts of new TB patients in Karachi, Pakistan.

Methods

A retrospective analysis of children (<15 years) who were household contacts of new adult TB patients presenting to Marie Adelaide Leprosy Center (MALC) clinics in Karachi during the period of 2008 to 2010 was conducted.

Results

Of the household children contacts (n = 6613) screened, 317 were suspected and 121(1.8%) diagnosed with TB. These included 89 (73.6%) with pulmonary and 32 (26.4%) with extra-pulmonary disease. Smear positivity rate in pulmonary cases was 32.6%. Mean age of children diagnosed with TB was 11.7 (±2.8) years. Within the child-contacts screened, disease was found to be significantly higher among females (2.3%) in comparison to males (1.2%) (p-value <0.01). The commonest relationship of source cases to diagnosed children was the mother (n = 51, 42.1%). The source case was a female for 66.1% (n = 76) of the children.

Conclusion

A smear positivity rate of 32.6% amongst pulmonary cases suggests their potential to spread disease and emphasizes a need to review the contribution of children in transmission of TB within communities. Greater vulnerability of the female child and considerable role of mother in disease transmission highlights a need to increase focus on females in TB control programs in Pakistan.

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<![CDATA[Adenovirus Respiratory Tract Infections in Peru]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da1cab0ee8fa60b7d0f3

Background

Currently, there is a paucity of data regarding human adenovirus (HAdv) circulation in Andean regions of South America. To address this shortcoming, we report the clinical, phylogenetic, and epidemiologic characteristics of HAdv respiratory tract infection from a large sentinel surveillance study conducted among adults and children in Peru.

Methods/Principal Findings

Oropharyngeal swabs were collected from participants visiting any of 38 participating health centers, and viral pathogens were identified by immunofluorescence assay in cell culture. In addition, molecular characterization was performed on 226 randomly selected HAdv samples. Between 2000 and 2010, a total of 26,375 participants with influenza-like illness (ILI) or severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) were enrolled in the study. HAdv infection was identified in 2.5% of cases and represented 6.2% of all viral pathogens. Co-infection with a heterologous virus was found in 15.5% of HAdv cases. HAdv infection was largely confined to children under the age of 15, representing 88.6% of HAdv cases identified. No clinical characteristics were found to significantly distinguish HAdv infection from other respiratory viruses. Geographically, HAdv infections were more common in sites from the arid coastal regions than in the jungle or highland regions. Co-circulation of subgroups B and C was observed each year between 2006 and 2010, but no clear seasonal patterns of transmission were detected.

Conclusions/Significance

HAdv accounted for a significant fraction of those presenting with ILI and SARI in Peru and tended to affect the younger population disproportionately. Longitudinal studies will help better characterize the clinical course of patients with HAdv in Peru, as well as determine the role of co-infections in the evolution of illness.

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<![CDATA[Paediatric Acute Kidney Injury in a Tertiary Hospital in Nigeria: Prevalence, Causes and Mortality Rate]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dadeab0ee8fa60bbaef3

Background

The modest decline in child mortality in Africa raises the question whether the pattern of diseases associated with acute kidney injury (AKI) in children in Nigeria has changed.

Methods

A database of children, aged between one month and 16 years, with AKI (using modified pediatric RIFLE criteria) was reviewed. The cause of AKI was defined as the major underlying disease. The clinical and laboratory features of children with AKI who survived were compared to those who died.

Results

Of the 4 015 children admitted into Lagos University Teaching Hospital between July 2010 and July 2012, 70 episodes of AKI were recorded equalling 17.4 cases per 1000 children. The median age of the children with AKI was 4.8 (range 0.1–14.4) years and 68.6% were males. Acute kidney injury was present in 58 (82.9%) children at admission with 70% in ‘failure’ category. Primary kidney disease (38.6%), sepsis (25.7%) and malaria (11.4%) were the commonest causes. The primary kidney diseases were acute glomerulonephritis (11) and nephrotic syndrome (8). Nineteen (28.4%) children with AKI died. Need for dialysis [odds ratio: 10.04 (2.94–34.33)], white cell >15 000/mm3 [odds ratio: 5.72 (1.65–19.89)] and platelet <100 000/mm3 [odds ratio: 9.56 (2.63–34.77)] were associated with death.

Conclusion

Acute kidney injury is common in children admitted to hospitals. The common causes remain primary kidney diseases, sepsis and malaria but the contribution of sepsis is rising while malaria and gastroenteritis are declining. Acute kidney injury-related mortality remains high.

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<![CDATA[Epidemiology of Patients Hospitalized for Ocular Trauma in the Chaoshan Region of China, 2001–2010]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da9bab0ee8fa60ba3df1

Background

The burden and pattern of ocular trauma in China are poorly known and not well studied. We aimed at studying the epidemiological characteristics of patients hospitalized for ocular trauma at major ophthalmology departments in the largest industrial base of plastic toys in China.

Methods

A retrospective study of ocular trauma cases admitted to 3 tertiary hospitals in China from 1st January 2001 to 31st December 2010 was performed.

Results

The study included a total of 3,644 injured eyes from 3,559 patients over the 10-year period: 2,008 (55.1%) open-globe injuries, 1,580 (43.4%) closed-globe injuries, 41 (1.1%) chemical injuries, 15 (0.4%) thermal injuries and 678 (18.6%) ocular adnexal injuries. The mean age of the patients was 29.0±16.8 years with a male-to-female ratio of 5.2∶1 (P = 0.007). The most frequent types of injury were work-related injuries (1,656, 46.5%) and home-related injuries (715, 20.1%). The majority of injuries in males (56.2%) and females (36.0%) occurred in the 15–44 age group and 0–14 age group, respectively. The final visual acuity correlated with the initial visual acuity (Spearman’s correlation coefficient = 0.659; P<0.001). The Ocular Trauma Score also correlated with the final visual acuity (Spearman’s correlation coefficient = 0.655; P<0.001).

Conclusions

This analysis provides an epidemiological study of patients who were hospitalized for ocular trauma. Preventive efforts are important for both work-related and home-related eye injuries.

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<![CDATA[FLT3 Mutations in Early T-Cell Precursor ALL Characterize a Stem Cell Like Leukemia and Imply the Clinical Use of Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da8dab0ee8fa60b9ec5a

Early T-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ETP-ALL) has been identified as high-risk subgroup of acute T-lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) with a high rate of FLT3-mutations in adults. To unravel the underlying pathomechanisms and the clinical course we assessed molecular alterations and clinical characteristics in a large cohort of ETP-ALL (n = 68) in comparison to non-ETP T-ALL adult patients. Interestingly, we found a high rate of FLT3-mutations in ETP-ALL samples (n = 24, 35%). Furthermore, FLT3 mutated ETP-ALL was characterized by a specific immunophenotype (CD2+/CD5-/CD13+/CD33-), a distinct gene expression pattern (aberrant expression of IGFBP7, WT1, GATA3) and mutational status (absence of NOTCH1 mutations and a low frequency, 21%, of clonal TCR rearrangements). The observed low GATA3 expression and high WT1 expression in combination with lack of NOTCH1 mutations and a low rate of TCR rearrangements point to a leukemic transformation at the pluripotent prothymocyte stage in FLT3 mutated ETP-ALL. The clinical outcome in ETP-ALL patients was poor, but encouraging in those patients with allogeneic stem cell transplantation (3-year OS: 74%). To further explore the efficacy of targeted therapies, we demonstrate that T-ALL cell lines transfected with FLT3 expression constructs were particularly sensitive to tyrosine kinase inhibitors. In conclusion, FLT3 mutated ETP-ALL defines a molecular distinct stem cell like leukemic subtype. These data warrant clinical studies with the implementation of FLT3 inhibitors in addition to early allogeneic stem cell transplantation for this high risk subgroup.

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<![CDATA[A Combined Pulmonary Function and Emphysema Score Prognostic Index for Staging in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989daceab0ee8fa60bb55ed

Introduction

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is characterized by high morbidity and mortality. Lung computed tomography parameters, individually or as part of a composite index, may provide more prognostic information than pulmonary function tests alone.

Aim

To investigate the prognostic value of emphysema score and pulmonary artery measurements compared with lung function parameters in COPD and construct a prognostic index using a contingent staging approach.

Material-Methods

Predictors of mortality were assessed in COPD outpatients whose lung computed tomography, spirometry, lung volumes and gas transfer data were collected prospectively in a clinical database. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazard analysis models with bootstrap techniques were used.

Results

169 patients were included (59.8% male, 61.1 years old; Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 second % predicted: 40.5±19.2). 20.1% died; mean survival was 115.4 months. Age (HR = 1.098, 95% Cl = 1.04–1.252) and emphysema score (HR = 1.034, 95% CI = 1.007–1.07) were the only independent predictors of mortality. Pulmonary artery dimensions were not associated with survival. An emphysema score of 55% was chosen as the optimal threshold and 30% and 65% as suboptimals. Where emphysema score was between 30% and 65% (intermediate risk) the optimal lung volume threshold, a functional residual capacity of 210% predicted, was applied. This contingent staging approach separated patients with an intermediate risk based on emphysema score alone into high risk (Functional Residual Capacity ≥210% predicted) or low risk (Functional Residual Capacity <210% predicted). This approach was more discriminatory for survival (HR = 3.123; 95% CI = 1.094–10.412) than either individual component alone.

Conclusion

Although to an extent limited by the small sample size, this preliminary study indicates that the composite Emphysema score-Functional Residual Capacity index might provide a better separation of high and low risk patients with COPD, than other individual predictors alone.

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<![CDATA[Gender Difference in the Prognostic Role of Interleukin 6 in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da2dab0ee8fa60b83299

Background

Interleukin 6 (IL6) plays an important role in immunoregulation and tumorigenesis in human cancers. Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a malignant tumor of the oral cavity with a male predominant tendency and a poor clinical prognosis. Due to the relatively few cases in females, the gender difference of prognostic markers for OSCC is seldom discussed.

Methods

In this study, we used immunohistochemical staining methods to investigate the associations between IL6 expression and the clinicopathological characteristics of OSCC. In addition, we collected 74 female and 263 male OSCC patients for evaluation.

Results

High IL6 expression in tumor cells was significantly associated OSCC patient characteristics including female gender (P<0.001), high lymph node metastatic rate (P = 0.007), and poor tumor differentiation (P = 0.008). Tumor-expressed IL6 had prognostic role in male OSCC patients as defined by the log-rank test (P = 0.014), but not in female patients (P = 0.959). In male OSCC patients, high IL6 expression in tumor cells was associated with poor prognosis (P = 0.025) and a 1.454-fold higher death risk, as determined by Cox regression.

Conclusions

High IL6 expression in tumor cells was therefore significantly associated with aggressive clinical manifestations and might be an independent survival predictor, particularly in male OSCC patients.

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<![CDATA[Molecular Subtype Classification Is a Determinant of Non-Sentinel Lymph Node Metastasis in Breast Cancer Patients with Positive Sentinel Lymph Nodes]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989daa4ab0ee8fa60ba6c04

Background

Previous studies suggested that the molecular subtypes were strongly associated with sentinel lymph node (SLN) status. The purpose of this study was to determine whether molecular subtype classification was associated with non-sentinel lymph nodes (NSLN) metastasis in patients with a positive SLN.

Methodology and Principal Findings

Between January 2001 and March 2011, a total of 130 patients with a positive SLN were recruited. All these patients underwent a complete axillary lymph node dissection. The univariate and multivariate analyses of NSLN metastasis were performed. In univariate and multivariate analyses, large tumor size, macrometastasis and high tumor grade were all significant risk factors of NSLN metastasis in patients with a positive SLN. In univariate analysis, luminal B subgroup showed higher rate of NSLN metastasis than other subgroup (P = 0.027). When other variables were adjusted in multivariate analysis, the molecular subtype classification was a determinant of NSLN metastasis. Relative to triple negative subgroup, both luminal A (P = 0.047) and luminal B (P = 0.010) subgroups showed a higher risk of NSLN metastasis. Otherwise, HER2 over-expression subgroup did not have a higher risk than triple negative subgroup (P = 0.183). The area under the curve (AUC) value was 0.8095 for the Cambridge model. When molecular subtype classification was added to the Cambridge model, the AUC value was 0.8475.

Conclusions

Except for other factors, molecular subtype classification was a determinant of NSLN metastasis in patients with a positive SLN. The predictive accuracy of mathematical models including molecular subtype should be determined in the future.

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