ResearchPad - review-article https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[COVID-19: Preliminary Clinical Guidelines for Ophthalmology Practices]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_8348 The zoonotic Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and its resultant human coronavirus disease (COVID-19) recently appeared as a global health threat that can cause severe respiratory infection and terminal respiratory distress. By the first week of April, more than 1.3 million people had been globally infected and more than 70,000 had lost their lives to this contagious virus.

Clinical manifestations occur shortly after exposure, or a few days later. There is controversy regarding the transmission of the virus through the tear and conjunctiva; however, there are reports that the ocular surface might be a potential target for COVID-19. The ease of transmission of this virus at close proximity presents a risk to eyecare workers. Several recommendations have been issued by local and national organizations to address the issue of safe ophthalmic practice during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. These guidelines have numerous similarities; however, subtle differences exist. The purpose of this paper was to discuss measures, with a specific focus on standard precautions, to prevent further dissemination of COVID-19 at Eye Clinics. We have proposed procedures to triage suspected cases of COVID-19, considering emergency conditions.

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<![CDATA[Inflammatory Choroidal Neovascular Membranes in Patients With Noninfectious Uveitis: The Place of Intravitreal Anti-VEGF Therapy]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_8345 Inflammatory choroidal neovascularization (iCNV) is an infrequent but an important cause of visual morbidity in patients with non-infectious uveitis and mostly occurs in intermediate or posterior uveitis. Punctate inner choroiditis, Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease and multifocal choroiditis are among the leading causes of uveitis entities resulting in iCNVs. The diagnosis and management of iCNVs still remain a challenge. Use of multimodal imaging techniques such as fluorescein angiography, indocyanine green angiography, optical coherence tomography (OCT) and OCT-angiography may be necessary for the diagnosis of iCNVs. The treatment algorithm is not straightforward for iCNV. While control of the active inflammation with steroids and/or immunosuppressive agents is a key to success, various adjunctive treatment modalities such as thermal laser photocoagulation, photodynamic therapy and surgical membrane removal were also co-administered previously. Nowadays, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibitors have become the most commonly administered adjunctive treatment option as they provide better anatomical and functional outcome and the recurrence rate of CNV is relatively low. We hereby reviewed important clinical studies and case series on anti-VEGF administration in iCNVs and briefly overviewed their results.

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<![CDATA[A Review of Last Decade Developments on Epiretinal Membrane Pathogenesis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_8338 Epiretinal membrane (ERM) is a pathologic tissue that develops at the vitreoretinal interface. ERM is responsible for pathological changes of vision with varying degrees of clinical significance. It is either idiopathic or secondary to a wide variety of diseases such as proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) and proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR). A great variation in the prevalence of idiopathic ERM among different ethnic groups proposed that genetic and lifestyle factors may play a role in ERM occurrence. Histopathological studies demonstrate that various cell types including retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells, fibrocytes, fibrous astrocytes, myofibroblast-like cells, glial cells, endothelial cells (ECs) and macrophages, as well as trophic and transcription factors, including transforming growth factor (TGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) etc., are directly or indirectly involved in the pathogenesis of idiopathic or secondary ERMs. These processes are driven (on the last count) by more than 50 genes, such as Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF), CCL2 (chemokine (C-C motif) ligand )), Metastasis Associated Lung Adenocarcinoma Transcript 1 )MALAT1(, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, TGF-β2, Interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-10, VEGF and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), some of which have been studied more intensely than others. The present paper tried to summarize, highlight and cross-correlate the major findings made in the last decade on the function of these genes and their association with different types of cells, genes and gene expression products in the ERM formation.

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<![CDATA[Realizing the potential of magnetic resonance image guided radiotherapy in gynaecological and rectal cancer]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14395 CT-based radiotherapy workflow is limited by poor soft tissue definition in the pelvis and reliance on rigid registration methods. Current image-guided radiotherapy and adaptive radiotherapy models therefore have limited ability to improve clinical outcomes. The advent of MRI-guided radiotherapy solutions provides the opportunity to overcome these limitations with the potential to deliver online real-time MRI-based plan adaptation on a daily basis, a true “plan of the day.” This review describes the application of MRI guided radiotherapy in two pelvic tumour sites likely to benefit from this approach.

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<![CDATA[Artificial sweeteners are related to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: Microbiota dysbiosis as a novel potential mechanism]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14279 Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a systemic and wide-spread disease characterized by accumulation of excess fat in the liver of people who drink little or no alcohol. Artificial sweeteners (ASs) or sugar substitutes are food additives that provide a sweet taste, and are also known as low-calorie or non-calorie sweeteners. Recently people consume increasingly more ASs to reduce their calorie intake. Gut microbiome is a complex ecosystem where 1014 microorganisms play several roles in host nutrition, bone mineralization, immune system regulation, xenobiotics metabolism, proliferation of intestinal cells, and protection against pathogens. A disruption in composition of the normal microbiota is known as ‘gut dysbiosis’ which may adversely affect body metabolism. It has recently been suggested that dysbiosis may contribute to the occurrence of NAFLD. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of ASs on the risk of NAFLD. The focus of this review is on microbiota changes and dysbiosis. Increasing evidence shows that ASs have a potential role in microbiota alteration and dysbiosis. We speculate that increased consumption of ASs can further raise the prevalence of NAFLD. However, further human studies are needed to determine this relationship definitively.

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<![CDATA[Age-dependent root canal instrumentation techniques: a comprehensive narrative review]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14132 The aim of this article was to review age-dependent clinical recommendations for appropriate root canal instrumentation techniques. A comprehensive narrative review of canal morphology, the structural characteristics of dentin, and endodontic outcomes at different ages was undertaken instead of a systematic review. An electronic literature search was carried out, including the Medline (Ovid), PubMed, and Web of Science databases. The searches used controlled vocabulary and free-text terms, as follows: ‘age-related root canal treatment,’ ‘age-related instrumentation,’ ‘age-related chemo-mechanical preparation,’ ‘age-related endodontic clinical recommendations,’ ‘root canal instrumentation at different ages,’ ‘geriatric root canal treatment,’ and ‘pediatric root canal treatment.’ Due to the lack of literature with practical age-based clinical recommendations for an appropriate root canal instrumentation technique, a narrative review was conducted to suggest a clinical algorithm for choosing the most appropriate instrumentation technique during root canal treatment. Based on the evidence found through the narrative review, an age-related clinical algorithm for choosing appropriate instrumentation during root canal treatment was proposed. Age affects the morphology of the root canal system and the structural characteristics of dentin. The clinician’s awareness of root canal morphology and dentin characteristics can influence the choice of instruments for root canal treatment.

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<![CDATA[Novel Insights into the Pathogenesis and Management of the Metabolic Syndrome]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14009 The metabolic syndrome, by definition, is not a disease but is a clustering of individual metabolic risk factors including abdominal obesity, hyperglycemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hypertension, and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. These risk factors could dramatically increase the prevalence of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The reported prevalence of the metabolic syndrome varies, greatly depending on the definition used, gender, age, socioeconomic status, and the ethnic background of study cohorts. Clinical and epidemiological studies have clearly demonstrated that the metabolic syndrome starts with central obesity. Because the prevalence of obesity has doubly increased worldwide over the past 30 years, the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome has markedly boosted in parallel. Therefore, obesity has been recognized as the leading cause for the metabolic syndrome since it is strongly associated with all metabolic risk factors. High prevalence of the metabolic syndrome is not unique to the USA and Europe and it is also increasing in most Asian countries. Insulin resistance has elucidated most, if not all, of the pathophysiology of the metabolic syndrome because it contributes to hyperglycemia. Furthermore, a major contributor to the development of insulin resistance is an overabundance of circulating fatty acids. Plasma fatty acids are derived mainly from the triglycerides stored in adipose tissues, which are released through the action of the cyclic AMP-dependent enzyme, hormone sensitive lipase. This review summarizes the latest concepts in the definition, pathogenesis, pathophysiology, and diagnosis of the metabolic syndrome, as well as its preventive measures and therapeutic strategies in children and adolescents.

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<![CDATA[Inflammation, immunity, and vascular remodeling in pulmonary hypertension; Evidence for complement involvement?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13927 Pulmonary (arterial) hypertension (PH/PAH) is a life-threatening cardiopulmonary disorder. Experimental evidence suggests involvement of inflammatory and autoimmune processes in pathogenesis of PH/PAH, however the triggering and disease-promoting mechanisms remain unknown. The complement system is a key arm of innate immunity implicated in various pro-inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, yet, surprisingly little is known about the role of complement in PH/PAH pathogenesis. The preponderance of the existing data associates complement with PH/PAH via analysis of plasma and does not study the lung directly. Therefore, we aimed to resolve this by analyzing both the mechanisms of local lung-specific complement activation and the correlation of dysregulated plasma complement to clinical outcome in PAH patients. In our recent studies, reviewed herein, we show, for the first time, that  immunoglobulin-driven activation of the complement cascade, specifically its alternative pathway, in the pulmonary perivascular areas, is a key mechanism initiating pro-inflammatory processes in the early stage of experimental hypoxic PH (a form of “sterile inflammation”). In human patients with end-stage PAH, we have demonstrated that perivascular deposition of immunoglobulin G (IgG) and activation of the complement cascade are “longitudinally” persistent in the disease. We also showed, using unbiased network analysis, that plasma complement signaling, including again the Alternative pathway, is a prognostic factor of survival in patients with idiopathic PAH (IPAH). Based on these initial findings, we suggest that vascular-specific, immunoglobulin-driven dysregulated complement signaling triggers and maintains pulmonary vascular remodeling and PH. Future experiments in this area would facilitate discoveries on whether complement signaling can serve both as a biomarker and therapeutic target in PH/PAH.

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<![CDATA[No evidence on the effectiveness of oral splints for the management of temporomandibular joint dysfunction pain in both short and long-term follow-up systematic reviews and meta-analysis studies]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13887 The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of oral splints in reducing the intensity of pain in patients with temporomandibular joint dysfunction in both short and long-term treatment durations. Electronic databases, Cochrane Library, MEDLINE via PubMed, Web of Science, Egyptian Knowledge Bank, and EMBASE were searched for randomized controlled trials comparing different types of splints to non-occluding splints, behavioral therapy, pharmacotherapy, counseling, and no treatment. The risk of bias was assessed by using Cochrane risk of bias recommendations. Fixed and random effects were used to summarize the outcomes. The effect estimates were expressed as standardized mean differences (SMD) or risk ratios with a 95% confidence interval (CI). Subgroup analyses were carried out according to the treatment duration. Twenty-two studies met the inclusion criteria. A meta-analysis of short-term studies up to three months revealed no significant difference between the study groups. However, long-term studies exhibited a significant difference in pain reduction in favor of the control group. Total analysis revealed that the control group resulted in significant pain reduction (SMD 0.14, 95% CI 0.05-0.23, P=0.002, I2=0%). Oral splints are not effective in reducing pain intensity or improving function in patients with temporomandibular joint dysfunction.

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<![CDATA[Psychological Influence of Coronovirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Pandemic on the General Public, Medical Workers, and Patients With Mental Disorders and its Countermeasures]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13639 Background: Coronovirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) first broke out in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China, in 2019, and now it spreads in more than 100 countries around the world. On January 30th, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared COVID-19 a public health emergency of international concern. It was classified as a pandemic by the WHO on March 11, 2020. With the increase in the number of cases reported by various countries every day, the COVID-19 pandemic has attracted more and more attention around the world. At the same time, this public health emergency has caused a variety of psychological problems, such as panic disorder, anxiety, and depression. In addition, the Wuhan Mental Health Center's analysis of 2144 calls from the psychological hotline from February 4 to February 20, 2020, showed that the general public accounted for 70%, medical workers accounted for 2.2%, patients with mental disorders accounted for 19.5%, and other personnel accounted for 8.3% (https://mp.weixin.qq.com/s/kmff1vnaLsT2d9xQkK5pwg). Conclusion: Therefore, while controlling the pandemic, the government should also pay attention to the mental health of the general public, medical workers, and patients with mental disorders. Community mental health service systems, online mental health services, telemedicine, and other measures for patients with mental disorders may play a vital role during the pandemic.

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<![CDATA[Contusion Progression Following Traumatic Brain Injury: A Review of Clinical and Radiological Predictors, and Influence on Outcome]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13316 Secondary injuries remain an important cause of the morbidity and mortality associated with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Progression of cerebral contusions occurs in up to 75% of patients with TBI, and this contributes to subsequent clinical deterioration and requirement for surgical intervention. Despite this, the role of early clinical and radiological factors in predicting contusion progression remains relatively poorly defined due to studies investigating progression of all types of hemorrhagic injuries as a combined cohort. In this review, we summarize data from recent studies on factors which predict contusion progression, and the effect of contusion progression on clinical outcomes.

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<![CDATA[The COVID-19 Pandemic in Japan]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13128 Since its initial outbreak in China, in December, 2019, COVID-19 has spread rapidly across the globe. At the time of writing, on April 29, 2020, infections had been confirmed in more than 200 countries and regions and 3,018,681 infections and 207,973 deaths had been recorded. In Japan, the first confirmed case of SARS-CoV-2 infection was reported on January 16, 2020, since when, the number of domestic infections and the death toll have reached 13,852 and 389, respectively, representing exponential increases. Moreover, both domestically and internationally, the shortage of medical resources and the spread of infection among medical personnel, caused by nosocomial transmissions have become problematic. The pathology of COVID-19, including the exact infection route, remains largely unknown. Given the unavailability of an effective cure and vaccine, people are required to respond to this adversity without becoming complacent. The global efforts against the COVID-19 pandemic are ongoing endeavors, far from over. New epidemiological data and clinical findings are emerging on a daily basis, making it critical to always refer to the latest information.

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<![CDATA[Dopamine D3 receptor-based medication development for the treatment of opioid use disorder: Rationale, progress, and challenges]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_12891 Opioid abuse and related overdose deaths continue to rise in the United States, contributing to the current national opioid crisis. Although several opioid-based pharmacotherapies are available (e.g., methadone, buprenorphine, naloxone), they show limited effectiveness in long-term relapse prevention. In response to the opioid crisis, the National Institute on Drug Abuse proposed a list of pharmacological targets of highest priority for medication development for the treatment of opioid use disorders (OUD). Among these are antagonists of dopamine D3 receptors (D3R). In this review, we first review recent progress in research of the dopamine hypothesis of opioid reward and abuse and then describe the rationale and recent development of D3R ligands for the treatment of OUD. Herein, an emphasis is placed on the effectiveness of newly developed D3R antagonists in the animal models of OUD. These new drug candidates may also potentiate the analgesic effects of clinically used opioids, making them attractive as adjunctive medications for pain management and treatment of OUD.

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<![CDATA[A systematic review, and meta-analysis, examining the prevalence of price promotions on foods and whether they are more likely to be found on less-healthy foods]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_12753 There are concerns that price promotions encourage unhealthy dietary choices. This review aims to answer the following research questions (RQ1) what is the prevalence of price promotions on foods in high-income settings, and (RQ2) are price promotions more likely to be found on unhealthy foods?Design:Systematic review of articles published in English, in peer-review journals, after 1 January 2000.Setting:Included studies measured the prevalence of price promotions (i.e. percentage of foods carrying a price promotion out of the total number of foods available to purchase) in retail settings, in upper-mid to high-income countries.Participants:‘Price promotion’ was defined as a consumer-facing temporary price reduction or discount available to all customers. The control group/comparator was the equivalent products without promotions. The primary outcome for this review was the prevalence of price promotions, and the secondary outcome was the difference between the proportions of price promotions on healthy and unhealthy foods.Results:Nine studies (239 344 observations) were included for the meta-analysis for RQ1, the prevalence of price promotions ranged from 6 % (95 % CI 2 %, 15 %) for energy-dense nutrient-poor foods to 15 % (95 % CI 9 %, 25 %) for cereals, grains, breads and other starchy carbohydrates. However, the I-squared statistic was 99 % suggesting a very high level of heterogeneity. Four studies were included for the analysis of RQ2, of which two supported the hypothesis that price promotions were more likely to be found on unhealthy foods.Conclusions:The prevalence of price promotions is very context specific, and any proposed regulations should be supported by studies conducted within the proposed setting(s). ]]> <![CDATA[Dopamine: from prediction error to psychotherapy]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_12674 Dopamine, one of the main neurotransmitters in the mammalian brain, has been implicated in the coding of prediction errors that govern reward learning as well as fear extinction learning. Psychotherapy too can be viewed as a form of error-based learning, because it challenges erroneous beliefs and behavioral patterns in order to induce long-term changes in emotions, cognitions, and behaviors. Exposure therapy, for example, relies in part on fear extinction principles to violate erroneous expectancies of danger and induce novel safety learning that inhibits and therefore reduces fear in the long term. As most forms of psychotherapy, however, exposure therapy suffers from non-response, dropout, and relapse. This narrative review focuses on the role of midbrain and prefrontal dopamine in novel safety learning and investigates possible pathways through which dopamine-based interventions could be used as an adjunct to improve both the response and the long-term effects of the therapy. Convincing evidence exists for an involvement of the midbrain dopamine system in the acquisition of new, safe memories. Additionally, prefrontal dopamine is emerging as a key ingredient for the consolidation of fear extinction. We propose that applying a dopamine prediction error perspective to psychotherapy can inspire both pharmacological and non-pharmacological studies aimed at discovering innovative ways to enhance the acquisition of safety memories. Additionally, we call for further empirical investigations on dopamine-oriented drugs that might be able to maximize consolidation of successful fear extinction and its long-term retention after therapy, and we propose to also include investigations on non-pharmacological interventions with putative prefrontal dopaminergic effects, like working memory training.

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<![CDATA[The Subaxial Cervical Pedicle Screw for Cervical Spine Diseases: The Review of Technical Developments and Complication Avoidance]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_12636 This study aimed to review information on the subaxial cervical pedicle screw (CPS) including recent anatomical considerations, entry points, placement techniques, accuracy, learning curve, and complications. Relevant literatures were reviewed, and the authors’ experiences were summarized. The CPS is used for reconstruction of unstable cervical spine and achieves superior biomechanical stability compared to other fixation techniques. Various insertion and guidance techniques are established, among which, lateral fluoroscopy-assisted placement is the most common and cost-effective technique. Generally, placement under imaging guidance is more accurate than other techniques, and a three-dimensional template allows optimal trajectory for each pedicle regardless of intraoperative changes in spinal alignment. The free-hand technique using a curved pedicle probe without a funnel-like hole increases screw stability and reduces operation time, radiation exposure, and soft tissue injury. Compared to conventional lateral fluoroscopy-assisted placement, free-hand CPS placement by trained surgeons achieves superior accuracy comparable to that of image-guided navigation; in general, 30 training cases are sufficient for learning a safe and accurate technique for CPS placement. The complications of subaxial CPS are classified into three categories: complications due to screw misplacement, complications without screw misplacement, and others. Inexperienced surgeons may benefit from advanced techniques; however, the accuracy of CPS ultimately depends on the surgeon’s experience. Inexperienced surgeons should master the placement of the thoracolumbar pedicle screw in real practice and practice CPS insertion using cadavers. During the initial phase of the learning curve, careful preparation of surgery, reiterated identification, patterned safety steps, and supervision of the expert are necessary.

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<![CDATA[Lessons from COVID-19 in children: Key hypotheses to guide preventative and therapeutic strategies]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_12506 The current pandemic of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), reveals a peculiar trend of milder disease and lower case fatality in children compared to adults. Consistent epidemiologic evidence of reduced severity of infection in children across different populations and countries suggests there are underlying biologic differences between children and adults that mediate differential disease pathogenesis. This presents a unique opportunity to learn about disease modifying host factors from pediatric populations. Our review summarizes the current knowledge of pediatric clinical disease, role in transmission, risks for severe disease, protective immunity, as well as novel therapies and vaccine trials for children. We then define key hypotheses and areas for future research that can use the pediatric model of disease, transmission, and immunity to develop preventive and therapeutic strategies for people of all age groups.

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<![CDATA[Reciprocal regulation between alternative splicing and the DNA damage response]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_12492 Splicing, the process that catalyzes intron removal and flanking exon ligation, can occur in different ways (alternative splicing) in immature RNAs transcribed from a single gene. In order to adapt to a particular context, cells modulate not only the quantity but also the quality (alternative isoforms) of their transcriptome. Since 95% of the human coding genome is subjected to alternative splicing regulation, it is expected that many cellular pathways are modulated by alternative splicing, as is the case for the DNA damage response. Moreover, recent evidence demonstrates that upon a genotoxic insult, classical DNA damage response kinases such as ATM, ATR and DNA-PK orchestrate the gene expression response therefore modulating alternative splicing which, in a reciprocal way, shapes the response to a damaging agent.

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<![CDATA[Corona Viruses and the Chemical Senses: Past, Present, and Future]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_12441 A wealth of rapidly evolving reports suggests that olfaction and taste disturbances may be manifestations of the novel COVID-19 pandemic. While otolaryngological societies worldwide have started to consider chemosensory evaluation as a screening tool for COVID-19 infection, the true nature of the relationship between the changes in chemosensory ability and COVID-19 is unclear. Our goal with this review is to provide a brief overview of published and archived literature, as well as the anecdotal reports and social trends related to this topic up to April 29, 2020. We also aim to draw parallels between the clinical/chemosensory symptomology reported in association to past coronavirus pandemics (such as SARS and MERS) and the novel COVID-19. This review also highlights current evidence on persistent chemosensory disturbances after the infection has resolved. Overall, our analysis pinpoints the need for further studies: 1) to better quantify olfaction and taste disturbances associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection, compared to those of other viral and respiratory infections, 2) to understand the relation between smell, taste, and chemesthesis disturbances in COVID-19, and 3) to understand how persistent are these disturbances after the infection has resolved.

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<![CDATA[Risk Factors for Severe Disease and Efficacy of Treatment in Patients Infected With COVID-19: A Systematic Review, Meta-Analysis, and Meta-Regression Analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_12429 Predictors of intensive care unit admission, mortality, and acute respiratory distress syndrome in patients with COVID-19 were identified. Lopinavir-ritonavir treatment did not show significant benefit, whereas corticosteroid use was associated with poorer outcome.

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