ResearchPad - review-paper https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[An update on joint-specific outcome measures in total hip replacement]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_12707 This is the latest review of joint-specific tools used to evaluate patients undergoing total hip replacement (THR) surgery, which is an effective treatment for end-stage osteoarthritis. Due to the large number and multitude of scales and their variants used, a critical assessment of the available tools is necessary. In the article, we briefly describe six different clinical tools: the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index, the Hip Disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score, the Harris Hip Score, the Oxford Hip Score, the Mayo Hip Score, and the Rheumatoid and Arthritis Outcome Score. We present the advantages and constraints of the different outcome measures, providing a helpful resource of information for clinical trials and for everyday routine evaluation.

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<![CDATA[Osteosarcopenia in rheumatoid arthritis treated with glucocorticosteroids – essence, significance, consequences]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_12704 Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is one of the most common rheumatic diseases, associated with cooccurrence of serious side effects. This study discusses the problems associated with chronic RA, well-known as osteoporosis, but also recently recognized as sarcopenia. Relationships between sarcopenia and rheumatic diseases are not yet fully understood. Co-occurrence of osteoporosis and sarcopenia, referred to as osteosarcopenia, is becoming increasingly important. The overlap of the effects of RA and osteosarcopenia and the adverse effects of glucocorticosteroids leads to progressive impairment of the musculoskeletal system, increasing the risk of falls, fractures, institutionalization and death, and it is a source of dramatic socioeconomic burden on society. Very limited options for effective treatment of developed osteosarcopenia, as well as the severity of complications caused by it, advocates for the need of broad education and raising public awareness, especially among health care workers, in order to implement the prevention of osteosarcopenia as early as possible.

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<![CDATA[Osseous manifestations of sarcoidosis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_12703 Sarcoidosis is a systemic multisystem inflammatory disease of unknown etiology. The disease is characterized by formation of non-caseating granulomas. The most common presentation is bilateral hilar lymphadenopathy and lung infiltration, but the disease is very heterogeneous, with an unpredictable clinical course. Musculoskeletal manifestations are common. Bone involvement is less frequent, and usually occurs in patients with chronic multisystem course of the disease. They are most commonly found in the phalanges of hands and feet, and are usually bilateral. The skull, long bones, ribs, pelvis, and axial skeleton may also be affected.

Osseous involvement may be asymptomatic but in some cases can cause a severe disability. Imaging techniques are important for diagnosis. Radiological investigations revealed sclerotic or destructive lesions (involving also joints), cystic and punched out lesions and cortical abnormalities. Biopsy is required for differential diagnosis with respect to malignancy. Treatment is a part of systemic therapy and is not needed in all cases. Glucocorticoids and TNF-α antagonists are used for management.

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<![CDATA[The role of the orthopaedic surgeon in the COVID-19 era: cautions and perspectives]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_10759 The current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has revolutionized global healthcare in an unprecedented way and with unimaginable repercussions. Resource reallocation, socioeconomic confinement and reorganization of production activities are current challenges being faced both at the national and international levels, in a frame of uncertainty and fear. Hospitals have been restructured to provide the best care to COVID-19 patients while adopting preventive strategies not to spread the infection among healthcare providers and patients affected by other diseases. As a consequence, the concept of urgency and indications for elective treatments have been profoundly reshaped. In addition, several providers have been recruited in COVID-19 departments despite their original occupation, resulting in a profound rearrangement of both inpatient and outpatient care. Orthopaedic daily practice has been significantly affected by the pandemic. Surgical indications have been reformulated, with elective cases being promptly postponed and urgent interventions requiring exceptional attention, especially in suspected or COVID-19+ patients. This has made a strong impact on inpatient management, with the need of a dedicated staff, patient isolation and restrictive visiting hour policies. On the other hand, outpatient visits have been limited to reduce contacts between patients and the hospital personnel, with considerable consequences on post-operative quality of care and the human side of medical practice.

In this review, we aim to analyze the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on the orthopaedic practice. Particular attention will be dedicated to opportune surgical indication, perioperative care and safe management of both inpatients and outpatients, also considering repercussions of the pandemic on resident education and ethical implications.

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<![CDATA[School’s Out for COVID-19: 50 Ways BCBA Trainees in Special Education Settings Can Accrue Independent Fieldwork Experience Hours During the Pandemic]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_10668 Due to the COVID-19 pandemic and nationwide executive orders closing schools, many trainees completing their supervised independent fieldwork in educational settings lost the ability to accrue hours linked to restricted activities of a therapeutic and instructional nature with students (i.e., clients). Given the impact on trainees of the pandemic restrictions, we present 50 suggestions for trainees in school settings to continue to accrue hours for both restricted and unrestricted activities throughout the course of the COVID-19 pandemic.

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<![CDATA[Resistance of melanoma cells to anticancer treatment: a role of vascular endothelial growth factor]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_10315 Melanoma is one of the most aggressive and resistant to treatment neoplasms. There are still many challenges despite many promising advances in anticancer treatment. Currently, the main problem for all types of treatment is associated with heterogeneity. Due to heterogeneity of cancer cells, “precise” targeting of a medicine against a single phenotype limits the efficacy of treatment and affects resistance to applied therapy. Therefore it is important to understand aetiology and reasons for heterogeneity in order to develop effective and long-lasting treatment. This review summarises roles of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) that may stimulate growth of a melanoma tumour irrespective of its proangiogenic effects, contributing to cancer heterogeneity. VEGF triggers processes associated with extracellular matrix remodelling, cell migration, invasion, angiogenesis, inhibition of immune responses and favours phenotypic plasticity and epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Consequently, it participates in mechanisms of interactions between melanoma cancer cells and microenvironment and it can modify sensitivity to therapeutic factors.

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<![CDATA[Methotrexate use and NAD<sup>+</sup>/NADH metabolism in psoriatic keratinocytes]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_10306 Methotrexate inhibits tetrahydrofolic acid production and influences mitochondrial oxygen uptake and activity of several enzymes in the respiratory chain reactions, which utilize nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-linked (NAD-linked) substrates. Hyperproliferation of keratinocytes in psoriasis requires oxidative phosphorylation, in which the reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) is an electron donor. One hypothesis links increased cellular metabolism to the increased NADH/NAD+ ratio; as expected, the topical application of NAD+ (oxidized form of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide) resulted in a clinical improvement of psoriatic lesions in one study. Nevertheless, another report revealed reduced fluorescence of NADH in psoriatic plaques. The biological activity of NADH is not limited only to serving as the electron donor. It was also found to regulate gene transcription.

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<![CDATA[Magnetic resonance imaging of intraocular optic nerve disorders: review article]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_10295 The optic nerve is morphologically classified as a peripheral nerve, but histologically it shares characteristics with the central nerves. Diseases that affect vision and the optic nerve are many and varied: optic neuritis, demyelination (multiple sclerosis, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder, and myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody-related disorders), drugs, collagen disease, vasculitis, infection, trauma, vascular abnormalities, tumours, and non-tumoural masses. In this review, we summarise the magnetic resonance imaging findings for various pathological conditions that cause deterioration in visual acuity.

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<![CDATA[Accuracy and precision of non-invasive cardiac output monitoring by electrical cardiometry: a systematic review and meta-analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_9560 Cardiac output monitoring is used in critically ill and high-risk surgical patients. Intermittent pulmonary artery thermodilution and transpulmonary thermodilution, considered the gold standard, are invasive and linked to complications. Therefore, many non-invasive cardiac output devices have been developed and studied. One of those is electrical cardiometry. The results of validation studies are conflicting, which emphasize the need for definitive validation of accuracy and precision. We performed a database search of PubMed, Embase, Web of Science and the Cochrane Library of Clinical Trials to identify studies comparing cardiac output measurement by electrical cardiometry and a reference method. Pooled bias, limits of agreement (LoA) and mean percentage error (MPE) were calculated using a random-effects model. A pooled MPE of less than 30% was considered clinically acceptable. A total of 13 studies in adults (620 patients) and 11 studies in pediatrics (603 patients) were included. For adults, pooled bias was 0.03 L min−1 [95% CI − 0.23; 0.29], LoA − 2.78 to 2.84 L min−1 and MPE 48.0%. For pediatrics, pooled bias was − 0.02 L min−1 [95% CI − 0.09; 0.05], LoA − 1.22 to 1.18 L min−1 and MPE 42.0%. Inter-study heterogeneity was high for both adults (I2 = 93%, p < 0.0001) and pediatrics (I2 = 86%, p < 0.0001). Despite the low bias for both adults and pediatrics, the MPE was not clinically acceptable. Electrical cardiometry cannot replace thermodilution and transthoracic echocardiography for the measurement of absolute cardiac output values. Future research should explore it’s clinical use and indications.

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<![CDATA[Promoting Functional Communication Within the Home]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_9315 Functional communication skills are essential for all learners and must be promoted within all environments, including the home. During this time of home confinement, many families will need to look at opportunities for their children to use existing functional communication skills or even to acquire new skills. This article describes a set of 9 critical communication skills and provides a variety of examples of how families can improve the use of these important skills. Some of these involve speaker (expressive) skills, whereas others involve listener (receptive) skills.

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<![CDATA[Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing 2019 end of year summary: monitoring tissue oxygenation and perfusion and its autoregulation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nbf25f62b-cd0c-4331-b104-901af227ee9b Tissue perfusion monitoring is increasingly being employed clinically in a non-invasive fashion. In this end-of-year summary of the Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing, we take a closer look at the papers published recently on this subject in the journal. Most of these papers focus on monitoring cerebral perfusion (and associated hemodynamics), using either transcranial doppler measurements or near-infrared spectroscopy. Given the importance of cerebral autoregulation in the analyses performed in most of the studies discussed here, this end-of-year summary also includes a short description of cerebral hemodynamic physiology and its autoregulation. Finally, we review articles on somatic tissue oxygenation and its possible association with outcome.

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<![CDATA[Pathogenicity of BK virus on the urinary system]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N9b62d2c7-7252-4dd7-87bc-76ad73ee9487 The polyomaviruses are omnipresent in nature. The major sites of BK virus appearance are the kidney tubular epithelial cells and urinary bladder surface transitional cells.Material and methodsA literature search according to PRISMA guidelines within the Medline database was conducted in July 2019 for articles presenting data about BK virus in urologic aspect without setting time limits, using the terms ‘BK virus’ in conjunction with transplantation, nephropathy, stenosis, cancer, bladder, prostate, kidney.ResultsThe BK virus usually stays latent, however, its replication may become active in various clinical situations of impaired immunocompetence such as solid organ transplantation, bone marrow transplantation, AIDS, pregnancy, multiple sclerosis, administration of chemotherapy or biologic therapy. BK virus is associated with two main complications after transplantation: polyomavirus-associated nephropathy in kidney transplant patients and polyomavirus-associated hemorrhagic cystitis in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients.ConclusionsThe aim of this article was to present available data on urologic aspects of BK virus infection, its detection methods and available treatment. ]]> <![CDATA[Fournier’s gangrene: a review of reconstructive options]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N44b3e850-9ffc-4868-9e37-5f24dacc9c19 Fournier’s gangrene is a rapidly progressive necrotizing fasciitis of the genital and perineal tissues with a high mortality rate. Early diagnosis and treatment with fluid resuscitation, surgical debridement and wide-spectrum antibiotics are essential in the management of Fournier’s gangrene. After primary treatment, reconstructive surgery is often necessary for coverage of soft-tissue defects. This review article aims to provide an overview of the main reconstructive procedures used in Fournier’s gangrene.Material and methodsA literature search was performed on the subject of reconstructive surgery in Fournier’s gangrene.ResultsTechniques of reconstructive surgery for soft-tissue defects following Fournier’s gangrene include skin grafts, local advancement flaps, scrotal flaps, multiple fasciocutaneous and myocutaneous flaps, and testicular transposition. The surgical goal is to achieve the best functional and cosmetic result possible with minimal morbidity. Advantages and disadvantages of each technique and potential indications are discussed.ConclusionsCharacteristics of the defect, patient preference and surgeon experience should guide the choice of reconstructive procedure. Further comparative studies are needed to optimize results. ]]> <![CDATA[Co-treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms and cardiovascular disease – where do we stand?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nd58c6161-f042-4706-81c2-2b644b0aeeab The relationship between cardiovascular disease (CVD) and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) is well established. A healthy lifestyle with a good quality diet and regular physical activity is important for reducing the severity of LUTS.Material and methodsA literature search was performed on the subject of association between LUTS and cardiovascular risk.ResultsThe recent data indicates that therapy for cardiovascular risk reduction might also reduce the severity of LUTS (e.g. statins reduce the risk of benign prostatic hyperplasia [BPH] and slow down the progression of LUTS in patients with hyperlipidaemia). Hypertensive patients treated with angiotensin II receptor blockers have a lower severity of LUTS. This paper shortly discusses the relationship between the occurrence of LUTS and CVD and the potential clinical implications regarding the management of the patients.ConclusionsPatients with lower urinary tract symptoms require a holistic approach and cooperation of a urologist and cardiologist to diagnose concomitant cardiovascular diseases as early as possible and implement appropriate treatment. Antihypertensive, antithrombotic, hypolipemic therapies and healthy lifestyles reduce not only cardiovascular mortality, but also might reduce the severity of LUTS. ]]> <![CDATA[First Things First: Parent Psychological Flexibility and Self-Compassion During COVID-19]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N90b475a3-d0ec-4377-a83c-4580ed9d82e7 The COVID-19 pandemic has brought about significant stress and anxiety for many parents around the world. Psychological flexibility and self-care are fundamental aspects of psychological health. For parents, shaping these processes may help promote family nurturance, support children’s prosocial behavior, and provide effective and consistent use of evidence-based parenting “kernels.” The goal of this article is to provide practitioners with evidence-based tools that will support psychological flexibility, self-care, and positive parenting behaviors in caregivers during COVID-19 and beyond.

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<![CDATA[Repurposing and reshaping of hospitals during the COVID-19 outbreak in South Korea]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N3cec0c25-b158-4fea-9529-07dad10c1cca •Repurposing and reshaping of hospitals could be working on containing COVID-19 outbreak and limiting nosocomial infections.•Dedicated COVID-19 hospitals and COVID-19 emergency centers provided focused care during COVID-19 outbreak in South Korea.•COVID-19 community facilities and respiratory care split hospitals were established to mitigate the outbreak in South Korea.•Reallocation of healthcare personnel/facilities was critical given the shortage of health care resources.

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<![CDATA[The plant MBF1 protein family: a bridge between stress and transcription]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N634c8194-3c67-4c1f-9bdd-134e42361ba7

Abstract

The Multiprotein Bridging Factor 1 (MBF1) proteins are transcription co-factors whose molecular function is to form a bridge between transcription factors and the basal machinery of transcription. MBF1s are present in most archaea and all eukaryotes, and numerous reports show that they are involved in developmental processes and in stress responses. In this review we summarize almost three decades of research on the plant MBF1 family, which has mainly focused on their role in abiotic stress responses, in particular the heat stress response. However, despite the amount of information available, there are still many questions that remain about how plant MBF1 genes, transcripts, and proteins respond to stress, and how they in turn modulate stress response transcriptional pathways.

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<![CDATA[Monogenic autoinflammatory diseases in adults – a challenge to rheumatologic practice at the onset of the Polish national programme of interleukin 1 inhibitor treatment]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N407b1dea-fe76-4dc4-a791-59faa4c096f5

Monogenic autoinflammatory diseases (AIDs, formerly known as hereditary periodic fever syndromes) cover a spectrum of diseases which lead to chronic or recurrent inflammation caused by activation of the innate immune system. The most common monogenic AID is familial Mediterranean fever. Monogenic autoinflammatory diseases are generally considered intracellular signalling defects. Some stereotypical knowledge may be misleading; e.g. monogenic AIDs are not exclusively found in children, family history is often negative, fever frequently is not a leading manifestation and frequency of attacks in adults is usually variable. Lack of genetic confirmation should not stop anti-inflammatory ex juvantibus therapy. The pattern of tissue injury in AIDs is basically different from that observed in autoimmunity. There is no autoaggression against organ-specific antigens, but substantial damage (amyloidosis, cachexia, premature cardiovascular disease) is secondary to long-lasting inflammation.

The Polish national programme of anti-interleukin 1 treatment opens new possibilities for the treatment. However, monogenic AIDs are frequently misdiagnosed and more awareness is needed.

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<![CDATA[Imaging methods in primary Sjögren’s syndrome as potential tools of disease diagnostics and monitoring]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N39ca35c8-1df0-48f1-a282-ba27074d4e6b

Primary Sjögren’s syndrome (pSS) is a systemic autoimmune disease that affects exocrine glands, especially salivary and lacrimal glands, leading to their progressive destruction. With highly differentiated clinical course the approach to the definition of pSS is constantly evolving and the pSS classification criteria have been modified over the past years. In the past sialography and scintigraphy were frequently used in pSS diagnostics. Recently no imaging method has been included in the pSS classification criteria. That raises the question about the benefits of using novel imaging techniques such as ultrasonography, elastography and magnetic resonance imaging to diagnose and monitor pSS patients. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the advantages and limitations of widely used imaging methods in pSS and their possible future development.

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<![CDATA[Chlorophylls, ligands and assembly of light-harvesting complexes in chloroplasts]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b7d39ed463d7e5c6509617b

Chlorophyll (Chl) b serves an essential function in accumulation of light-harvesting complexes (LHCs) in plants. In this article, this role of Chl b is explored by considering the properties of Chls and the ligands with which they interact in the complexes. The overall properties of the Chls, not only their spectral features, are altered as consequences of chemical modifications on the periphery of the molecules. Important modifications are introduction of oxygen atoms at specific locations and reduction or desaturation of sidechains. These modifications influence formation of coordination bonds by which the central Mg atom, the Lewis acid, of Chl molecules interacts with amino acid sidechains, as the Lewis base, in proteins. Chl a is a versatile Lewis acid and interacts principally with imidazole groups but also with sidechain amides and water. The 7-formyl group on Chl b withdraws electron density toward the periphery of the molecule and consequently the positive Mg is less shielded by the molecular electron cloud than in Chl a. Chl b thus tends to form electrostatic bonds with Lewis bases with a fixed dipole, such as water and, in particular, peptide backbone carbonyl groups. The coordination bonds are enhanced by H-bonds between the protein and the 7-formyl group. These additional strong interactions with Chl b are necessary to achieve assembly of stable LHCs.

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