ResearchPad - reviews https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Fruit and vegetable consumption in Europe according to gender, educational attainment and regional affiliation—A cross-sectional study in 21 European countries]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13846 The purpose of the present study was to examine fruit and vegetable consumption according to gender, educational attainment and regional affiliation in Europe.DesignCross-sectional study.Setting21 European countries.Participants37 672 adults participating in the 7th round of the European Social Survey.Main outcome measuresFruit and vegetable consumption was measured using two single frequency questions. Responses were dichotomized into low (<once a day) and high (≥once a day) consumption. The association between consumption of fruit and vegetables and gender, educational level, regional affiliation was examined using logistic regression analyses.ResultsOverall, females showed increased odds of consuming fruit (OR 1.71 (95%CI:1.62, 1.79) and vegetable (1.59 (1.51, 1.67)) compared to males and high educated participants showed increased odds of consuming fruit (1.53 (1.43, 1.63)) and vegetables (1.86 (1.74, 2.00)) compared to low educated participants. Our results also showed that participants living in Eastern Europe had the lowest odds of consuming fruit and vegetables, whereas participants from Southern- and Northern Europe had the highest odds of consuming fruit and vegetables, respectively. Results from interaction analyses confirmed the positive association between fruit and vegetable consumption and educational level, although for some European regions, decreased odds of fruit and vegetables was observed among medium educated participants compared to those with low education.ConclusionsOverall, the present study showed that being female and having a high education were associated with increased consumption of fruit and vegetables. However, the direction and strength of these relationships depends on regional affiliations. ]]> <![CDATA[Targeting the Small GTPase Superfamily through Their Regulatory Proteins]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_10768 What a PAIN: Small GTPases have been notoriously difficult targets for small molecule and biologic therapeutics. This review explores the molecules targeting the GEF, GAP, and GDI GTPase regulatory proteins. It identifies issues in the chemical strategies, including PAINs motifs, insufficient potency, and lack of selectivity, whilst also providing thoughts on how this field will develop in the future.

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<![CDATA[Interventions to improve self-management of adults living with HIV on Antiretroviral Therapy: A systematic review]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7726 Since its initial recognition, HIV has been responsible for around 35 million deaths globally. The introduction of Antiretroviral Therapy has helped to reduce mortality from HIV. However, the resulting increased longevity has influenced the experience of people living with HIV, which now manifests as a chronic condition requiring effective self-management. This review aimed to identify and evaluate the effectiveness of interventions to improve self-management of adults living with HIV on Antiretroviral therapy.MethodsThe review included published experimental studies addressing interventions to improve self-management of adults living with HIV on Antiretroviral Therapy. Studies were included if they addressed two or more outcomes of self-management, as defined by the Theory of Individual and Family Self-Management. The search covered four databases and was limited to papers published in the English language from 2001 to March 30, 2019. The reference lists of included studies were further searched for additional studies. Two independent reviewers using the Joanna Briggs Institute Meta-Analysis of Statistics Assessment and Review Instrument (JBI SUMARI) assessed the methodological quality of the reviewed papers. Data extraction was undertaken using the JBI SUMARI standardized data extraction tool. As the included papers were not homogeneous, it was not possible to conduct a meta-analysis. A narrative synthesis was undertaken to synthesize the findings of the included studies.ResultsThe search identified 337 articles from which 10 experimental and 2 quasi-experimental studies were included. The total participant sample in the included studies was 1661 adults living with HIV. The overall evidence quality of the findings was considered moderate. Many of the studies included in this review comprised multi-component interventions to improve self-management. Skills training, in conjunction with other forms of interventions, particularly phone counseling, was commonly employed and generally effective in improving self-management outcomes. Counseling with a symptom management manual was another employed and effective intervention, followed by technology-assisted self-management interventions. The most common outcomes measured were maintaining medication adherence and quality of life, followed by symptom management, self-efficacy, coping, and social support.ConclusionsInterventions to improve self-management varied across studies. However, promising outcomes achieved in the majority of studies through interventions comprising a combination of skills training, phone counseling, counseling with symptom management manuals, and technology-assisted interventions. ]]> <![CDATA[Prevalence, Severity and Mortality associated with COPD and Smoking in patients with COVID-19: A Rapid Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7662 Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an evolving infectious disease that dramatically spread all over the world in the early part of 2020. No studies have yet summarized the potential severity and mortality risks caused by COVID-19 in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and we update information in smokers.MethodsWe systematically searched electronic databases from inception to March 24, 2020. Data were extracted by two independent authors in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Study quality was assessed using a modified version of the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. We synthesized a narrative from eligible studies and conducted a meta-analysis using a random-effects model to calculate pooled prevalence rates and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI).ResultsIn total, 123 abstracts were screened and 61 full-text manuscripts were reviewed. A total of 15 studies met the inclusion criteria, which included a total of 2473 confirmed COVID-19 patients. All studies were included in the meta-analysis. The crude case fatality rate of COVID-19 was 7.4%. The pooled prevalence rates of COPD patients and smokers in COVID-19 cases were 2% (95% CI, 1%–3%) and 9% (95% CI, 4%–14%) respectively. COPD patients were at a higher risk of more severe disease (risk of severity = 63%, (22/35) compared to patients without COPD 33.4% (409/1224) [calculated RR, 1.88 (95% CI, 1.4–2.4)]. This was associated with higher mortality (60%). Our results showed that 22% (31/139) of current smokers and 46% (13/28) of ex-smokers had severe complications. The calculated RR showed that current smokers were 1.45 times more likely [95% CI: 1.03–2.04] to have severe complications compared to former and never smokers. Current smokers also had a higher mortality rate of 38.5%.ConclusionAlthough COPD prevalence in COVID-19 cases was low in current reports, COVID-19 infection was associated with substantial severity and mortality rates in COPD. Compared to former and never smokers, current smokers were at greater risk of severe complications and higher mortality rate. Effective preventive measures are required to reduce COVID-19 risk in COPD patients and current smokers. ]]> <![CDATA[Late‐Stage Diversification of Tryptophan‐Derived Biomolecules]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_8325 Pd‐mediated reactions have emerged as a powerful tool for the site‐selective and bioorthogonal late‐stage diversification of amino acids, peptides and related compounds. Halotryptophans are accessible by biocatalytic approaches opening the application of a variety of cross‐coupling reactions for late‐stage modification of halotryptophan containing biomolecules.

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<![CDATA[A systematic review of lopinavir therapy for SARS coronavirus and MERS coronavirus—A possible reference for coronavirus disease‐19 treatment option]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_8310 LPV is an effective agent inhibiting coronavirus in vitro and animal studies.The treatment of LPV improved outcomes of SARS and MERS patients.LPV may be a potential treatment option for COVID‐19.

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<![CDATA[Cytokine‐induced hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell mobilization: unraveling interactions between stem cells and their niche]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_8285 Hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) mobilized from the bone marrow to the peripheral blood by granulocyte colony‐stimulating factor (G‐CSF) are widely used for stem cell transplantation and have advantages over traditional bone marrow–derived HSPCs. This review provides an overview of the events that underlie HSPC mobilization and addresses the relevant cellular and molecular components of the bone marrow niche from which the HPSCs are mobilized from.

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<![CDATA[Effects of mesenchymal stromal cells on regulatory T cells: Current understanding and clinical relevance]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_8270 Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) promote regulatory T cell numbers and immune suppressive functions through mechanisms involving cell‐cell contact, production of soluble mediators, reprogramming of antigen presenting cells, and release of extracellular vesicles that likely represent important components of MSC therapeutic effects in immune/inflammatory diseases.

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<![CDATA[Macrophage subsets in atherosclerosis as defined by single‐cell technologies]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_8260 Macrophages play a major role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Many studies have shone light on the different phenotypes and functions that macrophages can acquire upon exposure to local cues. The microenvironment of the atherosclerotic plaque contains a plethora of macrophage‐controlling factors, such as cytokines, oxidised low‐density lipoproteins and cell debris. Previous research has determined macrophage function within the plaque mainly by using immunohistochemistry and bulk analysis. The recent development and rapid progress of single‐cell technologies, such as cytometry by time of flight and single‐cell RNA sequencing, now enable comprehensive mapping of the wide range of cell types and their phenotypes present in atherosclerotic plaques. In this review we discuss recent advances applying these technologies in defining macrophage subsets residing in the atherosclerotic arterial wall of mice and men. Resulting from these studies, we describe three main macrophage subsets: resident‐like, pro‐inflammatory and anti‐inflammatory foamy TREM2hi macrophages, which are found in both mouse and human atherosclerotic plaques. Furthermore, we discuss macrophage subset‐specific markers and functions. More insights into the characteristics and phenotype of immune cells within the atherosclerotic plaque may guide future clinical approaches to treat disease. © 2020 The Authors. The Journal of Pathology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland.

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<![CDATA[Serum IgA Fc effector functions in infectious disease and cancer]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_8248 The role of mucosal immunoglobulin A (IgA) in infection (e.g. neutralization) has been extensively investigated; by contrast, serum IgA is poorly understood. Crosslinking of serum IgA with fragment crystallizable alpha receptor I (FcαRI) can activate immune cells (e.g. phagocytosis, antibody‐dependent cellular cytotoxicity, reactive oxygen species) to clear select bacteria, viruses and tumors, whereas monomeric serum IgA can inhibit these functions hindering an effective immune response. Here we discuss serum IgA Fc effector functions in infectious disease and tumor clearance, potential applications in immunotherapy and limitations of current research.

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<![CDATA[Profiling Cell Signaling Networks at Single-cell Resolution<a href="#FN1">*</a>]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7292 Signaling networks process intra- and extracellular information to modulate the functions of a cell. Deregulation of signaling networks results in abnormal cellular physiological states and often drives diseases. Network responses to a stimulus or a drug treatment can be highly heterogeneous across cells in a tissue because of many sources of cellular genetic and non-genetic variance. Signaling network heterogeneity is the key to many biological processes, such as cell differentiation and drug resistance. Only recently, the emergence of multiplexed single-cell measurement technologies has made it possible to evaluate this heterogeneity. In this review, we categorize currently established single-cell signaling network profiling approaches by their methodology, coverage, and application, and we discuss the advantages and limitations of each type of technology. We also describe the available computational tools for network characterization using single-cell data and discuss potential confounding factors that need to be considered in single-cell signaling network analyses.

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<![CDATA[Mesenchymal stromal cells in cancer: a review of their immunomodulatory functions and dual effects on tumor progression]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7047 Mesenchymal stem or stromal cells (MSCs) are pluripotent cells implicated in a broad range of physiological events, including organogenesis and maintenance of tissue homeostasis as well as tissue regeneration and repair. Because their current definition is somewhat loose – based primarily on their ability to differentiate into a variety of mesenchymal tissues, adhere to plastic, and express, or lack, a handful of cell surface markers – MSCs likely encompass several subpopulations, which may have diverse properties. Their diversity may explain, at least in part, the pleiotropic functions that they display in different physiological and pathological settings. In the context of tissue injury, MSCs can respectively promote and attenuate inflammation during the early and late phases of tissue repair. They may thereby act as sensors of the inflammatory response and secrete mediators that boost or temper the response as required by the stage of the reparatory and regenerative process. MSCs are also implicated in regulating tumor development, in which they are increasingly recognized to play a complex role. Thus, MSCs can both promote and constrain tumor progression by directly affecting tumor cells via secreted mediators and cell–cell interactions and by modulating the innate and adaptive immune response. This review summarizes our current understanding of MSC involvement in tumor development and highlights the mechanistic underpinnings of their implication in tumor growth and progression. © 2020 Authors. Journal of Pathology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland.

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<![CDATA[Elective neck treatment in sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma: Systematic review and meta‐analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7002 Sinonasal undifferentiated carcinomas (SNUCs), being an aggressive malignancy with dismal survival outcome, have given limited consideration regarding management of regional failures. A total of 12 studies, published between 1999 and 2019, met inclusion criteria. We performed a meta‐analysis assessing regional (neck) relapse after elective neck treatment compared to observation in clinically node negative (N0) necks. Clinical data of 255 patients were used for meta‐analysis. Among them, 83.4% of patients presented with T4 tumors and 14.1% had positive neck nodes. Elective neck treatment was applied in 49.5% of analyzed patients. Regional relapses occurred in 3.7% of patients who have undergone elective neck treatment compared to 26.4% in patients who had not. Elective neck treatment significantly reduced the risk of regional recurrence (odds ratio 0.20; 95% confidence interval 0.08‐0.49; P = .0004). The meta‐analysis indicates that elective neck treatment could significantly reduce the risk of regional failures in patients with SNUCs.

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<![CDATA[Radiation‐induced tissue damage and response]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_6903 Normal tissue responses to ionizing radiation have been a major subject for study since the discovery of X‐rays at the end of the 19th century. Shortly thereafter, time–dose relationships were established for some normal tissue endpoints that led to investigations into how the size of dose per fraction and the quality of radiation affected outcome. The assessment of the radiosensitivity of bone marrow stem cells using colony‐forming assays by Till and McCulloch prompted the establishment of in situ clonogenic assays for other tissues that added to the radiobiology toolbox. These clonogenic and functional endpoints enabled mathematical modeling to be performed that elucidated how tissue structure, and in particular turnover time, impacted clinically relevant fractionated radiation schedules. More recently, lineage tracing technology, advanced imaging and single cell sequencing have shed further light on the behavior of cells within stem, and other, cellular compartments, both in homeostasis and after radiation damage. The discovery of heterogeneity within the stem cell compartment and plasticity in response to injury have added new dimensions to the consideration of radiation‐induced tissue damage. Clinically, radiobiology of the 20th century garnered wisdom relevant to photon treatments delivered to a fairly wide field at around 2 Gy per fraction, 5 days per week, for 5–7 weeks. Recently, the scope of radiobiology has been extended by advances in technology, imaging and computing, as well as by the use of charged particles. These allow radiation to be delivered more precisely to tumors while minimizing the amount of normal tissue receiving high doses. One result has been an increase in the use of schedules with higher doses per fraction given in a shorter time frame (hypofractionation). We are unable to cover these new technologies in detail in this review, just as we must omit low‐dose stochastic effects, and many aspects of dose, dose rate and radiation quality. We argue that structural diversity and plasticity within tissue compartments provides a general context for discussion of most radiation responses, while acknowledging many omissions. © 2020 The Authors. The Journal of Pathology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland.

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<![CDATA[Advances in generating liver cells from pluripotent stem cells as a tool for modeling liver diseases]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_6828 Developing robust in vitro models of the liver is essential for studying the pathogenesis of liver diseases, hepatotoxicity testing, and regenerative medicine. Earlier studies were conducted using cell lines derived from hepatomas. Due to the inherent limitations of cell lines, researchers used primary human hepatocytes (PHHs), which are considered a gold standard for in vitro modeling of the liver. However, due to the high cost of PHHs and lack of donors, researchers have sought an alternative source for functional liver cells. Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) emerged as a viable alternative due to their plasticity and high proliferative capacity. This review gives an overview of the major advances that have been achieved to develop protocols to generate liver cells such as hepatocytes, cholangiocytes, and Küpffer cells from PSCs. We also discuss their application in modeling the pathogenesis of liver diseases such as drug‐induced liver injury, acute liver failure, and hepatic steatosis.

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<![CDATA[Recent advances in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease pathogenesis: from disease mechanisms to precision medicine]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_6815 Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a devastating lung disease with a high personal and societal burden. Exposure to toxic particles and gases, including cigarette smoke, is the main risk factor for COPD. Together with smoking cessation, current treatment strategies of COPD aim to improve symptoms and prevent exacerbations, but there is no disease‐modifying treatment. The biggest drawback of today's COPD treatment regimen is the ‘one size fits all’ pharmacological intervention, mainly based on disease severity and symptoms and not the individual's disease pathology. To halt the worrying increase in the burden of COPD, disease management needs to be advanced with a focus on personalized treatment. The main pathological feature of COPD includes a chronic and abnormal inflammatory response within the lungs, which results in airway and alveolar changes in the lung as reflected by (small) airways disease and emphysema. Here we discuss recent developments related to the abnormal inflammatory response, ECM and age‐related changes, structural changes in the small airways and the role of sex‐related differences, which are all relevant to explain the individual differences in the disease pathology of COPD and improve disease endotyping. Furthermore, we will discuss the most recent developments of new treatment strategies using biologicals to target specific pathological features or disease endotypes of COPD. © 2020 The Authors. The Journal of Pathology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland.

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<![CDATA[The stressful tumour environment drives plasticity of cell migration programmes, contributing to metastasis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_6764 Tumours evolve to cope with environmental stresses or challenges such as nutrient starvation, depletion of survival factors, and unbalanced mechanical forces. The uncontrolled growth and aberrant deregulation of core cell homeostatic pathways induced by genetic mutations create an environment of stress. Here, we explore how the adaptations of tumours to the changing environment can drive changes in the motility machinery of cells, affecting migration, invasion, and metastasis. Tumour cells can invade individually or collectively, or they can be extruded out of the surrounding epithelium. These mechanisms are thought to be modifications of normal processes occurring during development or tissue repair. Therefore, tumours may activate these pathways in response to environmental stresses, enabling them to survive in hostile environments and spread to distant sites. © 2020 The Authors. The Journal of Pathology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland.

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<![CDATA[ <i>Ex vivo</i> HSC expansion challenges the paradigm of unidirectional human hematopoiesis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_6710 In this review, we focus on the complex interplay between intrinsic mechanisms regulated by transcriptional and mitochondrial networks and extrinsic signals imposed by the bone marrow microenvironment, which in concert regulate the balance between HSC self‐renewal and differentiation. We also highlight some of the most recent ex vivo HSC expansion strategies that have currently entered clinical development and raise some critical questions regarding HSC fate and the cellular plasticity of hematopoietic cells that challenge the unidirectional model of human hematopoiesis.

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<![CDATA[Progress in the application of organoids to breast cancer research]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_6407 Breast cancer is the most common cancer diagnosed in women. Breast cancer research is currently based mainly on animal models and traditional cell culture. However, the inherent species gap between humans and animals, as well as differences in organization between organs and cells, limits research advances. The breast cancer organoid can reproduce many of the key features of human breast cancer, thereby providing a new platform for investigating the mechanisms underlying the development, progression, metastasis and drug resistance of breast cancer. The application of organoid technology can also promote drug discovery and the design of individualized treatment strategies. Here, we discuss the latest advances in the use of organoid technology for breast cancer research.

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<![CDATA[Heterotopic ossification of tendon and ligament]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_6391 Much of the similarities of the tissue characteristics, pathologies and mechanisms of heterotopic ossification (HO) formation are shared between HO of tendon and ligament (HOTL). Unmet need and no effective treatment has been developed for HOTL, primarily attributable to poor understanding of cellular and molecular mechanisms. HOTL forms via endochondral ossification, a common process of most kinds of HO. HOTL is a dynamic pathologic process that includes trauma/injury, inflammation, mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) recruitment, chondrogenic differentiation and, finally, ossification. A variety of signal pathways involve HOTL with multiple roles in different stages of HO formation, and here in this review, we summarize the progress and provide an up‐to‐date understanding of HOTL.

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