ResearchPad - rhinology https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Hospitalization for epistaxis: a population-based healthcare research study in Thuringia, Germany]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N943526b4-57a6-41f2-87c5-ce06cc392a66 Epistaxis is the most common ENT emergency. The aim was to determine population-based data on severe epistaxis needing inpatient treatment.MethodsRetrospective population-based cohort study in the federal state Thuringia in 2016 performed on all 840 inpatients treated for epistaxis in otolaryngology departments (60.1% male, median age: 73 years; 63.9% under anticoagulation). The association between patients’ and treatment characteristics and longer inpatient stay (≥ 4 days) as well as readmission for recurrent epistaxis was analyzed using univariable and multivariable statistics.ResultsThe overall incidence of epistaxis needing inpatient treatment was higher for men (42 per 100,000) than for women (28 per 100,000). The highest incidence was reached for men > 85 years (222 per 100,000). Most important independent predictors for longer inpatient stay were localization of the bleeding not in the anterior nose (OR = 2.045; CI = 1.534–2.726), recurrent bleeding during inpatient treatment (OR = 2.142; CI = 1.508–3.042), no electrocoagulation (OR = 2.810; CI = 2.047–3.858), and blood transfusion (OR = 2.731; CI = 1.324–5.635). Independent predictors for later readmission because of recurrent epistaxis were male gender (OR = 1.756; CI = 1.155–2.668), oral anticoagulant use (OR = 1.731; CI = 1.046–2.865), and hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (OR = 13.216; CI 5.102–34.231).ConclusionsInpatient treatment of epistaxis seems to be variable in daily routine needing standardization by clinical guidelines and strategies to shorten inpatient treatment and to reduce the risk of readmission.Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article (10.1007/s00405-020-05875-2) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. ]]> <![CDATA[Thermal water delivery in the nose: experimental results describing droplet deposition through computational fluid dynamics]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Ne489020a-f420-4d58-b709-a7b04d9dc948

SUMMARY

Thermal water therapies have a role in treating various inflammatory disorders dating back to ancient Greece. Several studies have demonstrated beneficial effects of thermal water inhalations for upper respiratory disorders, such as improvement of mucociliary function and reduction of inflammatory cell infiltration. This experimental study describes the numerical investigation and clinical implications of thermal water droplet deposition in the nasal cavity of a single patient. To our knowledge, the numerical flow simulations described are the first investigations specifically designed for thermal water applications. To simulate nasal airflow, a patient-specific 3D computer model was created from a CT scan. The numerical approach is based on the Large Eddy Simulation (LES) technique and builds entirely upon open-source software. Deposition on mucosa was studied for two droplet sizes (5 and 10 μm diameter), corresponding to common thermal therapy applications (aerosol and vapour inhalation). The simulations consider steady inspiration at two different (low and moderate) breathing intensities. The results of this preliminary study show specific deposition patterns that favour droplet deposition in the middle meatus region to the inferior meatus, with particle size- and breathing intensity-related effects. These global data on particle deposition differ from findings related to the single-phase nasal airflow, which is more evenly distributed between the middle and inferior meatus. The potential clinical consequences of deposition data are discussed. The study furthermore provides evidence for the effectiveness of thermal aerosol and vapour inhalation therapies in reaching important areas of nasal mucosa with considerable clinical significance.

]]>
<![CDATA[Acute rhinosinusitis among pediatric patients with allergic rhinitis: A nationwide, population-based cohort study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6c75e2d5eed0c4843d03bf

Background

While chronic rhinosinusitis is a common complication of allergic rhinitis, the link between acute rhinosinusitis and allergic rhinitis is unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk of incident acute rhinosinusitis among pediatric patients with allergic rhinitis, using a nationwide, population-based health claims research database.

Methods

Newly diagnosed allergic rhinitis patients aged 5–18 years were identified from the health claim records of the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2000 of Taiwan’s National Health Insurance Research Database. A comparison cohort was assembled by randomly selecting patients from the same database with frequency matching by sex, age group, and index year. All patients were followed until a diagnosis of acute rhinosinusitis or the end of the follow-up period. Cox proportional hazards model was used to assess the association between allergic rhinitis and acute rhinosinusitis.

Results

Of the 43,588 pediatric patients included in this study, 55.4% were male and 43.9% were between the ages of 5.0–7.9 years. The risk of acute rhinosinusitis was significantly higher in pediatric patients with allergic rhinitis compared to those without the condition (adjusted hazard ratio = 3.03, 95% confidence interval = 2.89–3.18). Similar hazard ratios were observed between male and female pediatric patients.

Conclusions

This secondary cohort study using a nationwide, population-based health claim data of the Taiwan’s NHIRD showed that allergic rhinitis was significantly associated with a higher risk of acute rhinosinusitis among pediatric patients.

]]>
<![CDATA[San Antonio refugees: Their demographics, healthcare profiles, and how to better serve them]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c75abe5d5eed0c484d07e5c

Objective

The recent refugee crisis has resulted in the largest burden of displacement in history, with the US being the top resettlement country since 1975. Texas welcomed the second most US-bound refugees in 2016, with a large percentage arriving in San Antonio. Yet, the composition of the San Antonio refugees has not been described and their healthcare needs remain ill-defined. Through this study, we aim at elucidating their demographics and healthcare profiles, with the goal of devising recommendations to help guide refugee program development and guide other refugee resettlement programs.

Methods

Data from 731 charts belonging to 448 patients at the San Antonio Refugee Health Clinic (SARHC) were extracted and analyzed. Data included age, gender, country of origin, first language, interpretation need, health insurance status, medical history, vital signs, diagnoses, and prescribed medications.

Results

Women constituted the majority of patients (n = 267; 56.4%), and the median age of all patients was 39 (Q1:26, Q3:52). Nepali-speaking Bhutanese patients were the most represented group (n = 107, 43.1%), followed by Iraqi (n = 35, 14.1%), Burmese (n = 30, 12.1%), and Iranian (n = 19, 7.7%) refugees. Of those who responded, 200 (86.6%) did not have any form of health insurance. Additionally, 262 (50.9%) had a body-mass index (BMI) in the overweight or obese range. Further, 61.4% (n = 337) had blood pressures in the hypertensive range, while 9.3% (n = 51) had an elevated blood pressure. On average, each patient had 1.9 complaints, with abdominal pain, headaches, and cough being the predominant complaints. Allergic rhinitis, viral upper respiratory infections, and elevated blood pressure were the most common diagnoses. However, the list of common diagnoses differed per country of origin.

Conclusion

The SARHC demographics were different from those of other Texas refugees. The rate of the uninsured and the burden of non-communicable diseases were high. Furthermore, each refugee subgroup had a different set of common problems. These findings reveal important considerations for refugee healthcare providers and the unique approach that may be required for different communities.

]]>
<![CDATA[Chronological changes in rhinitis symptoms present in school-aged children with allergic sensitization]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c605a4cd5eed0c4847ccd03

Introduction

It is difficult to accurately predict the natural course of allergic rhinitis (AR), because it is affected by a wide variety of environmental influences, as well as genetic predisposition. Considering the high prevalence of allergic rhinitis in children and adolescents, caregivers should be given appropriate information regarding the disease course. This study aimed to understand the prognosis of allergic rhinitis by examining the relationship between allergic sensitization and rhinitis symptoms during this developmental period.

Methods

This cross-sectional study included 1069 children aged 9–16 years from the Korean International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood Survey database who had completed health questionnaires, and for whom skin prick test results were available. Data were collected during May 2016. The distribution of sensitization and allergic symptoms was compared by age groups (elementary, middle, and high school). Data were analyzed using linear-by-linear analysis.

Results

Sensitization to at least one tested allergen differed by age (59.2%, 58.3%, 68.2%, in elementary, middle, and high school students, respectively; p = 0.025), and seasonal allergen sensitization (35.0%, 37.1%, 53.9%, respectively) increased with age (p < 0.001). Conversely, the proportion of rhinitis symptoms among sensitized children decreased as age increased (58.80%, 52.90%, 49.70%, respectively; p = 0.047). However, the rate of non-allergic rhinitis was age-independent.

Conclusion

With increasing age during childhood and adolescence, symptomatic allergic rhinitis decreases; thus, subclinical allergic rhinitis increases. This suggests that the symptoms of later-sensitized children are less clearly manifested, or that the symptoms reduce as previously sensitized children mature. This should be clarified further in a longitudinal study.

]]>
<![CDATA[Discriminating severe seasonal allergic rhinitis. Results from a large nation-wide database]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c084234d5eed0c484fcc2c0

Allergic rhinitis (AR) is a chronic disease affecting a large amount of the population. To optimize treatment and disease management, it is crucial to detect patients suffering from severe forms. Several tools have been used to classify patients according to severity: standardized questionnaires, visual analogue scales (VAS) and cluster analysis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the best method to stratify patients suffering from seasonal AR and to propose cut-offs to identify severe forms of the disease. In a multicenter French study (PollinAir), patients suffering from seasonal AR were assessed by a physician that completed a 17 items questionnaire and answered a self-assessment VAS. Five methods were evaluated to stratify patients according to AR severity: k-means clustering, agglomerative hierarchical clustering, Allergic Rhinitis Physician Score (ARPhyS), total symptoms score (TSS-17), and VAS. Fisher linear, quadratic discriminant analysis, non-parametric kernel density estimation methods were used to evaluate miss-classification of the patients and cross-validation was used to assess the validity of each scale. 28,109 patients were categorized into “mild”, “moderate”, and “severe”, through the 5 different methods. The best discrimination was offered by the ARPhyS scale. With the ARPhyS scale, cut-offs at a score of 8–9 for mild to moderate and of 11–12 for moderate to severe symptoms were found. Score reliability was also acceptable (Cronbach’s α coefficient: 0.626) for the ARPhyS scale, and excellent for the TSS-17 (0.864).

The ARPhyS scale seems the best method to target patients with severe seasonal AR. In the present study, we highlighted optimal discrimination cut-offs. This tool could be implemented in daily practice to identify severe patients that need a specialized intervention.

]]>
<![CDATA[Facial Structure Alterations and Abnormalities of the Paranasal Sinuses on Multidetector Computed Tomography Scans of Patients with Treated Mucosal Leishmaniasis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db0aab0ee8fa60bc9ac5

Background/Objectives

Mucosal leishmaniasis (ML) is a progressive disease that affects cartilage and bone structures of the nose and other upper respiratory tract structures. Complications associated with ML have been described, but there is a lack of studies that evaluate the structural changes of the nose and paranasal sinuses in ML using radiological methods. In this study, we aimed to assess the opacification of the paranasal sinuses in patients with treated ML and any anatomical changes in the face associated with ML using multidetector computed tomography scans (MDCT) of the sinuses. We compared the findings with a control group.

Methodology/Principal Findings

We evaluated 54 patients with treated ML who underwent CT scans of the sinuses and compared them with a control group of 40 patients who underwent orbital CT scans. The degree of sinus disease was assessed according to the Lund-Mackay criteria. Forty of the 54 patients with a history of ML (74.1%) had a tomographic score compatible with chronic sinusitis (Lund-Mackay ≥4). CT scans in the leishmaniasis and control groups demonstrated significant differences in terms of facial structure alterations. Patients from the ML group showed more severe levels of partial opacification and pansinus mucosal thickening (42.6%) and a greater severity of total opacification. Patients from the ML group with a Lund-Mackay score ≥4 presented longer durations of disease before treatment and more severe presentations of the disease at diagnosis.

Conclusion/Significance

CT scans of the sinuses of patients with ML presented several structural alterations, revealing a prominent destructive feature of the disease. The higher prevalence in this study of chronic rhinosinusitis observed in CT scans of patients with treated ML than in those of the control group suggests that ML can be considered a risk factor for chronic rhinosinusitis in this population (p<0.05).

]]>
<![CDATA[Polymorphisms in RYBP and AOAH Genes Are Associated with Chronic Rhinosinusitis in a Chinese Population: A Replication Study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da88ab0ee8fa60b9ce38

Background

The development of CRS is believed to be the result of combined interactions between the genetic background of the affected subject and environmental factors.

Objectives

To replicate and extend our recent findings from genetic association studies in chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) performed in a Canadian Caucasian population in a Chinese population.

Methods

In a case-control replication study, DNA samples were obtained from CRS with (n = 306; CRSwNP) and without (n = 332; CRSsNP) nasal polyps, and controls (n = 315) in a Chinese population. A total of forty-nine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) selected from previous identified SNPs associated with CRS in Canadian population, and SNPs from the CHB HapMap dataset were individually genotyped.

Results

We identified two SNPs respectively in RYBP (rs4532099, p = 2.15E–06, OR = 2.59) and AOAH (rs4504543, p = 0.0001152, OR = 0.58) significantly associated with whole CRS cohort. Subgroup analysis for the presence of nasal polyps (CRSwNP and CRSsNP) displayed significant association in CRSwNP cohorts regarding to one SNP in RYBP (P = 3.24E–006, OR = 2.76). Evidence of association in the CRSsNP groups in terms of 2 SNPs (AOAH_rs4504543 and RYBP_rs4532099) was detected as well. Stratifying analysis by gender demonstrated that none of the selected SNPs were associated with CRSwNP as well as CRSsNP. Meanwhile 3 SNPs (IL1A_rs17561, P = 0.005778; IL1A_rs1800587, P = 0.009561; IRAK4_rs4251513, P = 0.03837) were associated with serum total IgE level.

Conclusions

These genes are biologically plausible, with roles in regulation of transcription (RYBP) and inflammatory response (AOAH). The present data suggests the potential common genetic basis in the development of CRS in Chinese and Caucasian population.

]]>
<![CDATA[Biodegradable Nasal Packings for Endoscopic Sinonasal Surgery: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da1aab0ee8fa60b7c61d

Objectives

To assess biodegradable nasal packing effectiveness for improving postoperative symptoms and mucosal healing after endoscopic sinonasal surgery as compared with conventional/non-packing groups.

Methods

Relevant articles were searched on PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared biodegradable packings with conventional packings or no packing, reporting postoperative symptoms and/or mucosal healing outcomes.

Results

This review included 19 studies, of which 11 compared biodegradable packings with conventional packings. Meta-analysis found that biodegradable packings significantly improved postoperative symptoms: bleeding at removal, pain at removal, pain in situ, and nasal blockage. Mucosal healing outcomes were inconsistent within studies, with no data could be pooled. Eight studies compared biodegradable packings with non-packing group. Postoperative symptom data in this comparison could not be pooled: A protective or equal effect on postoperative bleeding was reported in different studies; no difference was reported in pain status and nasal blockage. As for mucosal healing, meta-analysis showed that two arms of comparison had similar effect on synechiae, edema, infection and granulation at each time point.

Conclusion

The limiting evidence suggests that biodegradable nasal packings are statistically better than conventional packings in postoperative symptoms, and probably comparable to non-packing group, as in this comparison we could not carry out meta-analysis. No beneficial or detrimental effect on postoperative mucosal healing could be determined based on existing evidence.

]]>
<![CDATA[Asthma and Rhinitis Are Associated with Less Objectively-Measured Moderate and Vigorous Physical Activity, but Similar Sport Participation, in Adolescent German Boys: GINIplus and LISAplus Cohorts]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da54ab0ee8fa60b8e806

Introduction

Physical activity (PA) protects against most noncommunicable diseases and has been associated with decreased risk of allergic phenotype, which is increasing worldwide. However, the association is not always present; furthermore it is not clear whether it is strongest for asthma, rhinitis, symptoms of these, or atopic sensitization; which sex is most affected; or whether it can be explained by either avoidance of sport or exacerbation of symptoms by exercise. Interventions are thus difficult to target.

Methods

PA was measured by one-week accelerometry in 1137 Germans (mean age 15.6 years, 47% boys) from the GINIplus and LISAplus birth cohorts, and modeled as a correlate of allergic symptoms, sensitization, or reported doctor-diagnosed asthma or rhinitis.

Results

8.3% of children had asthma, of the remainder 7.9% had rhinitis, and of the remainder 32% were sensitized to aero-allergens (atopic). 52% were lung-healthy controls. Lung-healthy boys and girls averaged 46.4 min and 37.8 min moderate-to-vigorous PA per day, of which 14.6 and 11.4 min was vigorous. PA in allergic girls was not altered, but boys with asthma got 13% less moderate and 29% less vigorous PA, and those with rhinitis with 13% less moderate PA, than lung-healthy boys. Both sexes participated comparably in sport (70 to 84%). Adolescents with wheezing (up to 68%, in asthma) and/or nose/eye symptoms (up to 88%, in rhinitis) were no less active.

Conclusions

We found that asthma and rhinitis, but not atopy, were independently associated with low PA in boys, but not in girls. These results indicate that allergic boys remain a high-risk group for physical inactivity even if they participate comparably in sport. Research into the link between PA and allergy should consider population-specific and sex-specific effects, and clinicians, parents, and designers of PA interventions should specifically address PA in allergic boys to ensure full participation.

]]>
<![CDATA[Allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis, and asthma are associated with differences in school performance among Korean adolescents]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db51ab0ee8fa60bdc2e8

Several studies have reported negative relations between allergic diseases and school performance but have not simultaneously considered various allergic diseases, including allergic rhinitis, asthma, and atopic dermatitis, and only examined a limited number of participants. The present study investigated the associations of allergic rhinitis, asthma, and atopic dermatitis with school performance in a large, representative Korean adolescent population. A total of 299,695 7th through 12th grade students participated in the Korea Youth Risk Behaviour Web-based Survey (KYRBWS) from 2009 to 2013. The subjects’ history of allergic rhinitis, asthma, and atopic dermatitis and number of school absences due to these diseases in the previous 12 months were examined and compared. School performance was classified into 5 levels. The relations between allergic disorders and school performance were analyzed using multiple logistic regressions with complex sampling and adjusted for the subjects’ durations of sleep, days of physical activity, body mass indexes (BMIs), regions of residence, economic levels, parents’ education levels, stress levels, smoking status, and alcohol use. A subgroup analysis of the economic groups was performed. Allergic rhinitis was positively correlated with better school performance in a dose-dependent manner (adjusted odds ratios, AOR, [95% confidence interval, CI] = 1.50 [1.43–1.56 > 1.33 [1.28–1.38] > 1.17 [1.13–1.22] > 1.09 [1.05–1.14] for grades A > B > C > D; P < 0.001). Asthma was negatively correlated with better school performance (AOR [95% CI] = 0.74 [0.66–0.83], 0.87 [0.79–0.96], 0.83 [0.75–0.91], 0.93 [0.85–1.02] for performance A, B, C, and D, respectively; P < 0.001). Atopic dermatitis was not significantly correlated with school performance. The subgroup analysis of the students’ economic levels revealed associations between allergic diseases and school performance. Compared to other allergic disorders, the asthma group had more school absences due to their symptoms (P < 0.001). School performance was positively correlated with allergic rhinitis and negatively correlated with asthma in Korean adolescents, even after adjusting for other variables. The asthma group had an increased number of school absence days, which presumably contributes to these students’ poor school performance.

]]>
<![CDATA[Protease-Activated Receptor 2 Mediates Mucus Secretion in the Airway Submucosal Gland]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989daffab0ee8fa60bc5e05

Protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2), a G protein-coupled receptor expressed in airway epithelia and smooth muscle, plays an important role in airway inflammation. In this study, we demonstrated that activation of PAR2 induces mucus secretion from the human airway gland and examined the underlying mechanism using the porcine and murine airway glands. The mucosa with underlying submucosal glands were dissected from the cartilage of tissues, pinned with the mucosal side up at the gas/bath solution interface of a physiological chamber, and covered with oil so that secretions from individual glands could be visualized as spherical bubbles in the oil. Secretion rates were determined by optical monitoring of the bubble diameter. The Ca2+-sensitive dye Fura2-AM was used to determine intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) by means of spectrofluorometry. Stimulation of human tracheal mucosa with PAR2-activating peptide (PAR2-AP) elevated intracellular Ca2+ and induced glandular secretion equal to approximately 30% of the carbachol response in the human airway. Porcine gland tissue was more sensitive to PAR2-AP, and this response was dependent on Ca2+ and anion secretion. When the mouse trachea were exposed to PAR2-AP, large amounts of secretion were observed in both wild type and ΔF508 cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator mutant mice but there is no secretion from PAR-2 knock out mice. In conclusion, PAR2-AP is an agonist for mucus secretion from the airway gland that is Ca2+-dependent and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator-independent.

]]>
<![CDATA[MBP-Positive and CD11c-Positive Cells Are Associated with Different Phenotypes of Korean Patients with Non-Asthmatic Chronic Rhinosinusitis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db26ab0ee8fa60bd05e8

Background

Asthmatic nasal polyps primarily exhibit eosinophilic infiltration. However, the identities of the immune cells that infiltrate non-asthmatic nasal polyps remain unclear. Thus, we thought to investigate the distribution of innate immune cells and its clinical relevance in non-asthmatic chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) in Korea.

Methods

Tissues from uncinate process (UP) were obtained from controls (n = 18) and CRS without nasal polyps (CRSsNP, n = 45). Nasal polyps (NP) and UP were obtained from CRS with nasal polyps (CRSwNP, n = 56). The innate immune cells was evaluated by immunohistochemistry such as, eosinophil major basic protein (MBP), tryptase, CD68, CD163, CD11c, 2D7, human neutrophil elastase (HNE) and its distribution was analyzed according to clinical parameters.

Results

In comparisons between UP from each group, CRSwNP had a higher number of MPB+, CD68+, and CD11c+ cells relative to CRSsNP. Comparisons between UP and NP from CRSwNP indicated that NP have a higher infiltrate of MBP+, CD163+, CD11c+, 2D7+ and HNE+ cells, whereas fewer CD68+ cells were found in NP. In addition, MBP+ and CD11c+ cells were increased from UP of CRSsNP, to UP of CRSwNP, and to NP of CRSwNP. Moreover, in UP from CRSwNP, the number of MBP+ and CD11c+ cells positively correlated with CT scores. In the analysis of CRSwNP phenotype, allergic eosinophilic polyps had a higher number of MBP+, tryptase+, CD11c+, 2D7+ cells than others, whereas allergic non-eosinophilic polyps showed mainly infiltration of HNE+ and 2D7+ cells.

Conclusions

The infiltration of MBP+ and CD11c+ innate immune cells show a significant association with phenotype and disease extent of CRS and allergic status also may influences cellular phenotype in non-asthmatic CRSwNP in Korea.

]]>
<![CDATA[Perceiving Nasal Patency through Mucosal Cooling Rather than Air Temperature or Nasal Resistance]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da0fab0ee8fa60b791df

Adequate perception of nasal airflow (i.e., nasal patency) is an important consideration for patients with nasal sinus diseases. The perception of a lack of nasal patency becomes the primary symptom that drives these patients to seek medical treatment. However, clinical assessment of nasal patency remains a challenge because we lack objective measurements that correlate well with what patients perceive.The current study examined factors that may influence perceived patency, including air temperature, humidity, mucosal cooling, nasal resistance, and trigeminal sensitivity. Forty-four healthy subjects rated nasal patency while sampling air from three facial exposure boxes that were ventilated with untreated room air, cold air, and dry air, respectively. In all conditions, air temperature and relative humidity inside each box were recorded with sensors connected to a computer. Nasal resistance and minimum airway cross-sectional area (MCA) were measured using rhinomanometry and acoustic rhinometry, respectively. General trigeminal sensitivity was assessed through lateralization thresholds to butanol. No significant correlation was found between perceived patency and nasal resistance or MCA. In contrast, air temperature, humidity, and butanol threshold combined significantly contributed to the ratings of patency, with mucosal cooling (heat loss) being the most heavily weighted predictor. Air humidity significantly influences perceived patency, suggesting that mucosal cooling rather than air temperature alone provides the trigeminal sensation that results in perception of patency. The dynamic cooling between the airstream and the mucosal wall may be quantified experimentally or computationally and could potentially lead to a new clinical evaluation tool.

]]>
<![CDATA[In Heart Failure Patients with Left Bundle Branch Block Single Lead MultiSpot Left Ventricular Pacing Does Not Improve Acute Hemodynamic Response To Conventional Biventricular Pacing. A Multicenter Prospective, Interventional, Non-Randomized Study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9d8ab0ee8fa60b66a51

Introduction

Recent efforts to increase CRT response by multiSPOT pacing (MSP) from multiple bipols on the same left ventricular lead are still inconclusive.

Aim

The Left Ventricular (LV) MultiSPOTpacing for CRT (iSPOT) study compared the acute hemodynamic response of MSP pacing by using 3 electrodes on a quadripolar lead compared with conventional biventricular pacing (BiV).

Methods

Patients with left bundle branch block (LBBB) underwent an acute hemodynamic study to determine the %change in LV+dP/dtmax from baseline atrial pacing compared to the following configurations: BiV pacing with the LV lead in a one of lateral veins, while pacing from the distal, mid, or proximal electrode and all 3 electrodes together (i.e. MSP). All measurements were repeated 4 times at 5 different atrioventricular delays. We also measured QRS-width and individual Q-LV durations.

Results

Protocol was completed in 24 patients, all with LBBB (QRS width 171±20 ms) and 58% ischemic aetiology. The percentage change in LV+dP/dtmax for MSP pacing was 31.0±3.3% (Mean±SE), which was not significantly superior to any BiV pacing configuration: 28.9±3.2% (LV-distal), 28.3±2.7% (LV-mid), and 29.5±3.0% (LV-prox), respectively. Correlation between LV+dP/dtmax and either QRS-width or Q-LV ratio was poor.

Conclusions

In patients with LBBB MultiSPOT LV pacing demonstrated comparable improvement in contractility to best conventional BiV pacing. Optimization of atrioventricular delay is important for the best performance for both BiV and MultiSPOT pacing configurations.

Trial Registration

ClinicalTrials.gov NTC01883141

]]>
<![CDATA[Correlation of Computed Tomography with Pathological Features in Angiomatous Nasal Polyps]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db41ab0ee8fa60bd6e50

Background

Angiomatous nasal polyps (ANPs), also known as angiectatic polyps, have rarely been reported in the literature. ANPs are characterized by extensive vascular proliferation and ectasia. ANPs can grow rapidly and exhibit aggressive clinical behavior that could simulate malignancy preoperatively, and they are easily confused with other diseases. In the present study, we analyzed the correlation between the computed tomography (CT) findings of nasal angiomatous polyps and their pathological features.

Methods

We evaluated CT findings and pathological features of 31 surgically proven ANPs.

Results

The study population included 16 males and 15 females aged between 27 and 81 years (mean age, 53.5 years). On CT, the masses were heterogeneous; they had a soft tissue density and filled the maxillary and/or nasal cavities. Calcifications were found in 2 of the 31 cases. The lesions showed a clear boundary (15/31). The low-density shading on CT was related to the inflammatory, necrotic, and cystic changes, and the high-density shading on CT was related to hemorrhagic areas of the mass. On contrast-enhanced CT, the center of the lesions was non-enhanced with peripheral intensification due to occlusion or compression of feeder vessels of the polyp center, and the inflammatory cells and neovascularization around the edge of the mass. The most common site of maxillary wall erosion was the medial wall (21/31), followed by the posterior lateral wall (3/31), upper wall (2/31), and septum (3/31). Of these, the nasal cavity and/or maxillary sinus were enlarged in 28 cases. These findings were associated with the chronic progress of nasal angiomatous changes.

Conclusions

CT of ANPs may demonstrate benign bone changes associated with the lesions and may also reflect the fact that ANPs do not invade peripheral soft tissue. CT demonstrated these lesions consistently and provided information useful for surgical planning.

]]>
<![CDATA[The relationship of serum vitamins A, D, E and LL-37 levels with allergic status, tonsillar virus detection and immune response]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db50ab0ee8fa60bdbefb

Background

Tonsils have an active role in immune defence and inducing and maintaining tolerance to allergens. Vitamins A, D, and E, and antimicrobial peptide LL-37 may have immunomodulatory effects. We studied how their serum levels were associated with allergy status, intratonsillar/nasopharyngeal virus detection and intratonsillar expression of T cell- and innate immune response-specific cytokines, transcription factors and type I/II/III interferons in patients undergoing tonsillectomy.

Methods

110 elective tonsillectomy patients participated. Serum levels of vitamins A, 25(OH)D, and E, LL-37 and allergen-specific IgE as well as nasopharyngeal/intratonsillar respiratory viruses were analyzed. The mRNA expression of IFN-α, IFN-β, IFN-γ, IL-10, IL-13, IL-17, IL-28, IL-29, IL-37, TGF-β, FOXP3, GATA3, RORC2 and Tbet in tonsils were analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR.

Results

The median age of the patients was 16 years (range 3–60), 28% of subjects had atopy, and 57% carried ≥1 respiratory virus in nasopharynx. Detection of viruses decreased by age. Higher vitamin A levels showed borderline significance with less viral detection (P = 0.056). Higher 25(OH)D was associated with less allergic rhinitis and atopy (P < 0.05) and higher vitamin E with less self-reported allergy (P < 0.05). In gene expression analyses, 25(OH)D was associated with higher IL-37, vitamin A with higher IFN-γ and vitamin E with less IL-28 (P < 0.05). LL-37 was associated with less FOXP3, RORC2 and IL-17 in tonsils (P < 0.05).

Conclusions

Vitamin D and E levels were associated with less allergic disorders. Vitamin A was linked to antiviral and vitamin D with anti-inflammatory activity. LL-37 and was linked to T regulatory cell effects.

]]>
<![CDATA[High-Fat and Low-Carbohydrate Diets Are Associated with Allergic Rhinitis But Not Asthma or Atopic Dermatitis in Children]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dae6ab0ee8fa60bbd6c8

Background

Numerous studies have suggested that nutritional intake is related to allergic diseases. Although conflicting results exist, fat intake is often associated with allergic diseases. We investigated the relationship between allergic diseases and nutritional intake after adjusting for various demographic and socioeconomic factors in a large, representative sample of Korean children.

Methods

A total of 3,040 participants, aged 4 to 13 years old, were enrolled in the present study from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), 2010–2012. Nutritional intake data, including total calories, protein, fat, carbohydrate, vitamin A, vitamin C, thiamine, riboflavin, and niacin, were retrieved from the survey using the complete 24-hour recall method. The associations between each nutritional factor and allergic rhinitis/asthma/atopic dermatitis were analyzed using simple and multiple logistic regression analyses with complex sampling. Age, sex, body mass index (BMI), number of household members, income level, and region of residence were adjusted for as covariates.

Results

Of the participants, 22.1%, 6.0%, and 15.5% suffered from allergic rhinitis, asthma, and atopic dermatitis, respectively. Allergic rhinitis was significantly correlated with high-fat and low-carbohydrate diets. The adjusted odds ratio (AOR) was 1.25 (95% CIs = 1.06–1.46, P = 0.007) for fat intake, denoting a 10% increase. Carbohydrate intake (10% increase) was negatively related to allergic rhinitis with an AOR of 0.84 (95% CIs = 0.74–0.95, P = 0.004). No other significant relationships were found between the retrieved nutritional factors and either asthma or atopic dermatitis.

Conclusion

Allergic rhinitis was related to high-fat and low-carbohydrate diets. Although the underlying mechanisms and causal relationships remain elusive, the present study provides reliable evidence regarding the associations between nutritional factors and allergic rhinitis by considering numerous factors within a large and representative population.

]]>
<![CDATA[Association Pattern of Interleukin-1 Receptor-Associated Kinase-4 Gene Polymorphisms with Allergic Rhinitis in a Han Chinese Population]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9faab0ee8fa60b71a68

Objective

Interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase-4 (IRAK-4) encodes a kinase that is essential for NF-kB activation in Toll-like receptor and T-cell receptor signaling pathways, indicating a possible crosstalk between innate and acquired immunities. We attempted to determine whether the polymorphisms in the Interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase-4 (IRAK-4) gene are associated with allergic rhinitis (AR) in the Han Chinese population.

Methods

A population of 379 patients with AR and 333 healthy controls was studied. Blood was drawn for DNA extraction and total serum immunoglobulin E (IgE). A total of 11 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in IRAK-4 were selected and individually genotyped.

Results

Significant allelic differences between cases and controls were obtained for the SNP of rs3794262 in the IRAK-4 gene. In the stratified analysis for gender, two SNPs (rs4251431 and rs6582484) in males appeared as significant associations. Subgroup analysis for the presence of different allergen sensitivities displayed associations only in the house dust mite-allergic cohorts (rs3794262, rs4251481). None of the selected SNPs in IRAK-4 was associated with total IgE level. The haplotype analyisis indicated GCCTGCGA was significantly associated with AR. The SNP-SNP interaction information analysis indicated that the selected sets of polymorphisms had no synergistic effect.

Conclusions

Our findings did not support the potential contribution of the IRAK-4 gene to serum IgE levels. However, the results demonstrated a gender- and allergen-dependant association pattern between polymorphisms in IRAK-4 and AR in Chinese population.

]]>
<![CDATA[Impact of Histone H1 on the Progression of Allergic Rhinitis and Its Suppression by Neutralizing Antibody in Mice]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9daab0ee8fa60b67641

Nuclear antigens are known to trigger off innate and adaptive immune responses. Recent studies have found that the complex of nucleic acids and core histones that are derived from damaged cells may regulate allergic responses. However, no fundamental study has been performed concerning the role of linker histone H1 in mast cell-mediated type I hyperreactivity. In this study, we explored the impact of histone H1 on mast cell-mediated allergic responses both in vitro and in vivo. In the course of a bona-fide experimental allergen sensitization model upon co-injection with alum adjuvant, ovalbumin (OVA), but not PBS, induced elevated levels of circulating histone H1. Intranasal challenge with histone H1 to OVA/alum- (but not PBS/alum)-sensitized mice induced significantly severer symptoms of allergic rhinitis than those in mice sensitized and challenged with OVA. A monoclonal antibody against histone H1 not only suppressed mast cell degranulation, but also ameliorated OVA-induced nasal hyperreactivity and IgE-mediated passive cutaneous anaphylaxis. Our present data suggest that nuclear histone H1 represents an alarmin-like endogenous mediator acting on mast cells, and that its blockage has a therapeutic potential for mast cell-mediated type I hyperreactivity.

]]>