ResearchPad - rna-sequencing https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Low LEF1 expression is a biomarker of early T-cell precursor, an aggressive subtype of T-cell lymphoblastic leukemia]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13868 Early T-cell precursor (ETP) is the only subtype of acute T-cell lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) listed in the World Health Organization (WHO) classification of myeloid neoplasms and acute leukemia. Patients with ETP tend to have worse disease outcomes. ETP is defined by a series of immune markers. The diagnosis of ETP status can be vague due to the limitation of the current measurement. In this study, we performed unsupervised clustering and supervised prediction to investigate whether a molecular biomarker can be used to identify the ETP status in order to stratify risk groups. We found that the ETP status can be predicted by the expression level of Lymphoid enhancer binding factor 1 (LEF1) with high accuracy (AUC of ROC = 0.957 and 0.933 in two T-ALL cohorts). The patients with ETP subtype have a lower level of LEF1 comparing to the those without ETP. We suggest that incorporating the biomarker LEF1 with traditional immune-phenotyping will improve the diagnosis of ETP.

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<![CDATA[Inferring the immune response from repertoire sequencing]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7765 High-throughput immune repertoire sequencing (RepSeq) experiments are becoming a common way to study the diversity, structure and composition of lymphocyte repertoires, promising to yield unique insight into individuals’ past infection history. However, the analysis of these sequences remains challenging, especially when comparing two different temporal or tissue samples. Here we develop a new theoretical approach and methodology to extract the characteristics of the lymphocyte repertoire response from different samples. The method is specifically tailored to RepSeq experiments and accounts for the multiple sources of noise present in these experiments. Its output provides expansion parameters, as well as a list of potentially responding clonotypes. We apply the method to describe the response to yellow fever vaccine obtained from samples taken at different time points. We also use our results to estimate the diversity and clone size statistics from data.

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<![CDATA[A graph-based algorithm for RNA-seq data normalization]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N0b813aa9-b155-4778-93ba-b0f37d26ae8a

The use of RNA-sequencing has garnered much attention in recent years for characterizing and understanding various biological systems. However, it remains a major challenge to gain insights from a large number of RNA-seq experiments collectively, due to the normalization problem. Normalization has been challenging due to an inherent circularity, requiring that RNA-seq data be normalized before any pattern of differential (or non-differential) expression can be ascertained; meanwhile, the prior knowledge of non-differential transcripts is crucial to the normalization process. Some methods have successfully overcome this problem by the assumption that most transcripts are not differentially expressed. However, when RNA-seq profiles become more abundant and heterogeneous, this assumption fails to hold, leading to erroneous normalization. We present a normalization procedure that does not rely on this assumption, nor prior knowledge about the reference transcripts. This algorithm is based on a graph constructed from intrinsic correlations among RNA-seq transcripts and seeks to identify a set of densely connected vertices as references. Application of this algorithm on our synthesized validation data showed that it could recover the reference transcripts with high precision, thus resulting in high-quality normalization. On a realistic data set from the ENCODE project, this algorithm gave good results and could finish in a reasonable time. These preliminary results imply that we may be able to break the long persisting circularity problem in RNA-seq normalization.

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<![CDATA[Identification and expression profiling of miRNAs in two color variants of carrot (Daucus carota L.) using deep sequencing]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c8accd2d5eed0c48499009d

microRNAs represent small endogenous RNAs which are known to play a crucial role in various plant metabolic processes. Carrot being an important vegetable crop, represents one of the richest sources of carotenoids and anthocyanins. Most of the studies on microRNAs have been conducted in the aerial parts of the plants. However, carrot has the rare distinction of storing these compounds in roots. Therefore, carrot represents a good model system to unveil the regulatory roles of miRNAs in the underground edible part of the plant. For the first time, we report the genome wide identification and expression profiling of miRNAs in two contrasting color variants of carrot namely Orange Red and Purple Black using RNA-seq. Illumina sequencing resulted in the generation of 25.5M and 18.9M reads in Orange Red and Purple Black libraries, respectively. In total, 144 and 98 (read count >10), conserved microRNAs and 36 and 66 novel microRNAs were identified in Orange Red and Purple Black, respectively. Functional categorization and differential gene expression revealed the presence of several miRNA genes targeting various secondary metabolic pathways including carotenoid and anthocyanin biosynthetic pathways in the two libraries. 11 known and 2 novel microRNAs were further validated using Stem-Loop PCR and qRT-PCR. Also, target validation was performed for selected miRNA genes using RLM-RACE approach. The present work has laid a foundation towards understanding of various metabolic processes, particularly the color development in carrot. This information can be further employed in targeted gene expression for increasing the carotenoid and anthocyanin content in crop plants.

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<![CDATA[Determination of essential phenotypic elements of clusters in high-dimensional entities—DEPECHE]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c8accc7d5eed0c48498ffa7

Technological advances have facilitated an exponential increase in the amount of information that can be derived from single cells, necessitating new computational tools that can make such highly complex data interpretable. Here, we introduce DEPECHE, a rapid, parameter free, sparse k-means-based algorithm for clustering of multi- and megavariate single-cell data. In a number of computational benchmarks aimed at evaluating the capacity to form biologically relevant clusters, including flow/mass-cytometry and single cell RNA sequencing data sets with manually curated gold standard solutions, DEPECHE clusters as well or better than the currently available best performing clustering algorithms. However, the main advantage of DEPECHE, compared to the state-of-the-art, is its unique ability to enhance interpretability of the formed clusters, in that it only retains variables relevant for cluster separation, thereby facilitating computational efficient analyses as well as understanding of complex datasets. DEPECHE is implemented in the open source R package DepecheR currently available at github.com/Theorell/DepecheR.

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<![CDATA[A new highly sensitive real-time quantitative-PCR method for detection of BCR-ABL1 to monitor minimal residual disease in chronic myeloid leukemia after discontinuation of imatinib]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c8823f1d5eed0c4846393bf

Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) targeting the BCR-ABL1 fusion protein, encoded by the Philadelphia chromosome, have drastically improved the outcomes for patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Although several real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RQ-PCR) kits for the detection of BCR-ABL1 transcripts are commercially available, their accuracy and efficiency in laboratory practice require reevaluation. We have developed a new in-house RQ-PCR method to detect minimal residual disease (MRD) in CML cases. MRD was analyzed in 102 patients with CML from the DOMEST study, a clinical trial to study the rationale for imatinib mesylate discontinuation in Japan. The BCR-ABL1/ABL1 ratio was evaluated using the international standard (IS) ratio, where IS < 0.1% was defined as a major molecular response. At enrollment, BCR-ABL1 transcripts were undetectable in all samples using a widely-applied RQ-PCR method performed in the commercial laboratory, BML (BML Inc., Tokyo, Japan); however, the in-house method detected the BCR-ABL1 transcripts in five samples (5%) (mean IS ratio: 0.0062 ± 0.0010%). After discontinuation of imatinib, BCR-ABL1 transcripts were detected using the in-house RQ-PCR in 21 patients (21%) that were not positive using the BML method. Nineteen samples were also tested using a commercially available RQ-PCR assay kit with a detection limit of IS ratio, 0.0032 (ODK-1201, Otsuka Pharmaceutical Co., Tokyo, Japan). This method detected low levels of BCR-ABL1 transcripts in 14 samples (74%), but scored negative for five samples (26%) that were positive using the in-house method. From the perspective of the in-house RQ-PCR method, number of patients confirmed loss of MMR was 4. These data suggest that our new in-house RQ-PCR method is effective for monitoring MRD in CML.

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<![CDATA[Leukemia multiclass assessment and classification from Microarray and RNA-seq technologies integration at gene expression level]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6c7591d5eed0c4843cfeb1

In more recent years, a significant increase in the number of available biological experiments has taken place due to the widespread use of massive sequencing data. Furthermore, the continuous developments in the machine learning and in the high performance computing areas, are allowing a faster and more efficient analysis and processing of this type of data. However, biological information about a certain disease is normally widespread due to the use of different sequencing technologies and different manufacturers, in different experiments along the years around the world. Thus, nowadays it is of paramount importance to attain a correct integration of biologically-related data in order to achieve genuine benefits from them. For this purpose, this work presents an integration of multiple Microarray and RNA-seq platforms, which has led to the design of a multiclass study by collecting samples from the main four types of leukemia, quantified at gene expression. Subsequently, in order to find a set of differentially expressed genes with the highest discernment capability among different types of leukemia, an innovative parameter referred to as coverage is presented here. This parameter allows assessing the number of different pathologies that a certain gen is able to discern. It has been evaluated together with other widely known parameters under assessment of an ANOVA statistical test which corroborated its filtering power when the identified genes are subjected to a machine learning process at multiclass level. The optimal tuning of gene extraction evaluated parameters by means of this statistical test led to the selection of 42 highly relevant expressed genes. By the use of minimum-Redundancy Maximum-Relevance (mRMR) feature selection algorithm, these genes were reordered and assessed under the operation of four different classification techniques. Outstanding results were achieved by taking exclusively the first ten genes of the ranking into consideration. Finally, specific literature was consulted on this last subset of genes, revealing the occurrence of practically all of them with biological processes related to leukemia. At sight of these results, this study underlines the relevance of considering a new parameter which facilitates the identification of highly valid expressed genes for simultaneously discerning multiple types of leukemia.

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<![CDATA[Comparative analysis reveals a role for TGF-β in shaping the residency-related transcriptional signature in tissue-resident memory CD8+ T cells]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6b2630d5eed0c4842894ea

Tissue-resident CD8+ memory T (TRM) cells are immune cells that permanently reside at tissue sites where they play an important role in providing rapid protection against reinfection. They are not only phenotypically and functionally distinct from their circulating memory counterparts, but also exhibit a unique transcriptional profile. To date, the local tissue signals required for their development and long-term residency are not well understood. So far, the best-characterised tissue-derived signal is transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), which has been shown to promote the development of these cells within tissues. In this study, we aimed to determine to what extent the transcriptional signatures of TRM cells from multiple tissues reflects TGF-β imprinting. We activated murine CD8+ T cells, stimulated them in vitro by TGF-β, and profiled their transcriptomes using RNA-seq. Upon comparison, we identified a TGF-β-induced signature of differentially expressed genes between TGF-β-stimulated and -unstimulated cells. Next, we linked this in vitro TGF-β-induced signature to a previously identified in vivo TRM-specific gene set and found considerable (>50%) overlap between the two gene sets, thus showing that a substantial part of the TRM signature can be attributed to TGF-β signalling. Finally, gene set enrichment analysis further revealed that the altered gene signature following TGF-β exposure reflected transcriptional signatures found in TRM cells from both epithelial and non-epithelial tissues. In summary, these findings show that TGF-β has a broad footprint in establishing the residency-specific transcriptional profile of TRM cells, which is detectable in TRM cells from diverse tissues. They further suggest that constitutive TGF-β signaling might be involved for their long-term persistence at tissue sites.

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<![CDATA[Testing of library preparation methods for transcriptome sequencing of real life glioblastoma and brain tissue specimens: A comparative study with special focus on long non-coding RNAs]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6b26afd5eed0c484289e7d

Current progress in the field of next-generation transcriptome sequencing have contributed significantly to the study of various malignancies including glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Differential sequencing of transcriptomes of patients and non-tumor controls has a potential to reveal novel transcripts with significant role in GBM. One such candidate group of molecules are long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) which have been proved to be involved in processes such as carcinogenesis, epigenetic modifications and resistance to various therapeutic approaches. To maximize the value of transcriptome sequencing, a proper protocol for library preparation from tissue-derived RNA needs to be found which would produce high quality transcriptome sequencing data and increase the number of detected lncRNAs. It is important to mention that success of library preparation is determined by the quality of input RNA, which is in case of real-life tissue specimens very often altered in comparison to high quality RNA commonly used by manufacturers for development of library preparation chemistry. In the present study, we used GBM and non-tumor brain tissue specimens and compared three different commercial library preparation kits, namely NEXTflex Rapid Directional qRNA-Seq Kit (Bioo Scientific), SENSE Total RNA-Seq Library Prep Kit (Lexogen) and NEBNext Ultra II Directional RNA Library Prep Kit for Illumina (NEB). Libraries generated using SENSE kit were characterized by the most normal distribution of normalized average GC content, the least amount of over-represented sequences and the percentage of ribosomal RNA reads (0.3–1.5%) and highest numbers of uniquely mapped reads and reads aligning to coding regions. However, NEBNext kit performed better having relatively low duplication rates, even transcript coverage and the highest number of hits in Ensembl database for every biotype of our interest including lncRNAs. Our results indicate that out of three approaches the NEBNext library preparation kit was most suitable for the study of lncRNAs via transcriptome sequencing. This was further confirmed by highly consistent data reached in an independent validation on an expanded cohort.

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<![CDATA[The heterogeneity of plasma miRNA profiles in hepatocellular carcinoma patients and the exploration of diagnostic circulating miRNAs for hepatocellular carcinoma]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c63397ad5eed0c484ae6867

Heterogeneity is prevalent in cancer both between and within individuals. Although a few studies have identified several circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) for cancer diagnosis, the complete plasma miRNA profile for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains undefined, and whether the plasma miRNA profiles are heterogeneous is unknown. Here, we obtained individualized plasma miRNA profiles of both healthy subjects and HCC patients via genome-wide deep sequencing. Compared with the highly stable miRNA profile of the healthy subjects, the profile of the HCC patients was highly variable. Seven miRNAs were optimized as potential plasma-based biomarkers for HCC diagnosis. Combined with the clinical data of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) cohort, three out of the seven miRNAs were correlated with the survival of the HCC patients. To investigate the effect of cancer cells on the plasma miRNAs profile, we compared the most differentially expressed miRNAs between plasma and tissues. Furthermore, miRNAseq data of HCC patients from TCGA were recruited for comparisons. We found that the differences between plasma and tissue were inconsistent, suggesting that other cells in addition to cancer cells also contribute to plasma miRNAs. Using two HCC cancer cell lines, we examined the levels of seven differentially expressed miRNAs. The reverse direction of certain miRNAs alterations between cancer cells and media further confirmed that miRNAs may be selectively pump out by cancer cells.

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<![CDATA[HIV-1 infection increases microRNAs that inhibit Dicer1, HRB and HIV-EP2, thereby reducing viral replication]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c644911d5eed0c484c2f555

HIV-1 is the causative agent of AIDS (Autoimmune Deficiency Syndrome). HIV-1 infection results in systemic CD4+ T cell depletion, thereby impairing cell-mediated immunity. MicroRNAs are short (~22 nucleotides long), endogenous single-stranded RNA molecules that regulate gene expression by binding to the 3' untranslated regions (3' UTR) of mRNA transcripts. The relation between HIV-1 infection and human miRNA expression profile has been previously investigated, and studies have shown that the virus can alter miRNA expression and vice versa. Here, we broaden the understanding of the HIV-1 infection process, and show that miRNA-186, 210 and 222 are up-regulated following HIV-1 infection of human Sup-T1 cells. As a result, the host miRNA target genes: Dicer1 (Double-Stranded RNA-Specific Endoribonuclease), HRB (HIV-1 Rev-binding protein) and HIV-EP2 (Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type I Enhancer Binding Protein 2), are down-regulated. Moreover, testing the miRNA-gene anti- correlation on the Jurkat and the HeLa-MAGI cell lines demonstrated the ability of the miRNAs to down-regulate viral expression as well. To conclude, we found that human miR-186, 210 and 222 directly regulate the human genes Dicer1, HRB and HIV-EP2, thus may be filling key roles during HIV-1 replication and miRNA biogenesis. This finding may contribute to the development of new therapeutic strategies.

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<![CDATA[Miniaturization and optimization of 384-well compatible RNA sequencing library preparation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c40f7c2d5eed0c48438688b

Preparation of high-quality sequencing libraries is a costly and time-consuming component of metagenomic next generation sequencing (mNGS). While the overall cost of sequencing has dropped significantly over recent years, the reagents needed to prepare sequencing samples are likely to become the dominant expense in the process. Furthermore, libraries prepared by hand are subject to human variability and needless waste due to limitations of manual pipetting volumes. Reduction of reaction volumes, combined with sub-microliter automated dispensing of reagents without consumable pipette tips, has the potential to provide significant advantages. Here, we describe the integration of several instruments, including the Labcyte Echo 525 acoustic liquid handler and the iSeq and NovaSeq Illumina sequencing platforms, to miniaturize and automate mNGS library preparation, significantly reducing the cost and the time required to prepare samples. Through the use of External RNA Controls Consortium (ERCC) spike-in RNAs, we demonstrated the fidelity of the miniaturized preparation to be equivalent to full volume reactions. Furthermore, detection of viral and microbial species from cell culture and patient samples was also maintained in the miniaturized libraries. For 384-well mNGS library preparations, we achieved cost savings of over 80% in materials and reagents alone, and reduced preparation time by 90% compared to manual approaches, without compromising quality or representation within the library.

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<![CDATA[Allele-specific RNA imaging shows that allelic imbalances can arise in tissues through transcriptional bursting]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c3fa5f1d5eed0c484caa55b

Extensive cell-to-cell variation exists even among putatively identical cells, and there is great interest in understanding how the properties of transcription relate to this heterogeneity. Differential expression from the two gene copies in diploid cells could potentially contribute, yet our ability to measure from which gene copy individual RNAs originated remains limited, particularly in the context of tissues. Here, we demonstrate quantitative, single molecule allele-specific RNA FISH adapted for use on tissue sections, allowing us to determine the chromosome of origin of individual RNA molecules in formaldehyde-fixed tissues. We used this method to visualize the allele-specific expression of Xist and multiple autosomal genes in mouse kidney. By combining these data with mathematical modeling, we evaluated models for allele-specific heterogeneity, in particular demonstrating that apparent expression from only one of the alleles in single cells can arise as a consequence of low-level mRNA abundance and transcriptional bursting.

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<![CDATA[Screening human cell lines for viral infections applying RNA-Seq data analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c40f795d5eed0c48438641a

Monitoring viral infections of cell cultures is largely neglected although the viruses may have an impact on the physiology of cells and may constitute a biohazard regarding laboratory safety and safety of bioactive agents produced by cell cultures. PCR, immunological assays, and enzyme activity tests represent common methods to detect virus infections. We have screened more than 300 Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia RNA sequencing and 60 whole exome sequencing human cell lines data sets for specific viral sequences and general viral nucleotide and protein sequence assessment applying the Taxonomer bioinformatics tool developed by IDbyDNA. The results were compared with our previous findings from virus specific PCR analyses. Both, the results obtained from the direct alignment method and the Taxonomer alignment method revealed a complete concordance with the PCR results: twenty cell lines were found to be infected with five virus species. Taxonomer further uncovered a bovine polyomavirus infection in the breast cancer cell line SK-BR-3 most likely introduced by contaminated fetal bovine serum. RNA-Seq data sets were more sensitive for virus detection although a significant proportion of cell lines revealed low numbers of virus specific alignments attributable to low level nucleotide contamination during RNA preparation or sequencing procedure. Low quality reads leading to Taxonomer false positive results can be eliminated by trimming the sequence data before analysis. One further important result is that no viruses were detected that had never been shown to occur in cell cultures. The results prove that the currently applied testing of cell cultures is adequate for the detection of contamination and for the risk assessment of cell cultures. The results emphasize that next generation sequencing is an efficient tool to determine the viral infection status of human cells.

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<![CDATA[Adding function to the genome of African Salmonella Typhimurium ST313 strain D23580]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c478c3bd5eed0c484bd0f6c

Salmonella Typhimurium sequence type (ST) 313 causes invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella (iNTS) disease in sub-Saharan Africa, targeting susceptible HIV+, malarial, or malnourished individuals. An in-depth genomic comparison between the ST313 isolate D23580 and the well-characterized ST19 isolate 4/74 that causes gastroenteritis across the globe revealed extensive synteny. To understand how the 856 nucleotide variations generated phenotypic differences, we devised a large-scale experimental approach that involved the global gene expression analysis of strains D23580 and 4/74 grown in 16 infection-relevant growth conditions. Comparison of transcriptional patterns identified virulence and metabolic genes that were differentially expressed between D23580 versus 4/74, many of which were validated by proteomics. We also uncovered the S. Typhimurium D23580 and 4/74 genes that showed expression differences during infection of murine macrophages. Our comparative transcriptomic data are presented in a new enhanced version of the Salmonella expression compendium, SalComD23580: http://bioinf.gen.tcd.ie/cgi-bin/salcom_v2.pl. We discovered that the ablation of melibiose utilization was caused by three independent SNP mutations in D23580 that are shared across ST313 lineage 2, suggesting that the ability to catabolize this carbon source has been negatively selected during ST313 evolution. The data revealed a novel, to our knowledge, plasmid maintenance system involving a plasmid-encoded CysS cysteinyl-tRNA synthetase, highlighting the power of large-scale comparative multicondition analyses to pinpoint key phenotypic differences between bacterial pathovariants.

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<![CDATA[LncRNA expression profile and ceRNA analysis in tomato during flowering]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6059f3d5eed0c4847cc4eb

Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are a class of non-coding RNAs that play essential regulatory roles in various developmental processes and stress responses. However, the functions of lncRNAs during the flowering period of tomato are largely unknown. To explore the lncRNA profiles and functions during flowering in tomato, we performed strand-specific paired-end RNA sequencing of tomato leaves, flowers and roots, with three biological replicates. We identified 10919 lncRNAs including 248 novel lncRNAs, of which 65 novel lncRNAs were significantly differentially expressed (DE) in the flowers, leaves, and roots. The Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analyses were carried out to identify the cis target gene of DE lncRNAs. The results showed that the lncRNAs might play an important role in the growth, development, and apoptosis of flowering tomato plant by regulating the formation of intima in flower tissues, binding to various molecules, influencing metabolic pathways, and inducing apoptosis. Moreover, we identified the interaction between 32, 78, and 397 kinds of miRNAs, lncRNAs, and mRNAs. The results suggest that the lncRNAs can regulate the expression of mRNA during flowering period in tomato by forming competitive endogenous RNA, and further regulate various biological metabolism pathways in tomato.

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<![CDATA[RNase H1 directs origin-specific initiation of DNA replication in human mitochondria]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c37b7b0d5eed0c48449094a

Human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) replication is first initiated at the origin of H-strand replication. The initiation depends on RNA primers generated by transcription from an upstream promoter (LSP). Here we reconstitute this process in vitro using purified transcription and replication factors. The majority of all transcription events from LSP are prematurely terminated after ~120 nucleotides, forming stable R-loops. These nascent R-loops cannot directly prime mtDNA synthesis, but must first be processed by RNase H1 to generate 3′-ends that can be used by DNA polymerase γ to initiate DNA synthesis. Our findings are consistent with recent studies of a knockout mouse model, which demonstrated that RNase H1 is required for R-loop processing and mtDNA maintenance in vivo. Both R-loop formation and DNA replication initiation are stimulated by the mitochondrial single-stranded DNA binding protein. In an RNase H1 deficient patient cell line, the precise initiation of mtDNA replication is lost and DNA synthesis is initiated from multiple sites throughout the mitochondrial control region. In combination with previously published in vivo data, the findings presented here suggest a model, in which R-loop processing by RNase H1 directs origin-specific initiation of DNA replication in human mitochondria.

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<![CDATA[A unique subset of low-risk Wilms tumors is characterized by loss of function of TRIM28 (KAP1), a gene critical in early renal development: A Children’s Oncology Group study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c1c0aead5eed0c484426e6f

This study explores the genomic alterations that contribute to the formation of a unique subset of low-risk, epithelial differentiated, favorable histology Wilms tumors (WT), tumors that have been characterized by their expression of post-induction renal developmental genes (Subset 1 WT). We demonstrate copy neutral loss of heterozygosity involving 19q13.32-q13.43, unaccompanied by evidence for imprinting by DNA methylation. We further identified loss-of-function somatic mutations in TRIM28 (also known as KAP1), located at 19q13, in 8/9 Subset 1 tumors analyzed. An additional germline TRIM28 mutation was identified in one patient. Retrospective evaluation of previously analyzed WT outside of Subset 1 identified an additional tumor with anaplasia and both TRIM28 and TP53 mutations. A major function of TRIM28 is the repression of endogenous retroviruses early in development. We depleted TRIM28 in HEK293 cells, which resulted in increased expression of endogenous retroviruses, a finding also demonstrated in TRIM28-mutant WT. TRIM28 has been shown by others to be active during early renal development, and to interact with WTX, another gene recurrently mutated in WT. Our findings suggest that inactivation of TRIM28 early in renal development contributes to the formation of this unique subset of FHWTs, although the precise manner in which TRIM28 impacts both normal renal development and oncogenesis remains elusive.

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<![CDATA[The Transcriptional landscape of Streptococcus pneumoniae TIGR4 reveals a complex operon architecture and abundant riboregulation critical for growth and virulence]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c117b9cd5eed0c484699dd5

Efficient and highly organized regulation of transcription is fundamental to an organism’s ability to survive, proliferate, and quickly respond to its environment. Therefore, precise mapping of transcriptional units and understanding their regulation is crucial to determining how pathogenic bacteria cause disease and how they may be inhibited. In this study, we map the transcriptional landscape of the bacterial pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae TIGR4 by applying a combination of high-throughput RNA-sequencing techniques. We successfully map 1864 high confidence transcription termination sites (TTSs), 790 high confidence transcription start sites (TSSs) (742 primary, and 48 secondary), and 1360 low confidence TSSs (74 secondary and 1286 primary) to yield a total of 2150 TSSs. Furthermore, our study reveals a complex transcriptome wherein environment-respondent alternate transcriptional units are observed within operons stemming from internal TSSs and TTSs. Additionally, we identify many putative cis-regulatory RNA elements and riboswitches within 5’-untranslated regions (5’-UTR). By integrating TSSs and TTSs with independently collected RNA-Seq datasets from a variety of conditions, we establish the response of these regulators to changes in growth conditions and validate several of them. Furthermore, to demonstrate the importance of ribo-regulation by 5’-UTR elements for in vivo virulence, we show that the pyrR regulatory element is essential for survival, successful colonization and infection in mice suggesting that such RNA elements are potential drug targets. Importantly, we show that our approach of combining high-throughput sequencing with in vivo experiments can reconstruct a global understanding of regulation, but also pave the way for discovery of compounds that target (ribo-)regulators to mitigate virulence and antibiotic resistance.

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<![CDATA[Comparative transcriptome analysis provides insights into dwarfism in cherry tomato (Solanum lycopersicum var. cerasiforme)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c141ef4d5eed0c484d28ff7

Tomato, which can be eaten as a vegetable or fruit, is one of the most popular and nutritionally important crops around the world. Although most plants of the cherry tomato cultivar ‘Minichal’ have a normal phenotype, some plants have a stunted phenotype with reduced plant height, leaf size, and fruit size, as well as altered leaf and fruit shape. To investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying these differences, we generated RNA-seq libraries from pooled leaf samples of 10 normal (N) and 10 stunted (S) plants. Using the Illumina sequencing platform, we obtained a total of 115.45 million high-quality clean reads assembled into 35,216 genes and 35,216 transcripts. A total of 661 genes were differentially expressed between N and S plants. Of these, 420 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were up-regulated, and 221 DEGs were down-regulated. The RNA-seq data were validated using quantitative reverse-transcription PCR. Enrichment analysis of DEGs using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) showed that the enriched pathways were involved in steroid biosynthesis, homologous recombination, and mismatch repair. Among these, three genes related to steroid biosynthesis, including 3BETAHSD/D2, DIM and DWF5 were down-regulated in S compared to N. Of these, DIM and DWF5 are known to be involved in brassinosteroid biosynthesis. Our results thus provide a useful insight into dwarfism in cherry tomato, and offer a platform for evaluating related species.

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