ResearchPad - ruminococcus https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Broilers divergently selected for digestibility differ for their digestive microbial ecosystems]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_15757 Improving the digestive efficiency of broiler chickens (Gallus gallus) could reduce organic waste, increase the use of alternative feed not used for human consumption and reduce the impact of feed in production costs. By selecting chicken lines divergently for their digestive efficiency, we showed previously that digestive efficiency is under genetic control and that the two resulting divergent lines, D+ (high digestive efficiency or “digestibility +”) and D- (low digestive efficiency or “digestibility -”), also differ for the abundance of specific bacteria in their caeca. Here we perform a more extensive census of the bacteria present in the digestive microbiota of 60 chickens selected for their low apparent metabolizable energy corrected for nitrogen balance (AMEn-) or high (AMEn+) digestive efficiency in a [D+ x D-] F8 progeny of 200 individuals. We sequenced the 16S rRNA genes of the ileal, jejunal and caecal microbiotas, and compared the compositions and predicted functions of microbiotas from the different intestinal segments for 20 AMEn+ and 19 AMEn- birds. The intestinal segment of origin was the main factor structuring the samples. The caecal microbiota was the most impacted by the differences in digestive efficiency, with 41 bacterial species with abundances differing between highly and poorly efficient birds. Furthermore, we predicted that the caecal microbiota of efficient birds might be enriched in genes contributing to the degradation of short chain fatty acids (SCFA) from non-starch polysaccharides. These results confirm the impact of the genetic selection led on digestibility on the caecal microbiota taxonomic composition. They open the way toward the identification of specific, causal genes of the host controlling variations in the abundances of bacterial taxons.

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<![CDATA[High throughput cultivation-based screening on porous aluminum oxide chips allows targeted isolation of antibiotic resistant human gut bacteria]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c605a07d5eed0c4847cc7d2

The emergence of bacterial pathogens that are resistant to clinical antibiotics poses an increasing risk to human health. An important reservoir from which bacterial pathogens can acquire resistance is the human gut microbiota. However, thus far, a substantial fraction of the gut microbiota remains uncultivated and has been little-studied with respect to its resistance reservoir-function. Here, we aimed to isolate yet uncultivated resistant gut bacteria by a targeted approach. Therefore, faecal samples from 20 intensive care patients who had received the prophylactic antibiotic treatment selective digestive decontamination (SDD), i.e. tobramycin, polymyxin E, amphotericin B and cefotaxime, were inoculated anaerobically on porous aluminium oxide chips placed on top of poor and rich agar media, including media supplemented with the SDD antibiotics. Biomass growing on the chips was analysed by 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing, showing large inter-individual differences in bacterial cultivability, and enrichment of a range of taxonomically diverse operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Furthermore, growth of Ruminococcaceae (2 OTUs), Enterobacteriaceae (6 OTUs) and Lachnospiraceae (4 OTUs) was significantly inhibited by the SDD antibiotics. Strains belonging to 16 OTUs were candidates for cultivation to pure culture as they shared ≤95% sequence identity with the closest type strain and had a relative abundance of ≥2%. Six of these OTUs were detected on media containing SDD antibiotics, and as such were prime candidates to be studied regarding antibiotic resistance. One of these six OTUs was obtained in pure culture using targeted isolation. This novel strain was resistant to the antibiotics metrodinazole and imipenem. It was initially classified as member of the Ruminococcaceae, though later it was found to share 99% nucleotide identity with the recently published Sellimonas intestinalis BR72T. In conclusion, we show that high-throughput cultivation-based screening of microbial communities can guide targeted isolation of bacteria that serve as reservoirs of antibiotic resistance.

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<![CDATA[Gut microbiota signatures in cystic fibrosis: Loss of host CFTR function drives the microbiota enterophenotype]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c12cf22d5eed0c484913fae

Background

Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a disorder affecting the respiratory, digestive, reproductive systems and sweat glands. This lethal hereditary disease has known or suspected links to the dysbiosis gut microbiota. High-throughput meta-omics-based approaches may assist in unveiling this complex network of symbiosis modifications.

Objectives

The aim of this study was to provide a predictive and functional model of the gut microbiota enterophenotype of pediatric patients affected by CF under clinical stability.

Methods

Thirty-one fecal samples were collected from CF patients and healthy children (HC) (age range, 1–6 years) and analysed using targeted-metagenomics and metabolomics to characterize the ecology and metabolism of CF-linked gut microbiota. The multidimensional data were low fused and processed by chemometric classification analysis.

Results

The fused metagenomics and metabolomics based gut microbiota profile was characterized by a high abundance of Propionibacterium, Staphylococcus and Clostridiaceae, including Clostridium difficile, and a low abundance of Eggerthella, Eubacterium, Ruminococcus, Dorea, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, and Lachnospiraceae, associated with overexpression of 4-aminobutyrate (GABA), choline, ethanol, propylbutyrate, and pyridine and low levels of sarcosine, 4-methylphenol, uracil, glucose, acetate, phenol, benzaldehyde, and methylacetate. The CF gut microbiota pattern revealed an enterophenotype intrinsically linked to disease, regardless of age, and with dysbiosis uninduced by reduced pancreatic function and only partially related to oral antibiotic administration or lung colonization/infection.

Conclusions

All together, the results obtained suggest that the gut microbiota enterophenotypes of CF, together with endogenous and bacterial CF biomarkers, are direct expression of functional alterations at the intestinal level. Hence, it’s possible to infer that CFTR impairment causes the gut ecosystem imbalance.This new understanding of CF host-gut microbiota interactions may be helpful to rationalize novel clinical interventions to improve the affected children’s nutritional status and intestinal function.

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<![CDATA[Effect of dietary supplementation with Lactobacillus acidophilus D2/CSL (CECT 4529) on caecum microbioma and productive performance in broiler chickens]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db5aab0ee8fa60bdf565

This study examines the effects of the dietary supplementation with Lactobacillus acidophilus D2/CSL (CECT 4529) (LA) on productive performances, incidence of foot pad dermatitis and caecum microbioma in broiler chickens. A total of 1,100 one-day old male Ross 308 chicks were divided into 2 groups of 16 replicates with 25 birds each and reared from 1–41 d. One group was fed a basal diet (CON) and the other group the same diet supplemented with LA. Caecum contents were collected from 4 selected birds at day one and 5 selected birds at the end of the rearing period. Then, they were submitted to DNA extraction and whole DNA shotgun metagenomic sequencing. Overall, the LA supplementation produced a significant beneficial effect on body weight gain between 15–28 d and improved feed conversion rate in the overall period. On the contrary, litter moisture, pH and incidence of the foot pad lesions were not affected by LA. Birds treated with LA showed a lower occurrence of pasty vent at both 14 and 28 d. At the end of the rearing period, Lachanospiraceae were significantly higher in LA birds in comparison to CON (17.07 vs 14.39%; P = 0.036). Moreover, Ruminococcus obeum, Clostridium clostridioforme, Roseburia intestinalis, Lachnospiraceae bacterium 14-2T and Coprococcus eutactus were significantly higher in LA birds in comparison to CON. The relative abundance of Lactobacillus acidophilus was comparable between LA and CON groups. However, a positive effect was observed in relation to the metabolic functions in the treated group, with particular reference to the higher abundance of β-glucosidase. In conclusion, the LA supplementation improved broiler productive performances and metabolic functions promoting animal health.

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<![CDATA[Differences in gut microbiota profile between women with active lifestyle and sedentary women]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db4fab0ee8fa60bdb942

Physical exercise is a tool to prevent and treat some of the chronic diseases affecting the world’s population. A mechanism through which exercise could exert beneficial effects in the body is by provoking alterations to the gut microbiota, an environmental factor that in recent years has been associated with numerous chronic diseases. Here we show that physical exercise performed by women to at least the degree recommended by the World Health Organization can modify the composition of gut microbiota. Using high-throughput sequencing of the 16s rRNA gene, eleven genera were found to be significantly different between active and sedentary women. Quantitative PCR analysis revealed higher abundance of health-promoting bacterial species in active women, including Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Roseburia hominis and Akkermansia muciniphila. Moreover, body fat percentage, muscular mass and physical activity significantly correlated with several bacterial populations. In summary, we provide the first demonstration of interdependence between some bacterial genera and sedentary behavior parameters, and show that not only does the dose and type of exercise influence the composition of gut microbiota, but also the breaking of sedentary behavior.

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<![CDATA[An Integrated Metabolomic and Microbiome Analysis Identified Specific Gut Microbiota Associated with Fecal Cholesterol and Coprostanol in Clostridium difficile Infection]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da41ab0ee8fa60b8a2e0

Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is characterized by dysbiosis of the intestinal microbiota and a profound derangement in the fecal metabolome. However, the contribution of specific gut microbes to fecal metabolites in C. difficile-associated gut microbiome remains poorly understood. Using gas-chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and 16S rRNA deep sequencing, we analyzed the metabolome and microbiome of fecal samples obtained longitudinally from subjects with Clostridium difficile infection (n = 7) and healthy controls (n = 6). From 155 fecal metabolites, we identified two sterol metabolites at >95% match to cholesterol and coprostanol that significantly discriminated C. difficile-associated gut microbiome from healthy microbiota. By correlating the levels of cholesterol and coprostanol in fecal extracts with 2,395 bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) determined by 16S rRNA sequencing, we identified 63 OTUs associated with high levels of coprostanol and 2 OTUs correlated with low coprostanol levels. Using indicator species analysis (ISA), 31 of the 63 coprostanol-associated bacteria correlated with health, and two Veillonella species were associated with low coprostanol levels that correlated strongly with CDI. These 65 bacterial taxa could be clustered into 12 sub-communities, with each community containing a consortium of organisms that co-occurred with one another. Our studies identified 63 human gut microbes associated with cholesterol-reducing activities. Given the importance of gut bacteria in reducing and eliminating cholesterol from the GI tract, these results support the recent finding that gut microbiome may play an important role in host lipid metabolism.

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<![CDATA[Bacterial community structure transformed after thermophilically composting human waste in Haiti]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db5cab0ee8fa60be0176

Recycling human waste for beneficial use has been practiced for millennia. Aerobic (thermophilic) composting of sewage sludge has been shown to reduce populations of opportunistically pathogenic bacteria and to inactivate both Ascaris eggs and culturable Escherichia coli in raw waste, but there is still a question about the fate of most fecal bacteria when raw material is composted directly. This study undertook a comprehensive microbial community analysis of composting material at various stages collected over 6 months at two composting facilities in Haiti. The fecal microbiota signal was monitored using a high-density DNA microarray (PhyloChip). Thermophilic composting altered the bacterial community structure of the starting material. Typical fecal bacteria classified in the following groups were present in at least half the starting material samples, yet were reduced below detection in finished compost: Prevotella and Erysipelotrichaceae (100% reduction of initial presence), Ruminococcaceae (98–99%), Lachnospiraceae (83–94%, primarily unclassified taxa remained), Escherichia and Shigella (100%). Opportunistic pathogens were reduced below the level of detection in the final product with the exception of Clostridium tetani, which could have survived in a spore state or been reintroduced late in the outdoor maturation process. Conversely, thermotolerant or thermophilic Actinomycetes and Firmicutes (e.g., Thermobifida, Bacillus, Geobacillus) typically found in compost increased substantially during the thermophilic stage. This community DNA-based assessment of the fate of human fecal microbiota during thermophilic composting will help optimize this process as a sanitation solution in areas where infrastructure and resources are limited.

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<![CDATA[Seasonal changes in the digesta-adherent rumen bacterial communities of dairy cattle grazing pasture]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db52ab0ee8fa60bdc80b

The complex microbiota that resides within the rumen is responsible for the break-down of plant fibre. The bacteria that attach to ingested plant matter within the rumen are thought to be responsible for initial fibre degradation. Most studies examining the ecology of this important microbiome only offer a ‘snapshot’ in time. We monitored the diversity of rumen bacteria in four New Zealand dairy cows, grazing a rye-grass and clover pasture over five consecutive seasons, using high throughput pyrosequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes. We chose to focus on the digesta-adherent bacterial community to learn more about the stability of this community over time. 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed a high level of bacterial diversity, totalling 1539 operational taxonomic units (OTUs, grouped at 96% sequence similarity) across all samples, and ranging from 653 to 926 OTUs per individual sample. The nutritive composition of the pasture changed with the seasons as did the production phase of the animals. Sequence analysis showed that, overall, the bacterial communities were broadly similar between the individual animals. The adherent bacterial community was strongly dominated by members of Firmicutes (82.1%), followed by Bacteroidetes (11.8%). This community differed between the seasons, returning to close to that observed in the same season one year later. These seasonal differences were only small, but were statistically significant (p < 0.001), and were probably due to the seasonal differences in the diet. These results demonstrate a general invariability of the ruminal bacterial community structure in these grazing dairy cattle.

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<![CDATA[Changes of intestinal flora in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus in northeast China]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c940563d5eed0c484538804

Objective

The human gut harbors diverse microbes that play a fundamental role in the well-being of their hosts. Microbes can cause autoimmunity, trigger autoimmunity in genetically susceptible individuals or prevent autoimmunity. There were reports about intestinal flora changes in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) patients, but no data were available in northeast China. In this study, we investigated the intestinal flora changes of SLE patients in Heilongjiang province located in northeast China.

Methods

Feces from 16 SLE patients and 14 healthy volunteers were employed to extract bacterial DNA, amplify 16s RNA of bacteria, and analyze the biological information by sequencing. The statistical analysis used the SPSS version of 17.

Result

We found that there were 1 phylums, 4 families and 9 genera in the intestinal flora of SLE patients. And the nine differences genera can be used to distinguish SLE patients from normal people.

Conclusion

We found an increase of Proteobacteria and a decrease of Ruminococcaceae in SLE patients in different regions. In addition, we found that some proteins, enzymes, and diseases were significantly associated with SLE.

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<![CDATA[Impact of levels of total digestible nutrients on microbiome, enzyme profile and degradation of feeds in buffalo rumen]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db51ab0ee8fa60bdc23f

The present study was aimed at understanding a shift in rumen microbiome of buffaloes fed various levels of total digestible nutrients. To understand the process, the metagenomics of rumen microbes, in vivo and in vitro rumen fermentation studies were carried out. Three rumen fistulated adult male Murrah buffaloes were fed three isonitrogenous diets varying in total digestible nutrients (70, 85 and 100% of TDN requirement) in 3X3 switch over design. On dry matter basis, wheat straw/ roughage content were 81, 63 and 51% and that of maize grain was 8, 16 and 21% in three diets respectively. After 20 d of feeding, rumen liquor and rumen contents were sampled just before (0h) and 4h post feeding. Ruminococcus flavefaciens and R. albus (estimated with real time PCR) were higher in high roughage diets. The predominant phyla in all the three groups were Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes followed by Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Fibrobacteres. A core group of more than fifty rumen bacteria was present in all the animals with very little variations due to level of TDN. The most predominant bacterial genera reported in order of decreasing abundance were: Prevotella, Bacteroides, Clostridium, Ruminococcus, Eubacterium, Parabacteroides, Fibrobacter, Butyrivibrio etc. The higher diversity of the enyzmes families GH 23, GH 28, GH 39, GH 97, GH 106, and GH 127 (the enzymes active in fibre and starch degradation) were significantly higher on 100%TDN diet while CE 14 (required for the hydrolysis of bond between carbohydrate and lignin) was higher on low TDN (70%) diet, indicating ester bond cleavage was better in animals fed high roughage (wheat straw) diet.

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