ResearchPad - running https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[The relationship of recreational runners’ motivation and resilience levels to the incidence of injury: A mediation model]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7663 Running participation has increased significantly in the last decade. Despite its association with different health-related aspects, athletes may experience adverse outcomes, including injuries. The aim of this study was twofold: to examine the relationship between runners’ resilience levels, motivation and incidence of injury, on the one hand; and to analyse the mediation that intrinsic and extrinsic motivation has on the association between the number of injuries and psychological resilience levels among amateur athletes. The sample consisted of a total of 1725 runners (age: 40.40 ± 9.39 years), 1261 of whom were male (age: 43.16 ± 9.38), and 465 of whom were female (age: 40.34 ± 9.14). Athletes completed the Behavioural Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire (BREQ-3), the Resilience scale (CD-RISC 10), and an Injury retrospective survey. Three mediation models were constructed, and the results showed a significant indirect association of athletes’ intrinsic motivation and resilience on the number of injuries (β = 0.022, CI = 0.007, 0.0) in mediation model 1, whereas extrinsic motivation was found to have no significant association on those variables (β = -0.062, CI = -0.137, 0.009) in mediation model 2. Model 3 showed significant differences with respect to resilience (p < 0.05) and intrinsic motivation (p < 0.05). Therefore, the mediation of intrinsic motivation on athletes’ resilience levels and incidence of injury was demonstrated, i.e., it was found that intrinsic motivation was associated with a higher incidence of injury, while no such correlation was found for extrinsic motivation. This study shows that the amateur long distance runners with a high level of intrinsic motivation tend to suffer from a greater number of injuries, and at the same time psychological resilience was associated with a lower number of injuries.

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<![CDATA[The faster, the better? Relationships between run-up speed, the degree of difficulty (D-score), height and length of flight on vault in artistic gymnastics]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c99030dd5eed0c484b98b90

On vault in artistic gymnastics, a high run-up speed is thought to be important when performing difficult vaults. To test this assumption in a large cohort of elite athletes, we calculated the correlations between the run-up speed, scores, height and length of flight for handspring-, Tsukahara- and Yurchenko-style vaults and compared the performances of male and female elite and junior athletes (n = 407) during the 2016 European Championships. In females, run-up speed correlated significantly with the difficulty (D-) score and height of flight for all vaulting styles (r ≤ 0.80). In males, run-up speed correlated significantly with the D-score, height and length of flight of Tsukahara (r ≤ 0.69) and Yurchenko vaults only (r ≤ 0.65). Males reached 8–9% higher run-up speeds performing handspring and Tsukahara vaults than did females, but similar run-up speeds performing Yurchenko vaults. Elite females achieved higher run-up speeds than junior females performing Yurchenko vaults. Elite males displayed higher run-up speeds than junior males performing handspring and Tsukahara vaults. We conclude that, in females, more difficult vaults require higher run-up speeds than vaults with lower D-scores and thus, within the measured range of speeds, the faster the run-up, the better, regardless of vaulting style. Males, on the other hand, may not need to exhaust their sprinting capacity, even for the most difficult vaults. Finally, the knowledge of the required run-up speed for each vault helps coaches to estimate each athlete’s potential and/or to focus the training on developing the required physical qualities.

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<![CDATA[Match-play movement and metabolic power demands of elite youth, sub-elite and elite senior Australian footballers]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c818e8dd5eed0c484cc250f

Aims

Currently minimal research has quantified physical requirement differences in match-play between youth and senior Australian football players. The aim of the current research was to describe and compare the movement profiles and energy cost of youth, sub-elite and elite senior Australian football match-play.

Methods

Fifty-seven Australian footballers playing in an elite senior 20, sub-elite senior 16 and elite youth competition 21 participated in this study. Distance, speed based indices and metabolic power measures recording via Global Positioning System (GPS) devices were compared across three competition tiers. Kicks and handballs were collected via a commercial statistics provider (Champion Data) and compared across the competition tiers.

Results

Youth players recorded less field time (elite: ES = 1.37/sub-elite: ES = 1.68), total distance (elite: ES = 1.64 /sub-elite: ES = 1.55) and high speed running (elite: ES = 0.90/sub-elite: ES = 0.26) compared to the elite and sub-elite players. The average energy cost of elite (ES = 2.19) and sub-elite (ES = 1.58) match-play was significantly higher that youth match-play.

Conclusions

A progressive increase regarding physical demands was evident across AF competition tiers. The findings suggest that sub-elite match-play can provide a viable pathway for youth players to develop physical capacity and technical skills before transitioning to elite senior match-play.

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<![CDATA[Cross-cultural comparisons of aerobic and muscular fitness in Tanzanian and English youth: An allometric approach]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c7067a8d5eed0c4847c7463

Comparisons of physical fitness measures between children or within group measures over time are potentially confounded by differences in body size. We compared measures of strength (handgrip) and aerobic fitness (running-speed [20m shuttle-run]) of 10.0–15.9 year-olds from Dar es Salaam, Tanzania (n = 977) with schoolchildren from England (n = 1014) matched for age and sex. Differences in fitness were analyzed using general linear models, with allometric scaling for body size (mass and stature) and further adjustments for physical activity. Mean handgrip of Tanzanians was lower than English youth (F = 165.0, P<0.001, ηp2 = .079). The difference became trivial when run-speed was scaled for body size (ηp2 = .008). Running-speed of the English children was higher than in Tanzanians (F = 16.0, P<0.001, ηp2 = .014). Allometric scaling for accentuated this between-county difference in running-speed (ηp2 = .019) but when adjusted for physical activity between-country differences in running-speed were trivial (ηp2 = .008). These data contradict those studies showing poor muscular fitness in African youth and highlight the need for appropriate scaling techniques to avoid confounding by differences in body size. In contrast to those from rural areas, our sample of contemporary urban Tanzanians were less aerobically fit than European youth. Differences were independent of body size. Lower aerobic fitness of urban Tanzanian youth may be due to reported physical activity levels lower than those of English youth and lower still than previously reported in rural Tanzania.

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<![CDATA[Hopping in hypogravity—A rationale for a plyometric exercise countermeasure in planetary exploration missions]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6dca14d5eed0c48452a748

Moon and Mars are considered to be future targets for human space explorations. The gravity level on the Moon and Mars amount to 16% and 38%, respectively, of Earth’s gravity. Mechanical loading during the anticipated habitual activities in these hypogravity environments will most likely not be sufficient to maintain physiological integrity of astronauts unless additional exercise countermeasures are performed. Current microgravity exercise countermeasures appear to attenuate but not prevent ‘space deconditioning’. However, plyometric exercises (hopping and whole body vibration) have shown promise in recent analogue bed rest studies and may be options for space exploration missions where resources will be limited compared to the ISS. This paper therefore tests the hypothesis that plyometric hop exercise in hypogravity can generate sufficient mechanical stimuli to prevent musculoskeletal deconditioning. It has been suggested that hypogravity-induced reductions in peak ground reaction force (peak vertical GRF) can be offset by increases in hopping height. Therefore, this study investigated the effects of simulated hypogravity (0.16G, 0.27G, 0.38G, and 0.7G) upon sub-maximal plyometric hopping on the Verticalised Treadmill Facility, simulating different hypogravity levels. Results show that peak vertical GRF are negatively related to simulated gravity level, but positively to hopping height. Contact times decreased with increasing gravity level but were not influenced through hopping height. In contrast, flight time increased with decreasing gravity levels and increasing hopping height (P < 0.001). The present data suggest that the anticipated hypogravity-related reductions of musculoskeletal forces during normal walking can be compensated by performing hops and therefore support the idea of plyometric hopping as a robust and resourceful exercise countermeasure in hypogravity. As maximal hop height was constrained on the VTF further research is needed to determine whether similar relationships are evident during maximal hops and other forms of jumping.

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<![CDATA[A match-day analysis of the movement profiles of substitutes from a professional soccer club before and after pitch-entry]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5ca2a2d5eed0c48441e7c0

Whilst the movement demands of players completing a whole soccer match have been well-documented, comparable information relating to substitutes is sparse. Therefore, this study profiled the match-day physical activities performed by soccer substitutes, focusing separately on the pre and post pitch-entry periods. Seventeen English Championship soccer players were monitored using 10 Hz Micromechanical Electrical Systems (MEMS) devices during 13 matches in which they participated as substitutes (35 observations). Twenty physical variables were examined and data were organised by bouts of warm-up activity (pre pitch-entry), and five min epochs of match-play (post pitch-entry). Linear mixed modelling assessed the influence of time (i.e., ‘bout’ and ‘epoch’), playing position, and match scoreline. Substitutes performed 3±1 rewarm-up bouts∙player-1∙match-1. Compared to the initial warm-up, each rewarm-up was shorter (-19.7 to -22.9 min) and elicited less distance (-606 to -741 m), whilst relative total distances were higher (+26 to +69 m∙min-1). Relative total (+13.4 m∙min-1) and high-speed (+0.4 m∙min-1) distances covered during rewarm-ups increased (p <0.001) with proximity to pitch-entry. Players covered more (+3.2 m; p = 0.047) high-speed distance per rewarm-up when the assessed team was losing compared with when winning at the time of pitch-entry. For 10 out of 20 variables measured after pitch-entry, values reduced from 0–5 min thereafter, and substitutes covered greater (p ˂0.05) total (+67 to +93 m) and high-speed (+14 to +33 m) distances during the first five min of match-play versus all subsequent epochs. Midfielders covered more distance (+41 m) per five min epoch than both attackers (p ˂0.001) and defenders (p = 0.016). Acknowledging the limitations of a solely movement data approach and the potential influence of other match-specific factors, such findings provide novel insights into the match-day demands faced by substitute soccer players. Future research opportunities exist to better understand the match-day practices of this population.

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<![CDATA[Optimizing beat synchronized running to music]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c12cf88d5eed0c4849148c2

The use of music and specifically tempo-matched music has been shown to affect running performance. But can we maximize the synchronization of movements to music and does maximum synchronization influence kinematics and motivation? In this study, we explore the effect of different types of music-to-movement alignment strategies on phase coherence, cadence and motivation. These strategies were compared to a control condition where the music tempo was deliberately not aligned to the running cadence. Results show that without relative phase alignment, a negative mean asynchrony (NMA) of footfall timings with respect to the beats is obtained. This means that footfalls occurred slightly before the beat and that beats were anticipated. Convergence towards this NMA or preferred relative phase angle was facilitated when the first music beat of a new song started close to the step, which means that entrainment occurred. The results also show that using tempo and phase alignment, the relative phase can be manipulated or forced in a certain angle with a high degree of accuracy. Ensuring negative angles larger than NMA (step before beat) results in increased motivation and decreasing cadence. Running in NMA or preferred relative phase angles results in a null effect on cadence. Ensuring a positive phase angle with respect to NMA results in higher motivation and higher cadence. None of the manipulations resulted in change in perceived exhaustion or a change in velocity. Results also indicate that gender plays an important role when using forced phase algorithms: effects were more pronounced for the female population than for the male population. The implementation of the proposed alignment strategies and control of beat timing while running opens possibilities optimizing the individual running cadence and motivation.

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<![CDATA[Validation of electronic performance and tracking systems EPTS under field conditions]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b603638463d7e4090b7ce26

The purpose of this study was to assess the measurement accuracy of the most commonly used tracking technologies in professional team sports (i.e., semi-automatic multiple-camera video technology (VID), radar-based local positioning system (LPS), and global positioning system (GPS)). The position, speed, acceleration and distance measures of each technology were compared against simultaneously recorded measures of a reference system (VICON motion capture system) and quantified by means of the root mean square error RMSE. Fourteen male soccer players (age: 17.4±0.4 years, height: 178.6±4.2 cm, body mass: 70.2±6.2 kg) playing for the U19 Bundesliga team FC Augsburg participated in the study. The test battery comprised a sport-specific course, shuttle runs, and small sided games on an outdoor soccer field. The validity of fundamental spatiotemporal tracking data differed significantly between all tested technologies. In particular, LPS showed higher validity for measuring an athlete’s position (23±7 cm) than both VID (56±16 cm) and GPS (96±49 cm). Considering errors of instantaneous speed measures, GPS (0.28±0.07 m⋅s-1) and LPS (0.25±0.06 m⋅s-1) achieved significantly lower error values than VID (0.41±0.08 m⋅s-1). Equivalent accuracy differences were found for instant acceleration values (GPS: 0.67±0.21 m⋅s-2, LPS: 0.68±0.14 m⋅s-2, VID: 0.91±0.19 m⋅s-2). During small-sided games, lowest deviations from reference measures have been found in the total distance category, with errors ranging from 2.2% (GPS) to 2.7% (VID) and 4.0% (LPS). All technologies had in common that the magnitude of the error increased as the speed of the tracking object increased. Especially in performance indicators that might have a high impact on practical decisions, such as distance covered with high speed, we found >40% deviations from the reference system for each of the technologies. Overall, our results revealed significant between-system differences in the validity of tracking data, implying that any comparison of results using different tracking technologies should be done with caution.

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<![CDATA[On the apparent decrease in Olympic sprinter reaction times]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b49f0b5463d7e3adec7b97f

Reaction times of Olympic sprinters provide insights into the most rapid of human response times. To determine whether minimum reaction times have changed as athlete training has become ever more specialized, we analyzed the results from the Olympic Games between 2004 and 2016. The results for the 100 m and 110 m hurdle events show that minimum reaction times have systematically decreased between 2004 and 2016 for both sexes, with women showing a marked decrease since 2008 that eliminated the sex difference in 2012. Because overall race times have not systematically decreased between 2004 and 2016, the most likely explanation for the apparent decrease in reaction times is a reduction in the proprietary force thresholds used to calculate the reaction times based on force sensors in starting blocks—and not the result of more specialized or effective training.

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<![CDATA[Are sex differences in fundamental motor skills uniform throughout the entire preschool period?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db59ab0ee8fa60bdf21a

The aim of this study was to assess differences in fundamental motor skills (FMS) proficiency between boys and girls of each age group, independently, across the entire preschool period. Using the Movement Assessment Battery for Children–second edition, FMS proficiency was tested in 325 preschoolers (4.9 ± 1.1 y, range 3–6) using a cross-sectional design. Compared to boys of the same age, 3- and 4-year-old girls had greater total (p < .01), fine motor skill (p < .01), and balance scores (p < .05). There were no sex differences for total test or balance scores in 5- and 6-year-olds, but 6-year-old boys outperformed girls in aiming and catching (p < .001). These data not only agree with previous research in that sex differences in FMS proficiency exist in preschool children, but the data also show that differences may not be uniform throughout the whole preschool period when analyzing by age. To avoid under- or overestimating FMS proficiency and subsequently prescribing inaccurate motor intervention programs, FMS proficiency normative values should be age- and sex-specific throughout the entire preschool period.

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<![CDATA[Static and Dynamic Postural Changes after a Mountain Ultra-Marathon of 80 km and 5500 D+]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db07ab0ee8fa60bc89e8

The study aimed to investigate the effect of fatigue on static and dynamic postural stability after completing a mountain ultra-marathon. Twelve male athletes participated in the study. Postural stability was assessed before and immediately after the race. Static postural stability was evaluated on a dynamometric platform with eyes opened (OE) and closed (CE). Dynamic postural stability was assessed with OE on an instrumented plate which allowed medio-lateral oscillations. Stabilometric data were affected by fatigue in the OE condition, concerning sway path velocity (p = 0.0006), sway area velocity (p = 0.0006), area of the confidence ellipse (p = 0.0016), maximal anterior-posterior (AP) (p = 0.0017) and medio-lateral (ML) (p = 0.0039) oscillations. In the CE condition the sway path velocity (p = 0.0334), the maximal ML oscillations (p = 0.0161) and the area of the confident ellipse (p = 0.0180) were also negatively influenced. Stabilogram diffusion analysis showed in the OE condition an increase of short-term diffusion coefficients considering the anterior-posterior direction (Dfys; p = 0.0023) and the combination of the two (Dfr2s; p = 0.0032). Equally, long term diffusion coefficients increased considering the anterior-posterior direction (Dfyl; p = 0.0093) and the combination of the two (Dfr2l; p = 0.0086). In CE condition greater values were detected for medio-lateral direction (Dfxl; p = 0.033), anterior-posterior direction (Dfyl; p = 0.0459) and the combination of the two (Dfr2l; p = 0.0048). The dynamic postural stability test showed an increase of the time spent with the edges of the plate on the floor (p = 0.0152). Our results showed that mountain ultra-marathon altered static stability more than dynamic stability. An involvement of cognitive resources to monitor postural stability after fatiguing could be the explanation of the worsening in the automatic task (quiet standing) and of the positive compensation in the less automatic task (dynamic standing on the instrumented plate).

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<![CDATA[Movement Demands of Elite Under-20s and Senior International Rugby Union Players]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da63ab0ee8fa60b91538

This study compared the movement demands of elite international Under-20 age grade (U20s) and senior international rugby union players during competitive tournament match play. Forty elite professional players from an U20 and 27 elite professional senior players from international performance squads were monitored using 10Hz global positioning systems (GPS) during 15 (U20s) and 8 (senior) international tournament matches during the 2014 and 2015 seasons. Data on distances, velocities, accelerations, decelerations, high metabolic load (HML) distance and efforts, and number of sprints were derived. Data files from players who played over 60 min (n = 258) were separated firstly into Forwards and Backs, and more specifically into six positional groups; FR–Front Row (prop & hooker), SR–Second Row, BR–Back Row (Flankers & No.8), HB–Half Backs (scrum half & outside half), MF–Midfield (centres), B3 –Back Three (wings & full back) for match analysis. Linear mixed models revealed significant differences between U20 and senior teams in both the forwards and backs. In the forwards the seniors covered greater HML distance (736.4 ± 280.3 vs 701.3 ± 198.7m, p = 0.01) and severe decelerations (2.38 ± 2.2 vs 2.28 ± 1.65, p = 0.05) compared to the U20s, but performed less relative HSR (3.1 ± 1.6 vs 3.2 ± 1.5, p < 0.01), moderate (19.4 ± 10.5 vs 23.6 ± 10.5, p = 0.01) and high accelerations (2.2 ± 1.9 vs 4.3 ± 2.7, p < 0.01) and sprint•min-1 (0.11 ± 0.06 vs 0.11 ± 0.05, p < 0.01). Senior backs covered a greater relative distance (73.3 ± 8.1 vs 69.1 ± 7.6 m•min-1, p < 0.01), greater High Metabolic Load (HML) distance (1138.0 ± 233.5 vs 1060.4 ± 218.1m, p < 0.01), HML efforts (112.7 ± 22.2 vs 98.8 ± 21.7, p < 0.01) and heavy decelerations (9.9 ± 4.3 vs 9.5 ± 4.4, p = 0.04) than the U20s backs. However, the U20s backs performed more relative HSR (7.3 ± 2.1 vs 7.2 ± 2.1, p <0.01) and sprint•min-1 (0.26 ± 0.07 vs 0.25 ± 0.07, p < 0.01). Further investigation highlighted differences between the 6 positional groups of the teams. The positional groups that differed the most on the variables measured were the FR and MF groups, with the U20s FR having higher outputs on HSR, moderate & high accelerations, moderate, high & severe decelerations, HML distance, HML efforts, and sprints•min-1. For the MF group the senior players produced greater values for relative distance covered, HSR, moderate decelerations, HML distance and sprint•min-1. The BR position group was most similar with the only differences seen on heavy accelerations (U20s higher) and moderate decelerations (seniors higher). Findings demonstrate that U20s internationals appear to be an adequate ‘stepping stone’ for preparing players for movement characteristics found senior International rugby, however, the current study highlight for the first time that certain positional groups may require more time to be able to match the movement demands required at a higher playing level than others. Conditioning staff must also bear in mind that the U20s players whilst maintaining or improving match movement capabilities may require to gain substantial mass in some positions to match their senior counterparts.

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<![CDATA[Cardiovascular Fitness and Energy Expenditure Response during a Combined Aerobic and Circuit Weight Training Protocol]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9fdab0ee8fa60b72acd

Objectives

The present study describes the oxygen uptake and total energy expenditure (including both aerobic and anaerobic contribution) response during three different circuit weight training (CWT) protocols of equivalent duration composed of free weight exercises, machine exercises, and a combination of free weight exercises intercalating aerobic exercise.

Design

Controlled, randomized crossover designs.

Methods

Subjects completed in a randomized order three circuit weight training protocols of the same duration (3 sets of 8 exercises, 45min 15s) and intensity (70% of 15 repetitions maximum). The circuit protocols were composed of free weight exercises, machine exercises, or a combination of free weight exercises with aerobic exercise. Oxygen consumption and lactate concentration were measured throughout the circuit to estimate aerobic and anaerobic energy expenditure respectively.

Results

Energy expenditure is higher in the combined exercise protocol (29.9±3.6 ml/kg/min), compared with Freeweight (24.2±2.8ml/kg/min) and Machine (20.4±2.9ml/kg/min). The combined exercise protocol produced the highest total energy expenditure but the lowest lactate concentration and perceived exertion. The anaerobic contribution to total energy expenditure was higher in the machine and free weight protocols compared with the combined exercise protocol (6.2%, 4.6% and 2.3% respectively).

Conclusions

In the proposed protocols, the combined exercise protocol results in the highest oxygen consumption. Total energy expenditure is related to the type of exercise included in the circuit. Anaerobic contributions to total energy expenditure during circuit weight training may be modest, but lack of their estimation may underestimate total energy expenditure.

Trial Registration

ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01116856

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<![CDATA[The Role of Arch Compression and Metatarsophalangeal Joint Dynamics in Modulating Plantar Fascia Strain in Running]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da99ab0ee8fa60ba2d82

Elastic energy returned from passive-elastic structures of the lower limb is fundamental in lowering the mechanical demand on muscles during running. The purpose of this study was to investigate the two length-modulating mechanisms of the plantar fascia, namely medial longitudinal arch compression and metatarsophalangeal joint (MPJ) excursion, and to determine how these mechanisms modulate strain, and thus elastic energy storage/return of the plantar fascia during running. Eighteen runners (9 forefoot and 9 rearfoot strike) performed three treadmill running trials; unrestricted shod, shod with restricted arch compression (via an orthotic-style insert), and barefoot. Three-dimensional motion capture and ground reaction force data were used to calculate lower limb kinematics and kinetics including MPJ angles, moments, powers and work. Estimates of plantar fascia strain due to arch compression and MPJ excursion were derived using a geometric model of the arch and a subject-specific musculoskeletal model of the plantar fascia, respectively. The plantar fascia exhibited a typical elastic stretch-shortening cycle with the majority of strain generated via arch compression. This strategy was similar in fore- and rear-foot strike runners. Restricting arch compression, and hence the elastic-spring function of the arch, was not compensated for by an increase in MPJ-derived strain. In the second half of stance the plantar fascia was found to transfer energy between the MPJ (energy absorption) and the arch (energy production during recoil). This previously unreported energy transfer mechanism reduces the strain required by the plantar fascia in generating useful positive mechanical work at the arch during running.

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<![CDATA[Optimum polygenic profile to resist exertional rhabdomyolysis during a marathon]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db4fab0ee8fa60bdbcc3

Purpose

Exertional rhabdomyolysis can occur in individuals performing various types of exercise but it is unclear why some individuals develop this condition while others do not. Previous investigations have determined the role of several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to explain inter-individual variability of serum creatine kinase (CK) concentrations after exertional muscle damage. However, there has been no research about the interrelationship among these SNPs. The purpose of this investigation was to analyze seven SNPs that are candidates for explaining individual variations of CK response after a marathon competition (ACE = 287bp Ins/Del, ACTN3 = p.R577X, CKMM = NcoI, IGF2 = C13790G, IL6 = 174G>C, MLCK = C37885A, TNFα = 308G>A).

Methods

Using Williams and Folland’s model, we determined the total genotype score from the accumulated combination of these seven SNPs for marathoners with a low CK response (n = 36; serum CK <400 U·L-1) vs. marathoners with a high CK response (n = 31; serum CK ≥400 U·L-1).

Results

At the end of the race, low CK responders had lower serum CK (290±65 vs. 733±405 U·L-1; P<0.01) and myoglobin concentrations (443±328 vs. 1009±971 ng·mL-1, P<0.01) than high CK responders. Although the groups were similar in age, anthropometric characteristics, running experience and training habits, total genotype score was higher in low CK responders than in high CK responders (5.2±1.4 vs. 4.4±1.7 point, P = 0.02).

Conclusion

Marathoners with a lower CK response after the race had a more favorable polygenic profile than runners with high serum CK concentrations. This might suggest a significant role of genetic polymorphisms in the levels of exertional muscle damage and rhabdomyolysis. Yet other SNPs, in addition to exercise training, might also play a role in the values of CK after damaging exercise.

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<![CDATA[Specific behavioral and cellular adaptations induced by chronic morphine are reduced by dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db51ab0ee8fa60bdc2af

Opiates, one of the oldest known drugs, are the benchmark for treating pain. Regular opioid exposure also induces euphoria making these compounds addictive and often misused, as shown by the current epidemic of opioid abuse and overdose mortalities. In addition to the effect of opioids on their cognate receptors and signaling cascades, these compounds also induce multiple adaptations at cellular and behavioral levels. As omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) play a ubiquitous role in behavioral and cellular processes, we proposed that supplemental n-3 PUFAs, enriched in docosahexanoic acid (DHA), could offset these adaptations following chronic opioid exposure. We used an 8 week regimen of n-3 PUFA supplementation followed by 8 days of morphine in the presence of this diet. We first assessed the effect of morphine in different behavioral measures and found that morphine increased anxiety and reduced wheel-running behavior. These effects were reduced by dietary n-3 PUFAs without affecting morphine-induced analgesia or hyperlocomotion, known effects of this opiate acting at mu opioid receptors. At the cellular level we found that morphine reduced striatal DHA content and that this was reversed by supplemental n-3 PUFAs. Chronic morphine also increased glutamatergic plasticity and the proportion of Grin2B-NMDARs in striatal projection neurons. This effect was similarly reversed by supplemental n-3 PUFAs. Gene analysis showed that supplemental PUFAs offset the effect of morphine on genes found in neurons of the dopamine receptor 2 (D2)-enriched indirect pathway but not of genes found in dopamine receptor 1(D1)-enriched direct-pathway neurons. Analysis of the D2 striatal connectome by a retrogradely transported pseudorabies virus showed that n-3 PUFA supplementation reversed the effect of chronic morphine on the innervation of D2 neurons by the dorsomedial prefontal and piriform cortices. Together these changes outline specific behavioral and cellular effects of morphine that can be reduced or reversed by dietary n-3 PUFAs.

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<![CDATA[Metabolic Power Requirement of Change of Direction Speed in Young Soccer Players: Not All Is What It Seems]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dac8ab0ee8fa60bb3314

Purpose

The aims of this study were to 1) compare the metabolic power demand of straight-line and change of direction (COD) sprints including 45° or 90°-turns, and 2) examine the relation between estimated metabolic demands and muscular activity throughout the 3 phases of COD-sprints.

Methods

Twelve highly-trained soccer players performed one 25-m and three 20-m sprints, either in straight-line or with one 45°- or 90°-COD. Sprints were monitored with 2 synchronized 100-Hz laser guns to assess players’ velocities before, during and after the COD. Acceleration and deceleration were derived from changes in speed over time. Metabolic power was estimated based on di Prampero’s approach (2005). Electromyography amplitude (RMS) of 2 lower limb muscles was measured. The expected energy expenditure during time-adjusted straight-line sprints (matching COD sprints time) was also calculated.

Results

Locomotor-dependant metabolic demand was largely lower with COD (90°, 142.1±13.5 J.kg-1) compared with time-adjusted (effect size, ES = -3.0; 193.2±18.6 J.kg-1) and non-adjusted straight-line sprints (ES = -1.7; 168.4±15.3 J.kg-1). Metabolic power requirement was angle-dependent, moderately lower for 90°-COD vs. 45°-COD sprint (ES = -1.0; 149.5±10.4 J.kg-1). Conversely, the RMS was slightly- (45°, ES = +0.5; +2.1%, 90% confidence limits (±3.6) for vastus lateralis muscle (VL)) to-largely (90°, ES = +1.6; +6.1 (3.3%) for VL) greater for COD-sprints. Metabolic power/RMS ratio was 2 to 4 times lower during deceleration than acceleration phases.

Conclusion

Present results show that COD-sprints are largely less metabolically demanding than linear sprints. This may be related to the very low metabolic demand associated with the deceleration phase during COD-sprints that may not be compensated by the increased requirement of the reacceleration phase. These results also highlight the dissociation between metabolic and muscle activity demands during COD-sprints, which questions the use of metabolic power as a single measure of running load in soccer.

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<![CDATA[Activity-Based Anorexia Alters the Expression of BDNF Transcripts in the Mesocorticolimbic Reward Circuit]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da80ab0ee8fa60b9a545

Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a complex eating disorder with severe dysregulation of appetitive behavior. The activity-based anorexia (ABA) paradigm is an animal model in which rodents exposed to both running wheels and scheduled feeding develop aspects of AN including paradoxical hypophagia, dramatic weight loss, and hyperactivity, while animals exposed to only one condition maintain normal body weight. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), an activity-dependent modulator of neuronal plasticity, is reduced in the serum of AN patients, and is a known regulator of feeding and weight maintenance. We assessed the effects of scheduled feeding, running wheel access, or both on the expression of BDNF transcripts within the mesocorticolimbic pathway. We also assessed the expression of neuronal cell adhesion molecule 1 (NCAM1) to explore the specificity of effects on BDNF within the mesocorticolimbic pathway. Scheduled feeding increased the levels of both transcripts in the hippocampus (HPC), increased NCAM1 mRNA expression in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), and decreased BDNF mRNA levels in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). In addition, wheel running increased BDNF mRNA expression in the VTA. No changes in either transcript were observed in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Furthermore, no changes in either transcript were induced by the combined scheduled feeding and wheel access condition. These data indicate that scheduled feeding or wheel running alter BDNF and NCAM1 expression levels in specific regions of the mesocorticolimbic pathway. These findings contribute to our current knowledge of the molecular alterations induced by ABA and may help elucidate possible mechanisms of AN pathology.

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<![CDATA[Sprint Start Kinetics of Amputee and Non-Amputee Sprinters]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9e4ab0ee8fa60b6ab61

The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between the forces applied to the starting blocks and the start performances (SPs) of amputee sprinters (ASs) and non-amputee sprinters (NASs). SPs of 154 male and female NASs (100-m personal records [PRs], 9.58–14.00 s) and 7 male ASs (3 unilateral above knee, 3 unilateral below knee, 1 bilateral below knee; 100 m PRs, 11.70–12.70 s) with running specific prostheses (RSPs) were analysed during full-effort sprint starts using instrumented starting blocks that measured the applied forces in 3D. Using the NAS dataset and a combination of factor analysis and multiple regression techniques, we explored the relationship between force characteristics and SP (quantified by normalized average horizontal block power). Start kinetics were subsequently compared between ASs and NASs who were matched based on their absolute 100 m PR and their 100 m PR relative to the world record in their starting class. In NASs, 86% of the variance in SP was shared with five latent factors on which measured parameters related to force application to the rear and front blocks and the respective push-off directions in the sagittal plane of motion were loaded. Mediolateral force application had little influence on SP. The SP of ASs was significantly reduced compared to that of NASs matched on the basis of relative 100-m PR (−33.8%; d = 2.11, p < 0.001), while a non-significant performance reduction was observed when absolute 100-m PRs were used (−17.7%; d = 0.79, p = 0.09). These results are at least partially explained by the fact that force application to the rear block was clearly impaired in the affected legs of ASs.

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<![CDATA[Spatiotemporal Parameters of 100-m Sprint in Different Levels of Sprinters with Unilateral Transtibial Amputation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dae6ab0ee8fa60bbda2f

The aim of this study was to investigate differences of the spatiotemporal parameters in a 100-m sprint among elite, sub-elite, and non-elite sprinters with a unilateral transtibial amputation. Using publicly available Internet broadcasts, we analyzed 125, 19, and 33 records from 30 elite, 12 sub-elite, and 22 non-elite sprinters, respectively. For each sprinter’s run, the average velocity, step frequency, and step length were calculated using the number of steps in conjunction with the official race time. Average velocity was greatest in elite sprinters (8.71±0.32 m/s), followed by the sub-elite (8.09±0.06 m/s) and non-elite groups (7.72±0.27 m/s). Although there was a significant difference in average step frequency between the three groups, the effect size was small and the relative difference among the three groups was 3.1%. Statistical analysis also revealed that the average step length was longest in elite sprinters, followed by the sub-elite and non-elite groups. These results suggest that the differences in sprint performance between the three groups is mainly due to the average step length rather than step frequency.

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