ResearchPad - rural-areas https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Is poverty the mother of crime? Evidence from homicide rates in China]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_15772 Income inequality is blamed for being the main driver of violent crime by the majority of the literature. However, earlier work on the topic largely neglects the role of poverty and income levels as opposed to income inequality. The current paper uses all court verdicts for homicide cases in China between 2014 and 2016, as well as various inequality measures calculated from 2005 mini census data together with a host of control variables to shed light on the relationship at the detailed Chinese prefecture-level. The results suggest that it is the poverty and low income level, rather than income inequality, that is positively related to homicide rates. We show that the internal rural-urban migration from more violent localities contributes to the destination cities’ homicide rates. The poverty-homicide association implies that instead of “relative deprivation”, “absolute deprivation” is mainly responsible for violent crime. Poverty is the mother of crime. —Marcus Aurelius (121-180AD), Emperor of the Roman Empire.

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<![CDATA[Trends and determinants of ever having tested for HIV among youth and adults in South Africa from 2005–2017: Results from four repeated cross-sectional nationally representative household-based HIV prevalence, incidence, and behaviour surveys]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14605 HIV testing contributes to the prevention and control of the HIV epidemic in the general population. South Africa has made strides to improve HIV testing towards reaching the first of the UNAIDS 90–90–90 targets by 2020. However, to date no nationally representative analysis has examined temporal trends and factors associated with HIV testing among youth and adults in the country.AimThis study aimed to examine the trends and associations with ever having tested for HIV among youth and adults aged 15 years and older in South Africa using the 2005, 2008, 2012 and 2017 nationally representative population-based household surveys.MethodsThe analysis of the data collected used multi-stage stratified cluster randomised cross-sectional design. P-trend chi-squared test was used to identify any significant changes over the four study periods. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine factors associated with HIV testing in each of the survey periods.ResultsEver having tested for HIV increased substantially from 2005 (30.6%, n = 16 112), 2008 (50.4%, n = 13 084), 2012 (65.5%, n = 26 381), to 2017 (75.2%, n = 23 190). Those aged 50 years and older were significantly less likely to ever have tested for HIV than those aged 25–49 years. Those residing in rural areas were significantly less likely to have tested for HIV as compared to people from urban areas.There was a change in HIV testing among race groups with Whites, Coloureds and Indian/Asians testing more in 2005 and 2008 and Black Africans in 2017. Marriage, education and employment were significantly associated with increased likelihood of ever testing for HIV. Those who provided a blood specimen for laboratory HIV testing in the survey rounds and were found to have tested positive were more likely to have ever tested for HIV previously.ConclusionThe results show that overall there has been an increase in ever having an HIV test in the South African population over time. The findings also suggest that for South Africa to close the testing gap and reach the first of the UNAIDS 90–90–90 targets by 2020, targeted programmes aimed at increasing access and utilization of HIV testing in young people, males, those not married, the less educated, unemployed and those residing in rural areas of South Africa should be prioritised. ]]> <![CDATA[Prevalence of anaemia and low intake of dietary nutrients in pregnant women living in rural and urban areas in the Ashanti region of Ghana]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N7036aac7-9527-4ec9-a4ca-1b112d15d377

Background

Anaemia remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality among women and children worldwide. Because deficiencies in essential micronutrients such as iron, folate and vitamin B12 prior to and during gestation increase a woman’s risk of being anaemic, adequate dietary intake of such nutrients is vital during this important phase in life. However, information on the dietary micronutrient intakes of pregnant women in Ghana, particularly of those resident in rural areas is scanty. Thus, this study aimed to assess anaemia prevalence and dietary micronutrient intakes in pregnant women in urban and rural areas in Ghana.

Methods

A comparative cross sectional study design involving 379 pregnant women was used to assess the prevalence of anaemia and low intake of dietary nutrients in pregnant women living in rural and urban areas in the Ashanti region of Ghana. Anaemia status and mid upper arm circumference (MUAC) were used as proxy for maternal nutritional status. Haemoglobin measurements were used to determine anaemia prevalence and the dietary diversity of the women were determined with a 24-hour dietary recall and a food frequency questionnaire.

Results

Overall, anaemia was present in 56.5% of the study population. Anaemia prevalence was higher among rural residents than urban dwellers. Majority of the respondents had inadequate intakes of iron, zinc, folate, calcium and vitamin A. The mean dietary diversity score (DDS) of the study population from the first 24-hour recall was 3.81 ± 0.7. Of the 379 women, 28.8% met the minimum dietary diversity for women (MDD-W). The independent predictors of haemoglobin concentration were, gestational age, maternal age and dietary diversity score. Such that respondents with low DDS were more likely to be anaemic than those with high DDS (OR = 1.795, p = 0.022, 95% CI: 1.086 to 2.967).

Conclusions

A large percentage of pregnant women still have insufficient dietary intakes of essential nutrients required to support the nutritional demands during pregnancy. Particularly, pregnant women resident in rural areas require interventions such as nutrition education on the selection and preparation of diversified meals to mitigate the effects of undernutrition.

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<![CDATA[Public finances and tobacco taxation with product variety: Theory and application to Senegal and Nigeria]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6f14b2d5eed0c48467a641

This study endeavors to answer two questions: which category of excise taxes is more appropriate for Senegal and Nigeria and which consequences an increase of the tobacco taxes would have on the price, the demand and the tax revenues in each one of the two countries? To answer these questions, we adopt a double approach: first, a theoretical model of taxation with variety; and second, a simulation model to answer the second question. The results of the theoretical model indicate that, in the context of excise taxation, the number of products variety—or that of cigarette brands—directly affects both the degree of market concentration and the marginal effects of specific and ad valorem excise taxes on the price of tobacco. In addition, the comparison of the marginal effects of ad valorem and specific excise taxes depends on the marginal costs of production of different varieties weighted by the tax rates and the number of varieties. Our empirical results first show that the specific excise taxes are more adapted to Senegal while ad valorem excise taxes fit best Nigeria. This result crucially matters for the excise taxes are exclusively of an ad valorem nature in both Senegal and Nigeria. It is perfectly possible to envisage a situation where the two main forms of excise taxes could co-exist. It also appears from our results that tax development does not have the same implications for the two countries. Increasing tobacco taxes in Senegal strongly reduces the demand, but also induces a decrease in the tax revenues, while this will imply a lesser decline in demand in Nigeria accompanied however by a sharp increase of the country’s tax revenues. This difference stems from the fact that the price-elasticity of tobacco demand is very high in Senegal, contrary to Nigeria. Finally, it is important to mention that there is a specific threshold beyond which the tax increases cease to have a positive effect on tax revenues in Nigeria.

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<![CDATA[The temporal trend and distribution characteristics in mortality of Alzheimer's disease and other forms of dementia in China: Based on the National Mortality Surveillance System (NMS) from 2009 to 2015]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5ca2bad5eed0c48441e98d

Background

China is experiencing rapid age, which will lead to increasing burden of age-related diseases, such as Alzheimer disease and other forms of dementia.

Objectives

The aim of this study was to 1) Explore the temporal trend of mortality of Alzheimer disease (AD) and other forms of dementia in China and 2) Analyze its geographic variations and urban-rural differences and calculate the years of life lost (YLLs) from AD and other forms of dementia.

Data and methods

Data were extracted from the National Mortality Surveillance System (NMS). Age-standardized mortalities were calculated with the Western Grade 26 Standard Life List, and the YLLs were calculated using the DALY template provided by the WHO / World Bank global burden of disease (GBD) Working Group. The trends in crude and age-standardized mortality of AD and other forms of dementia were examined using Cochran-Armitage trend test.

Results

In China, the crude mortality from AD and other forms of dementia increased from 2009 to 2015, but the age-standardized mortality decreased. The YLLs of AD and other forms of dementia increased during the study period. The age-standardized mortality in the east was higher than those in the west and middle regions, and the age-standardized mortality in rural areas was higher than that in urban areas.

Conclusion

In China, the age-standardized mortality of AD and other forms of dementia decreased from 2009 to 2015. However, the disease burden from AD and other forms of dementia is becoming heavier due to increasing elderly population. Moreover, there were geographic variations and urban-rural differences in mortality of AD and other forms of dementia in China.

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<![CDATA[How happy are your neighbours? Variation in life satisfaction among 1200 Canadian neighbourhoods and communities]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5217fed5eed0c484795ed8

This paper presents a new public-use dataset for community-level life satisfaction in Canada, based on more than 500,000 observations from the Canadian Community Health Surveys and the General Social Surveys. The country is divided into 1216 similarly sampled geographic regions, using natural, built, and administrative boundaries. A cross-validation exercise suggests that our choice of minimum sampling thresholds approximately maximizes the predictive power of our estimates. The resulting dataset reveals robust differences in life satisfaction between and across urban and rural communities. We compare aggregated life satisfaction data with a range of key census variables to illustrate some of the ways in which lives differ in the most and least happy communities.

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<![CDATA[Migrant physicians’ conceptions of working in rural and remote areas in Sweden: A qualitative study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c466519d5eed0c4845176b9

Objective

To explore migrant physicians’ conceptions about working in rural and remote areas in Sweden to understand what influences their motivation to work in these areas.

Method and material

The study employed a qualitative approach with semi-structured interviews with 24 migrant physicians. Transcripts were thematically analysed.

Results

Conceptions were identified about foremost work content and tasks, and about living in rural and remote areas. Work content and tasks related to the health care systems, type of health care facility, duties, specialty, resources, patient population, colleagues, and professional development. Conceptions about living concerned geographical characteristics, people living in rural and remote areas, opportunities for travelling, family, leisure activities, social life, and language skills. Conceptions seemed to be influenced by individual, professional and societal aspects from both previous countries and Sweden. Conceptions and biographical aspects both appeared to affect motivation.

Discussion

Motivation regarding working in rural and remote areas appeared to be influenced by conceptions of these areas. A specific type of place could be understood as being able to provide (or not) the external conditions needed for fulfilling needs and reaching goals, whether professional or personal, and as a tool for reaching or facilitating the achievement of these. Conceptions of an area can hence affect motivation and choices for where to work and live. However, biographical aspects also impact motivation. Our results indicate that positive rural experience in the recipient country might be a predictor for motivation.

Conclusion

Professional and personal life and are intertwined. Conceptions about an area influence willingness to work there. Willingness is also affected by, and intertwined with, other aspects such as previous experiences, age, marital status and family circumstances.

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<![CDATA[Association between severe drought and HIV prevention and care behaviors in Lesotho: A population-based survey 2016–2017]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c46652ad5eed0c484517c53

Background

A previous analysis of the impact of drought in Africa on HIV demonstrated an 11% greater prevalence in HIV-endemic rural areas attributable to local rainfall shocks. The Lesotho Population-Based HIV Impact Assessment (LePHIA) was conducted after the severe drought of 2014–2016, allowing for reevaluation of this relationship in a setting of expanded antiretroviral coverage.

Methods and findings

LePHIA selected a nationally representative sample between November 2016 and May 2017. All adults aged 15–59 years in randomly selected households were invited to complete an interview and HIV testing, with one woman per household eligible to answer questions on their experience of sexual violence. Deviations in rainfall for May 2014–June 2016 were estimated using precipitation data from Climate Hazards Group InfraRed Precipitation with Station Data (CHIRPS), with drought defined as <15% of the average rainfall from 1981 to 2016. The association between drought and risk behaviors as well as HIV-related outcomes was assessed using logistic regression, incorporating complex survey weights. Analyses were stratified by age, sex, and geography (urban versus rural). All of Lesotho suffered from reduced rainfall, with regions receiving 1%–36% of their historical rainfall. Of the 12,887 interviewed participants, 93.5% (12,052) lived in areas that experienced drought, with the majority in rural areas (7,281 versus 4,771 in urban areas). Of the 835 adults living in areas without drought, 520 were in rural areas and 315 in urban. Among females 15–19 years old, living in a rural drought area was associated with early sexual debut (odds ratio [OR] 3.11, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.43–6.74, p = 0.004), and higher HIV prevalence (OR 2.77, 95% CI 1.19–6.47, p = 0.02). It was also associated with lower educational attainment in rural females ages 15–24 years (OR 0.44, 95% CI 0.25–0.78, p = 0.005). Multivariable analysis adjusting for household wealth and sexual behavior showed that experiencing drought increased the odds of HIV infection among females 15–24 years old (adjusted OR [aOR] 1.80, 95% CI 0.96–3.39, p = 0.07), although this was not statistically significant. Migration was associated with 2-fold higher odds of HIV infection in young people (aOR 2.06, 95% CI 1.25–3.40, p = 0.006). The study was limited by the extensiveness of the drought and the small number of participants in the comparison group.

Conclusions

Drought in Lesotho was associated with higher HIV prevalence in girls 15–19 years old in rural areas and with lower educational attainment and riskier sexual behavior in rural females 15–24 years old. Policy-makers may consider adopting potential mechanisms to mitigate the impact of income shock from natural disasters on populations vulnerable to HIV transmission.

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<![CDATA[Depression and obesity, data from a national administrative database study: Geographic evidence for an epidemiological overlap]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c3e506ad5eed0c484d8177e

Background

Depression and obesity are two major conditions with both psychological and somatic burdens. Some data suggest strong connections between depression and obesity and more particularly associated prevalence of both disorders. However, little is known about the geographical distribution of these two diseases. This study aimed to determine if there is spatial overlap between obesity and depression using data from the entire French territory.

Methods

Data for 5,627 geographic codes for metropolitan France were collected from the two national hospital databases (PMSI-MCO and RIM-P) for the year 2016. We identified people who were depressed, obese or both registered in the two public medico-administrative databases, and we assessed their location. In addition, a multivariable analysis was performed in order to determine geographic interactions between obesity and depression after controlling for age, sex, environmental and socio-economic factors (social/material deprivation, urbanicity/rurality).

Results

1,045,682 people aged 18 years and older were identified. The mapping analysis showed several cold and hot regional clusters of coinciding obesity and depression. The multivariable analysis demonstrated significant geographic interactions, with an increasing probability of finding a high prevalence of obesity in regions with major depression (OR 1.29 95% CI 1.13–1.49, p = 0.0002) and an increased probability of finding a high prevalence of depression in regions with a high ration of obesity (OR 1.32, 95% CI 1.15–1.52, p<0.0001).

Conclusion

Our study confirms the significant bidirectional relationships between obesity and depression at a group level. French geographic patterns reveal a partial overlap between obesity and depression, suggesting these two diseases can be included in a common approach. Further studies should be done to increase the understanding of this complex comorbidity.

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<![CDATA[Operations research meets need related planning: Approaches for locating general practitioners’ practices]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c3fa598d5eed0c484ca6405

Background

In most western countries a shortage of general practitioners (GP) exists. Newly qualified GPs often prefer to work in teams rather than in single-handed practices. Therefore, new practices offering these kinds of working conditions will be attractive in the future. From a health care point of view, the location planning of new practices will be a crucial aspect. In this work we studied solutions for locating GP practices in a defined administrative district under different objectives.

Methods

Using operations research (OR), a research discipline that originated from logistics, different possible locations of GP practices were identified for the considered district. Models were developed under two main basic requirements: that one practice can be reached by as many inhabitants as possible and to cut down the driving time for every district’s inhabitant to the next practice location to less than 15 minutes. Input data included the demand (population), driving times and the current GP locations.

Results

Three different models were analysed ranging from one single practice solution to five different practices. The whole administrative district can reach the central community “A” in at most 23 minutes by car. Considering a maximum driving time of 15 minutes, locations in four different cities in the district would be sufficient.

Conclusion

Operations research methods can be used to determine locations for (new) GP practices. Depending on the concrete problem different models and approaches lead to varying solutions. These results must be discussed with GPs, mayors and patients to find robust locations regarding future developments.

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<![CDATA[Regional differences in the profile of disabled community-dwelling older adults: A European population-based cross-sectional study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c1966edd5eed0c484b53586

The main objective of this work was to estimate the prevalence of disability in European community-dwelling older adults, as well as to investigate differences in the profile of disabled older adults between European regions (Northern, Central, Eastern and Southern). A cross-sectional study based on wave 6 (2015) of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) was conducted. Community-dwelling participants aged 65–84 were selected (n = 33,369). Disability was defined as presenting at least one functional limitation in basic activities of daily living (BADL). Sociodemographic, health services, lifestyle and health-related variables were analyzed. Statistical analysis was carried out through the Chi-square and ANOVA tests for bivariate analysis, and Poisson regression for multivariate analysis. Overall prevalence of disability was 13.8%: 9.4% in the Northern region, 13.1% in the Southern region, 13.6% in the Central region, and 16.6% in the Eastern region. Portugal, Poland, Estonia and Belgium showed the highest prevalence of BADL limitations, while Sweden, Denmark, Greece and Switzerland showed the lowest prevalence. Besides, disabled older adults from East Europe presented the most disadvantaged health profile, followed by the Southern region. On the other hand, disabled older adults living in the Northern region showed the most advantaged characteristics of most variables, except for smoking and polypharmacy.

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<![CDATA[Asymmetric relationship of urbanization and CO2 emissions in less developed countries]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c141f15d5eed0c484d29959

Understanding the relationship between carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and the urbanization of national populations has been a key concern for environmental scholars for several decades. Although sophisticated modeling techniques have been developed to explore the connection between increases in urban populations and CO2 emissions, none has attempted to assess whether declines in urbanization have an effect on emissions that is not symmetrical with that of growth in urbanization. The present study uses panel data on CO2 emissions and the percentage of individuals living in urban areas, as well as a variety of other structural factors, for less-developed countries from 1960–2010, to empirically assess whether the effect of growth in urban populations on emissions is symmetrical with the effect of decline. Findings indicate that the effect of growth/decline in urban populations on CO2 emissions is asymmetrical, where a decline in urbanization reduces emissions to a much greater degree than urbanization increases emissions. We hypothesize that this is at least in part because deurbanization is connected with disruptions to the production and distribution of goods and services and/or access to electricity and other energy sources. Our finding suggests that not only the absolute level of urbanization of nations matters for emissions, but also how the patterns of migration between rural and urban areas change over time. Future research should be mindful of the processes behind deurbanization when exploring socioeconomic drivers of CO2 emissions.

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<![CDATA[Snakebite incidence in two townships in Mandalay Division, Myanmar]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b4f2cce463d7e25bffba870

Introduction

The global incidence of snakebite is estimated at more than 2.5 million cases annually, with greater than 100,000 deaths. Historically, Myanmar has one of the highest incidences of venomous snakebites. In order to improve the health outcomes of snakebite patients in Myanmar, access to accurate snakebite incidence data is crucial. The last population-based study in Myanmar was conducted more than a decade ago. In 2014, the Ministry of Health and Sports data from health facilities indicated an incidence of about 29.5 bites/ 100,000 population/year (a total of 15,079 bites). Since data from health facilities lack information about those who do not seek health care from government health services, a new population-based survey was conducted in 2 rural areas of Mandalay region. The survey data were compared to those obtained from healthcare services.

Method

4,276 rural respondents in Kyaukse and Madaya townships in Mandalay Division were recruited using cluster sampling that involved random selection of 150 villages and random sampling of 30 households from each village. One adult member of each household was interviewed using a structured questionnaire.

Results

One respondent from each of 4,276 households represented 19,877 residents from 144 villages. 24 people in these households had suffered snakebite during the last one year giving an annual incidence of 116/100,000. During the last ten years, 252 people suffered snakebites. 44.1% of the victims were women. 14% of the villages reported 4 or more bites during the last ten years, whereas 27% villages reported no snakebites. 92.4% of the victims recovered fully, 5.4% died, and 2% suffered long term health issues. One victim was reported to have died from causes unrelated to the snakebite. While there was no statistically significant difference between outcomes for children and adults, 4 of 38 of those under 18 years of age died compared to 7 of 133 adults between 19 to 40 years of age.

Conclusion

This incidence reported by the community members points to substantially more snakebites than the number of snakebite patients attending health facilities. This higher incidence points to the need for a nation-wide population-based survey, community education about gaining access to care where antivenom is available, and to the potential need for a larger supply of antivenom and expansion of medical care in rural areas.

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<![CDATA[A retrospective evaluation of bites at risk of rabies transmission across 7 years: The need to improve surveillance and reporting systems for rabies elimination]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b4a08dd463d7e3fbe689130

The vast majority of rabies deaths occur in developing countries and rural areas. Due to the absence of surveillance and the lack of reliable information, many endemic countries are not able to assess their rabies burden and implement appropriate solutions. This study reports the incidence of animal bites considered at risk of rabies transmission, along with rates and determinants of the adherence to post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) between 2008 and 2014 in Dodoma Region, Tanzania. A retrospective analysis of rabid animal bites considered at risk of rabies transmission at Dodoma Regional Referral Hospital (DRRH) during 2008–2014 was conducted. Data were collected from the registers of patients presenting to the hospital because of a potential rabies exposure. The patients were assessed by a trained health worker and each bite was considered as “at risk of rabies” based on the victim’s description of the event. Overall, 10,771 patients coming from Dodoma Region attended DRRH because of a bite from a suspected rabid animal, giving a mean incidence of 74 bites at risk of rabies transmission per 100,000 persons per year. Overall, only 46.0% of people exposed received a complete course of PEP and 61.6% attended the clinic within 48 hours after the bite. Multivariate analysis shows that people age >15 years, residence in rural areas and occurrence during the rainy season were independently associated to delayed access to care. Male gender, age below 15 years. and bites occurring during the dry season were associated with completion of PEP. In this area with a high rate of at-risk bites, several factors—mainly related to health care access and to the affordability and delivery of rabies vaccines—still need to be addressed in order to reduce gender and social inequalities in rabies prevention and control. Further efforts are required to establish an efficient rabies surveillance system in Dodoma Region.

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<![CDATA[What Explains Cambodia’s Success in Reducing Child Stunting-2000-2014?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da33ab0ee8fa60b853b4

In many developing countries, high levels of child undernutrition persist alongside rapid economic growth. There is considerable interest in the study of countries that have made rapid progress in child nutrition to uncover the driving forces behind these improvements. Cambodia is often cited as a success case having reduced the incidence of child stunting from 51% to 34% over the period 2000 to 2014. To what extent is this success driven by improvements in the underlying determinants of nutrition, such as wealth and education, (“covariate effects”) and to what extent by changes in the strengths of association between these determinants and nutrition outcomes (“coefficient effects”)? Using determinants derived from the widely-applied UNICEF framework for the analysis of child nutrition and data from four Demographic and Health Surveys datasets, we apply quantile regression based decomposition methods to quantify the covariate and coefficient effect contributions to this improvement in child nutrition. The method used in the study allows the covariate and coefficient effects to vary across the entire distribution of child nutrition outcomes. There are important differences in the drivers of improvements in child nutrition between severely stunted and moderately stunted children and between rural and urban areas. The translation of improvements in household endowments, characteristics and practices into improvements in child nutrition (the coefficient effects) may be influenced by macroeconomic shocks or other events such as natural calamities or civil disturbance and may vary substantially over different time periods. Our analysis also highlights the need to explicitly examine the contribution of targeted child health and nutrition interventions to improvements in child nutrition in developing countries.

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<![CDATA[Effectiveness of Multiple-Strategy Community Intervention in Reducing Geographical, Socioeconomic and Gender Based Inequalities in Maternal and Child Health Outcomes in Haryana, India]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da35ab0ee8fa60b86152

Objective

The implemented multiple-strategy community intervention National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) between 2005 and 2012 aimed to reduce maternal and child health (MCH) inequalities across geographical, socioeconomic and gender categories in India. The objective of this study is to quantify the extent of reduction in these inequalities pre- and post-NRHM in Haryana, North India.

Methods

Data of district-level household surveys (DLHS) held before (2002–04), during (2007–08), and after (2012–13) the implementation of NRHM has been used. Geographical, socioeconomic and gender inequalities in maternal and child health were assessed by estimating the absolute differences in MCH indicators between urban and rural areas, between the most advantaged and least advantaged socioeconomic groups and between male and female children. Logistic regression analyses were done to observe significant differences in these inequalities between 2005 and 2012.

Results

There were significant improvements in all MCH indicators (p<0.05). The geographical and socioeconomic differences between urban and rural areas, and between rich and poor were significantly (p<0.05) reduced for pregnant women who had an institutional delivery (geographical difference declining from 22% to 7.6%; socioeconomic from 48.2% to 13%), post-natal care within 2 weeks of delivery (2.8% to 1.5%; 30.3% to 7%); and for children with full vaccination (10% to 3.5%, 48.3% to 14%) and who received oral rehydration solution (ORS) for diarrhea (11% to -2.2%; 41% to 5%). Inequalities between male and female children were significantly (p<0.05) reversed for full immunization (5.7% to -0.6%) and BCG immunization (1.9 to -0.9 points), and a significant (p<0.05) decrease was observed for oral polio vaccine (4.0% to 0%) and measles vaccine (4.2% to 0.1%).

Conclusions

The implemented multiple-strategy community intervention National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) between 2005 and 2012 might have resulted in significant reductions in geographical, socioeconomic and gender inequalities in MCH in Haryana, as causal relationships cannot be established with descriptive research.

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<![CDATA[Incidence of induced abortion in Malawi, 2015]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db51ab0ee8fa60bdc2aa

Background

In Malawi, abortion is legal only if performed to save a woman’s life; other attempts to procure an abortion are punishable by 7–14 years imprisonment. Most induced abortions in Malawi are performed under unsafe conditions, contributing to Malawi’s high maternal mortality ratio. Malawians are currently debating whether to provide additional exceptions under which an abortion may be legally obtained. An estimated 67,300 induced abortions occurred in Malawi in 2009 (equivalent to 23 abortions per 1,000 women aged 15–44), but changes since 2009, including dramatic increases in contraceptive prevalence, may have impacted abortion rates.

Methods

We conducted a nationally representative survey of health facilities to estimate the number of cases of post-abortion care, as well as a survey of knowledgeable informants to estimate the probability of needing and obtaining post-abortion care following induced abortion. These data were combined with national population and fertility data to determine current estimates of induced abortion and unintended pregnancy in Malawi using the Abortion Incidence Complications Methodology.

Results

We estimate that approximately 141,044 (95% CI: 121,161–160,928) induced abortions occurred in Malawi in 2015, translating to a national rate of 38 abortions per 1,000 women aged 15–49 (95% CI: 32 to 43); which varied by geographical zone (range: 28–61). We estimate that 53% of pregnancies in Malawi are unintended, and that 30% of unintended pregnancies end in abortion. Given the challenges of estimating induced abortion, and the assumptions required for calculation, results should be viewed as approximate estimates, rather than exact measures.

Conclusions

The estimated abortion rate in 2015 is higher than in 2009 (potentially due to methodological differences), but similar to recent estimates from nearby countries including Tanzania (36), Uganda (39), and regional estimates in Eastern and Southern Africa (34–35). Over half of pregnancies in Malawi are unintended. Our findings should inform ongoing efforts to reduce maternal morbidity and mortality and to improve public health in Malawi.

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<![CDATA[Concentration of Access to Information and Communication Technologies in the Municipalities of the Brazilian Legal Amazon]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989daa5ab0ee8fa60ba746a

This study fills demand for data on access and use of information and communication technologies (ICT) in the Brazilian legal Amazon, a region of localities with identical economic, political, and social problems. We use the 2010 Brazilian Demographic Census to compile data on urban and rural households (i) with computers and Internet access, (ii) with mobile phones, and (iii) with fixed phones. To compare the concentration of access to ICT in the municipalities of the Brazilian Amazon with other regions of Brazil, we use a concentration index to quantify the concentration of households in the following classes: with computers and Internet access, with mobile phones, with fixed phones, and no access. These data are analyzed along with municipal indicators on income, education, electricity, and population size. The results show that for urban households, the average concentration in the municipalities of the Amazon for computers and Internet access and for fixed phones is lower than in other regions of the country; meanwhile, that for no access and mobile phones is higher than in any other region. For rural households, the average concentration in the municipalities of the Amazon for computers and Internet access, mobile phones, and fixed phones is lower than in any other region of the country; meanwhile, that for no access is higher than in any other region. In addition, the study shows that education and income are determinants of inequality in accessing ICT in Brazilian municipalities and that the existence of electricity in rural households is directly associated with the ownership of ICT resources.

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<![CDATA[Disease Burden Due to Herpes Zoster among Population Aged ≥50 Years Old in China: A Community Based Retrospective Survey]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da35ab0ee8fa60b85d81

Objective

To understand the disease burden due to Herpes Zoster (HZ) among people aged ≥50 years old in China and provide baseline data for future similar studies, and provide evidence for development of herpes zoster vaccination strategy.

Methods

Retrospective cohort study was conducted in 4 townships and one community. A questionnaire was used to collect information on incidence and cost of HZ among people aged ≥ 50 years old.

Results

The cumulative incidence rate was 22.6/1,000 among people aged ≥ 50 years old. The average annual incidence rate of HZ was 3.43/1,000 among people aged ≥ 50 years old in 2010–2012. Cumulative incidence and average annual incidence rate increased with age: the cumulative incidence of HZ among people aged ≥ 80 years old was 3.34 times of that among 50- years old (52.3/1000vs15.7/1,000); average annual incidence rate rises from 2.66/1,000 among 50- years old to 8.55/1,000 among 80- year old. Cumulative incidence and average annual incidence rate for females were higher than that for males (cumulative incidence, 26.5/1000vs18.7/1,000; annual incidence rate, 3.95/1000vs2.89/1,000). Cumulative incidence and average annual incidence rate in urban were higher than in rural (cumulative incidence, 39.5/1000vs 17.2/1,000; annual incidence rate, 7.65/1000vs2.06/1,000). The hospitalization rate of HZ was 4.53%. And with the increase of age, the rate has an increasing trend. HZ costs 945,709.5 RMB in total, corresponding to 840.6 RMB per patient with a median cost of 385 RMB (interquartile range 171.7–795.6). Factors associated with cost included the first onset year, area, whether hospitalized and whether sequelae left.

Conclusion

Incidence rate, complications, hospitalization rate and average cost of HZ increase with age. We recommend that the HZ vaccinations should target people aged ≥50 years old if Zoster vaccine is licensed in China.

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<![CDATA[PHQ-9 and PHQ-2 for Screening Depression in Chinese Rural Elderly]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da40ab0ee8fa60b89c46

Objectives

This study aimed to explore cut-off scores of the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and 2-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-2) for depression screening in Chinese rural elderly.

Methods

A cross-sectional study was conducted on 839 residents aged 60 years and above in rural areas of Liuyang County. PHQ-9 was adopted to evaluate depression. The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM Disorders (SCID-I) was adopted to diagnose major depressive disorder (MDD) as a golden standard. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value, positive and negative likelihood ratio, Youden’s index and the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve were analyzed on PHQ-9 and PHQ-2.

Results

The Cronbach's alphas of PHQ-9 and PHQ-2 were 0.82 and 0.76, respectively. The score of 8 of the PHQ-9 showed the highest Youden’s index of 0.85, with a sensitivity of 0.97 and specificity of 0.89 respectively, and the area under the ROC curve (AUC) was 0.97 (95% CI: 0.96–0.98). The score of 3 of PHQ-2 showed the highest Youden’s index of 0.79, with both sensitivity and specificity were 0.90 and the AUC was 0.94 (95% CI: 0.90–0.97).

Conclusions

Both PHQ-9 and PHQ-2 are valid screening instruments for depression in the rural elderly in China, with recommended cut-off scores of 8 and 3 respectively.

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