ResearchPad - safety-equipment https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Zinc isotope variations in archeological human teeth (Lapa do Santo, Brazil) reveal dietary transitions in childhood and no contamination from gloves]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14585 Zinc (Zn) isotope ratios of dental enamel are a promising tracer for dietary reconstruction in archeology, but its use is still in its infancy. A recent study demonstrated a high risk of Zn contamination from nitrile, and latex gloves used during chemical sample preparation. Here we assess the potential impact of the use of such gloves during enamel sampling on the Zn isotope composition of teeth from a population of early Holocene hunter gatherers from Lapa do Santo, Lagoa Santa, Minas Gerais, Brazil. We first examined the amount of Zn and its isotopic composition released from the gloves used in this study by soaking them in weak nitric acid and water. We compared Zn isotope ratios obtained from teeth that were sampled wearing nitrile, latex or no gloves. Finally, we performed a linear mixed model (LMM) to investigate post hoc the relationship between the gloves used for sampling and the Zn isotope variability in dental enamel. We found that the gloves used in this study released a similar amount of Zn compared to previous work, but only in acidic solution. Zn isotope ratios of teeth and the LMM identified no sign of significant Zn coming from the gloves when teeth were handled for enamel sampling. We hypothesize that Zn in gloves is mostly released by contact with acids. We found that the main source of Zn isotope variability in the Lapa do Santo population was related to the developmental stage of the tooth tissues sampled. We report identical results for two individuals coming from a different archeological context. Tooth enamel formed in utero and/or during the two first years of life showed higher Zn isotope ratios than enamel formed after weaning. More work is required to systematically investigate if Zn isotopes can be used as a breastfeeding tracer.

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<![CDATA[A tolerability assessment of new respiratory protective devices developed for health care personnel: A randomized simulated clinical study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c3fa600d5eed0c484cab058

Background

U.S. health care personnel (HCP) have reported that some respiratory protective devices (RPD) commonly used in health care have suboptimal tolerability. Between 2012 and 2016, the U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, and the Veterans Health Administration collaborated with two respirator manufacturers, Company A and B, to bring new RPD with improved tolerability to the U.S. health care marketplace. The purpose of this study was to compare the tolerability of four new prototype RPD to two models commonly used in U.S. health care delivery.

Methods

A randomized, simulated workplace study was conducted to compare self-reported tolerability of four new prototype RPD (A1, A2, B1, and B2) worn by HCP and two N95 control respirators commonly used in U.S. health care delivery, the 1870 and 1860, manufactured by 3M Corporation. A new survey tool, the Respirator Comfort, Wearing Experience, and Function Instrument (R-COMFI), developed previously in part for the current study, was used as the primary outcome metric. With a maximum total score of 47, lower R-COMFI scores reflected better self-reported tolerability. Poisson regression analyses were used to estimate prototype relative risks compared to controls.

Results

Conducted between 2014 and 2015 in two inpatient care rooms at the North Florida/South Georgia Veterans Health System, among 383 participants who enrolled, 335 (87.5%) completed the study. Mean total R-COMFI scores for the 3M 1870, 3M 1860, and prototypes A1, A2, B1, and B2 were 8.26, 9.36, 5.79, 7.70, 6.09, and 5.71, respectively. Compared to the 3M 1870, total R-COMFI unadjusted relative risks (RR) and 95 percent confidence intervals (CI) were A1 (RR 0.70, CI 0.60, 0.82), A2 (RR 0.93, CI 0.82, 1.06), B1 (RR 0.74, CI 0.64, 0.85), and B2 (RR 0.69, CI 0.60, 0.80). Compared to the 3M 1860, prototype total R-COMFI unadjusted RR and 95 percent CI were A1 (RR 0.62, CI 0.53, 0.72), A2 (RR 0.82, CI 0.73, 0.93), B1 (RR 0.65, CI 0.57, 0.74), and B2 (RR 0.61, CI 0.53, 0.70). Similarly, models adjusted for demographic characteristics showed that prototypes A1, B1, and B2 significantly improved tolerability scores compared to both controls, while prototype A2 was significantly improved compared to the 3M 1860.

Conclusions

Compared to the 3M 1870 and 3M 1860, two RPDs commonly used in U.S. health care delivery, tolerability improved for three of four newly developed prototypes in this simulated workplace study. The R-COMFI tool, used in this study to assess tolerability, should be useful for future comparative studies of RPD.

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<![CDATA[Constructing Pairing-Friendly Elliptic Curves under Embedding Degree 1 for Securing Critical Infrastructures]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989daf1ab0ee8fa60bc1380

Information confidentiality is an essential requirement for cyber security in critical infrastructure. Identity-based cryptography, an increasingly popular branch of cryptography, is widely used to protect the information confidentiality in the critical infrastructure sector due to the ability to directly compute the user’s public key based on the user’s identity. However, computational requirements complicate the practical application of Identity-based cryptography. In order to improve the efficiency of identity-based cryptography, this paper presents an effective method to construct pairing-friendly elliptic curves with low hamming weight 4 under embedding degree 1. Based on the analysis of the Complex Multiplication(CM) method, the soundness of our method to calculate the characteristic of the finite field is proved. And then, three relative algorithms to construct pairing-friendly elliptic curve are put forward. 10 elliptic curves with low hamming weight 4 under 160 bits are presented to demonstrate the utility of our approach. Finally, the evaluation also indicates that it is more efficient to compute Tate pairing with our curves, than that of Bertoni et al.

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<![CDATA[The relationship between occupational noise and vibration exposure and headache/eyestrain, based on the fourth Korean Working Condition Survey (KWCS)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db5cab0ee8fa60bdffad

Introduction

The individual and combined effect of occupational noise and vibration exposures, on workers’ health has not been thoroughly investigated. In order to find better ways to prevent and manage workers’ headache, this study aimed to investigate the effects of occupational noise and vibration exposure on headache/eyestrain.

Methods

We used data from the fourth Korean Working Condition Survey (2014). After applying inclusion and exclusion criteria, 25,751 workers were included. Occupational noise and vibration exposure and the prevalence of headache/eyestrain were investigated by self-reported survey. Chi-square tests were used to compare differences in baseline characteristics between the group with headache/eyestrain and the group without. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated using a logistic regression model adjusted for several covariates. Area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUROC) analysis was used to evaluate the effect of occupational noise and/or vibration exposure.

Results

Among the 25,751 study subjects, 4,903 had experienced headache/eyestrain in the preceding year. There were significant differences in age, education level, household income, occupational classification, shift work, occupational vibration exposure, and occupational noise exposure between the two groups (all p<0.05). The odds ratios between each exposure and headache/eyestrain increased proportionally with the level of exposure, increasing from 1.08 to 1.26 with increasing vibration exposure, and from 1.25 to 1.41 with increasing noise exposure. According to the AUROC analysis, the predictive power of each exposure was significant, and increased when the two exposures were considered in combination.

Discussion

The findings of this study show that both occupational noise and vibration exposures are associated with headache/eyestrain; noise exposure more strongly so. However, when the two exposures are considered in combination, the explanatory power for headache/eyestrain is increased. Therefore, efforts aimed at reducing and managing occupational noise and vibration exposure are crucial to maintaining workers’ health.

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<![CDATA[Influenza like Illness among Medical Residents Anticipates Influenza Diffusion in General Population: Data from a National Survey among Italian Medical Residents]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9d6ab0ee8fa60b66129

The aim of this multicentre study was to assess incidence of influenza like illness (ILI) among Italian medical residents (MRs) during 2011–2012 influenza season, to detect variables associated with ILI and to compare estimated ILI incidence among MRs and general population. A cross-sectional survey was carried out throughout an anonymous questionnaire administered to all MRs attending the post-graduate medical schools of 18 Italian Universities. At the same time an analysis of the ILI incidence in the Italian general population was conducted through the Italian Influenza Surveillance Network. Of a total of 2,506 MRs, 1,191 (47.5%) reported at least one ILI episode. A higher proportion of ILIs was reported by MRs of Central (25.0% with ILI vs 20.2% without ILI) and Southern Italy (40.2% with ILI vs. 36.4 without ILI) compared to Northern Italy (34.8% with ILI vs. 43.4% without ILI) (p<0.001). Italian MRs had a higher cumulative incidence of ILIs (546.7 episodes per 1,000 vs. 75.9 episodes per 1,000) and an earlier peak (January 2012 vs. February 2012), compared to general population due to higher number of contacts in hospital setting. MRs reported a high rate of ILI infection probably in association with their working activities. These data suggest the need to offer an earlier influenza vaccination to HCWs than general population with the aim to both prevent ILI and its transmission to patients.

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<![CDATA[Study on lockage safety of LNG-fueled ships based on FSA]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db54ab0ee8fa60bdd15a

In the present study, formal safety assessment (FSA) is introduced to investigate lockage safety of LNG-fueled ships. Risk sources during lockage of LNG-fueled ships in four typical scenarios, namely, navigation between two dams, lockage, anchorage, and fueling, are identified, and studied in combination with fundamental leakage probabilities of various components of LNG storage tanks, and simulation results of accident consequences. Some suggestions for lockage safety management of LNG-fueled ships are then proposed. The present research results have certain practical significance for promoting applications of LNG-fueled ships along Chuanjiang River and in Three Gorges Reservoir Region.

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<![CDATA[Disease Risk Perception and Safety Practices: A Survey of Australian Flying Fox Rehabilitators]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da49ab0ee8fa60b8c5c9

Interactions with flying foxes pose disease transmission risks to volunteer rehabilitators (carers) who treat injured, ill, and orphaned bats. In particular, Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV) can be transmitted directly from flying foxes to humans in Australia. Personal protective equipment (PPE) and rabies vaccination can be used to protect against lyssavirus infection. During May and June 2014, active Australian flying fox carers participated in an online survey (SOAR: Survey Of Australian flying fox Rehabilitators) designed to gather demographic data, assess perceptions of disease risk, and explore safety practices. Responses to open-ended questions were analysed thematically. A logistic regression was performed to assess whether rehabilitators’ gender, use of PPE, threat perception, and years of experience predicted variation in their odds of being bitten or scratched. Eligible responses were received from 122 rehabilitators located predominantly on the eastern coast of Australia. Eighty-four percent of respondents were female. Years of experience ranged from <1 to 30 years (median 5 years). Respondents were highly educated. All rehabilitators were vaccinated against rabies and 94% received a rabies titre check at least every two years. Sixty-three percent of carers did not perceive viruses in flying foxes as a potential threat to their health, yet 74% of carers reported using PPE when handling flying foxes. Eighty-three percent of rehabilitators had received a flying fox bite or scratch at some point during their career. Carers provide an important community service by rescuing and rehabilitating flying foxes. While rehabilitators in this study have many excellent safety practices, including a 100% vaccination rate against rabies, there is room for improvement in PPE use. We recommend 1) the establishment of an Australia-wide set of guidelines for safety when caring for bats and 2) that the responsible government agencies in Australia support carers who rescue potentially ABLV-infected bats by offering compensation for PPE.

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<![CDATA[Bats and Academics: How Do Scientists Perceive Their Object of Study?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db39ab0ee8fa60bd4260

Bats are associated with conflicting perceptions among humans, ranging from affection to disgust. If these attitudes can be associated with various factors among the general public (e.g. social norms, lack of knowledge), it is also important to understand the attitude of scientists who study bats. Such reflexive information on the researchers community itself could indeed help designing adequate mixed communication tools aimed at protecting bats and their ecosystems, as well as humans living in their vicinity that could be exposed to their pathogens. Thus, we conducted an online survey targeting researchers who spend a part of their research activity studying bats. Our aim was to determine (1) how they perceive their object of study, (2) how they perceive the representation of bats in the media and by the general population, (3) how they protect themselves against pathogen infections during their research practices, and (4) their perceptions of the causes underlying the decline in bat populations worldwide. From the 587 completed responses (response rate of 28%) having a worldwide distribution, the heterogeneity of the scientists’ perception of their own object of study was highlighted. In the majority of cases, this depended on the type of research they conducted (i.e. laboratory versus field studies) as well as their research speciality. Our study revealed a high level of personal protection equipment being utilised against pathogens during scientific practices, although the role bats play as reservoirs for a number of emerging pathogens remains poorly known. Our results also disclosed the unanimity among specialists in attributing a direct role for humans in the global decline of bat populations, mainly via environmental change, deforestation, and agriculture intensification. Overall, the present study suggests the need for better communication regarding bats and their biology, their role within the scientific community, as well as in the general public population. As a consequence, increased knowledge regarding scientists’ perceptions of bats should improve the role scientists play in influencing the perception of bats by the general public.

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<![CDATA[Personal Protection of Permethrin-Treated Clothing against Aedes aegypti, the Vector of Dengue and Zika Virus, in the Laboratory]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db3cab0ee8fa60bd514b

Background

The dengue and Zika viruses are primarily transmitted by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, which are most active during day light hours and feed both in and outside of the household. Personal protection technologies such as insecticide-treated clothing could provide individual protection. Here we assessed the efficacy of permethrin-treated clothing on personal protection in the laboratory.

Methods

The effect of washing on treated clothing, skin coverage and protection against resistant and susceptible Ae. aegypti was assessed using modified WHO arm-in-cage assays. Coverage was further assessed using free-flight room tests to investigate the protective efficacy of unwashed factory-dipped permethrin-treated clothing. Clothing was worn as full coverage (long sleeves and trousers) and partial coverage (short sleeves and shorts). Residual permethrin on the skin and its effect on mosquitoes was measured using modified WHO cone assays and quantified using high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis.

Results

In the arm-in-cage assays, unwashed clothing reduced landing by 58.9% (95% CI 49.2–66.9) and biting by 28.5% (95% CI 22.5–34.0), but reduced to 18.5% (95% CI 14.7–22.3) and 11.1% (95% CI 8.5–13.8) respectively after 10 washes. Landing and biting for resistant and susceptible strains was not significantly different (p<0.05). In free-flight room tests, full coverage treated clothing reduced landing by 24.3% (95% CI 17.4–31.7) and biting by 91% (95% CI 82.2–95.9) with partial coverage reducing landing and biting by 26.4% (95% CI 20.3–31.2) and 49.3% (95% CI 42.1–59.1) respectively with coverage type having no significant difference on landing (p<0.05). Residual permethrin was present on the skin in low amounts (0.0041mg/cm2), but still produced a KD of >80% one hour after wearing treated clothing.

Conclusion

Whilst partially covering the body with permethrin-treated clothing provided some protection against biting, wearing treated clothing with long sleeves and trousers provided the highest form of protection. Washing treated clothing dramatically reduced protection provided. Permethrin-treated clothing could provide protection to individuals from Ae. aegypti that show permethrin resistance. Additionally, it could continue to provide protection even after the clothing has been worn. Field trials are urgently needed to determine whether clothing can protect against dengue and Zika.

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<![CDATA[Respiratory Health – Exposure Measurements and Modeling in the Fragrance and Flavour Industry]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da2fab0ee8fa60b83d41

Although the flavor and fragrance industry is about 150 years old, the use of synthetic materials started more than 100 years ago, and the awareness of the respiratory hazard presented by some flavoring substances emerged only recently. In 2001, the US National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) identified for the first time inhalation exposure to flavoring substances in the workplace as a possible occupational hazard. As a consequence, manufacturers must comply with a variety of workplace safety requirements, and management has to ensure the improvement of health and safety of the employees exposed to hazardous volatile organic compounds. In this sensitive context, MANE opened its facilities to an intensive measuring campaign with the objective to better estimate the real level of hazardous respiratory exposure of workers. In this study, exposure to 27 hazardous volatile substances were measured during several types of handling operations (weighing-mixing, packaging, reconditioning-transferring), 430 measurement results were generated, and were exploited to propose an improved model derived from the well-known ECETOC-TRA model. The quantification of volatile substances in the working atmosphere involved three main steps: adsorption of the chemicals on a solid support, thermal desorption, followed by analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Our approach was to examine experimental measures done in various manufacturing workplaces and to define correction factors to reflect more accurately working conditions and habits. Four correction factors were adjusted in the ECETOC-TRA to integrate important exposure variation factors: exposure duration, percentage of the substance in the composition, presence of collective protective equipment and wearing of personal protective equipment. Verification of the validity of the model is based on the comparison of the values obtained after adaptation of the ECETOC-TRA model, according to various exposure scenarios, with the experimental values measured under real conditions. After examination of the predicted results, 98% of the values obtained with the proposed new model were above the experimental values measured in real conditions. This must be compared with the results of the classical ECETOC-TRA system, which generates only 37% of overestimated values. As the values generated by the new model intended to help decision-makers of the industry to implement adapted protective action and information, and considering the high variability of the working environments, it was of the utmost importance to us not to underestimate the exposure level. The proposed correction factors have been designed to achieve this goal. We wish to propose the present method as an improved monitoring tool to improve respiratory health and safety in the flavor and fragrance manufacturing facilities.

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<![CDATA[Integrating Soft Set Theory and Fuzzy Linguistic Model to Evaluate the Performance of Training Simulation Systems]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dad8ab0ee8fa60bb8a86

The advancement of high technologies and the arrival of the information age have caused changes to the modern warfare. The military forces of many countries have replaced partially real training drills with training simulation systems to achieve combat readiness. However, considerable types of training simulation systems are used in military settings. In addition, differences in system set up time, functions, the environment, and the competency of system operators, as well as incomplete information have made it difficult to evaluate the performance of training simulation systems. To address the aforementioned problems, this study integrated analytic hierarchy process, soft set theory, and the fuzzy linguistic representation model to evaluate the performance of various training simulation systems. Furthermore, importance–performance analysis was adopted to examine the influence of saving costs and training safety of training simulation systems. The findings of this study are expected to facilitate applying military training simulation systems, avoiding wasting of resources (e.g., low utility and idle time), and providing data for subsequent applications and analysis. To verify the method proposed in this study, the numerical examples of the performance evaluation of training simulation systems were adopted and compared with the numerical results of an AHP and a novel AHP-based ranking technique. The results verified that not only could expert-provided questionnaire information be fully considered to lower the repetition rate of performance ranking, but a two-dimensional graph could also be used to help administrators allocate limited resources, thereby enhancing the investment benefits and training effectiveness of a training simulation system.

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<![CDATA[Study on Failure of Third-Party Damage for Urban Gas Pipeline Based on Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dac5ab0ee8fa60bb239a

Focusing on the diversity, complexity and uncertainty of the third-party damage accident, the failure probability of third-party damage to urban gas pipeline was evaluated on the theory of analytic hierarchy process and fuzzy mathematics. The fault tree of third-party damage containing 56 basic events was built by hazard identification of third-party damage. The fuzzy evaluation of basic event probabilities were conducted by the expert judgment method and using membership function of fuzzy set. The determination of the weight of each expert and the modification of the evaluation opinions were accomplished using the improved analytic hierarchy process, and the failure possibility of the third-party to urban gas pipeline was calculated. Taking gas pipelines of a certain large provincial capital city as an example, the risk assessment structure of the method was proved to conform to the actual situation, which provides the basis for the safety risk prevention.

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<![CDATA[PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases Issue Image | Vol. 12(5) May 2018]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b28b385463d7e126303d2a4

Volunteer from Partners in Health attends a patient (Maforki Ebola Treatment Unit, Sierra Leone, 2014)

Caring for Ebola patients wearing personal protective equipment is a challenge for the healthcare worker, who must be diligent and careful to avoid personal exposure to the virus, as well as for the patient who is ill, undoubtedly concerned and frightened, and desperately trying to make a connection to the caregiver, who is largely hidden from view except for the eyes visible behind the clear plastic visor. London, Omotade, Mello, & Keusch (2018)

Image Credit: Rebecca E. Rollins, Partners in Health

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<![CDATA[2015 Estimation of Hospitals Safety from Disasters in I.R.Iran: The Results from the Assessment of 421 Hospitals]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da92ab0ee8fa60ba08e9

Background and Objective

Iran’s health system has developed a Farsi edition of the Hospital Safety Index (HSI) and has integrated the related assessment program into the health information system. This article presents the results of the 2015 estimation of hospital safety from disasters in I.R.Iran using HSI.

Methods

We analyzed data from 421 hospitals that had submitted a complete HSI assessment form on the Ministry of Health and Medical Education Portal System. Data collection was based on the self-assessments of the hospital disaster committees. HSI includes 145 items categorized in three components including, structural, non-structural and functional capacity. For each item, safety status was categorized into three levels: not safe (0), average safety (1) and high safety (2). A normalized scoring scheme on a 100-point scale was developed. Hospitals were classified to three safety classes according to their normalized total score: low (≤34.0), average (34.01–66.0) and high (>66.0).

Results

The average score of all safety components were 43.0 out of 100 (± 11.0). Eighty-two hospitals (19.4%) were classified as not safe, and 339 hospitals (80.6%) were classified in the average safety category. No hospital was placed in the high safety category. Average safety scores were 41.0, 47.0, and 42.0 for functional capacity, non-structural safety, and structural safety respectively. The average safety score increased between 2012 and 2015, from 34.0 to 43.0.

Conclusions

Hospital safety in the event of disasters has improved in Iran in recent years and more hospitals have joined the HSI program. This is a result of continuous efforts invested in capacity building programs and promotion of the 2012 HSI estimation. The HSI should be maintained to monitor the progress of Iran’s health system in regards to hospital safety in the case of disasters. It is recommended that WHO continue advocacy of HSI, establish a HSI monitoring system, and add it to country profiles on WHO website.

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<![CDATA[Concussions and Repercussions]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dacbab0ee8fa60bb4534

In their Perspective, Donald A. Redelmeier and Sheharyar Raza discuss the significance of Seena Fazel and colleagues' longitudinal study of traumatic brain injury (TBI)-associated outcomes.

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<![CDATA[The buzz about bees and poverty alleviation: Identifying drivers and barriers of beekeeping in sub-Saharan Africa]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db50ab0ee8fa60bdbd35

The potential of beekeeping to mitigate the exposure of rural sub-Sahara African farmers to economic stochasticity has been widely promoted by an array of development agencies. Robust outcome indicators of the success of beekeeping to improve household well-being are unfortunately lacking. This study aimed to identify the key drivers and barriers of beekeeping adoption at the household level, and quantified the associated income contribution in three agro-ecological zones in Uganda. Beekeepers were generally the most economically disadvantaged people in the study areas and tended to adopt beekeeping following contact with non-government organisations and access to training. Whilst incomes were not statistically lower than their non-beekeeping counterparts; their mean household well-being scores were significantly lower than non-beekeeping households. The inability of beekeeping to significantly improve well-being status can in part be attributed to a lack of both training in bee husbandry and protective equipment provision such as suits, gloves and smokers. These are critical tools for beekeepers as they provide the necessary confidence to manage honey bees. Rather than focussing solely on the socio-economic conditions of farmers to effectively adopt beekeeping, future research should also attempt to evaluate the effectiveness of development agencies’ provision to the beekeeping sector.

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