ResearchPad - salmonella-enterica https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[A prospective study of bloodstream infections among febrile adolescents and adults attending Yangon General Hospital, Yangon, Myanmar]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13833 Bloodstream infection (BSI) is common among persons seeking healthcare for severe febrile illness in low-and middle-income countries. Data on community-onset BSI are few for some countries in Asia, including Myanmar. Such data are needed to inform empiric antimicrobial treatment of patients and to monitor and control antimicrobial resistance. We performed a one year, prospective study collecting information and blood cultures from patients presenting with fever at a tertiary referral hospital in Yangon, Myanmar. We found that almost 10% of participants had a bloodstream infection, and that Salmonella enterica serovars Typhi and Paratyphi A were the most common pathogens. Typhoidal Salmonella were universally resistant to ciprofloxacin. More than half of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae were resistant to extended-spectrum cephalosporins and resistance to carbapenems was also identified in some isolates. We show that typhoid and paratyphoid fever are common, and fluoroquinolone resistance is widespread. Extended-spectrum cephalosporin resistance is common in E. coli and K. pneumoniae and carbapenem resistance is present. Our findings inform empiric antimicrobial management of severe febrile illness, underscore the value of routine use of blood cultures, indicate that measures to prevent and control enteric fever are warranted, and suggest a need to monitor and mitigate antimicrobial resistance among community-acquired pathogens.

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<![CDATA[MUC1 is a receptor for the Salmonella SiiE adhesin that enables apical invasion into enterocytes]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c61e93fd5eed0c48496fa96

The cellular invasion machinery of the enteric pathogen Salmonella consists of a type III secretion system (T3SS) with injectable virulence factors that induce uptake by macropinocytosis. Salmonella invasion at the apical surface of intestinal epithelial cells is inefficient, presumably because of a glycosylated barrier formed by transmembrane mucins that prevents T3SS contact with host cells. We observed that Salmonella is capable of apical invasion of intestinal epithelial cells that express the transmembrane mucin MUC1. Knockout of MUC1 in HT29-MTX cells or removal of MUC1 sialic acids by neuraminidase treatment reduced Salmonella apical invasion but did not affect lateral invasion that is not hampered by a defensive barrier. A Salmonella deletion strain lacking the SiiE giant adhesin was unable to invade intestinal epithelial cells through MUC1. SiiE-positive Salmonella closely associated with the MUC1 layer at the apical surface, but invaded Salmonella were negative for the adhesin. Our findings uncover that the transmembrane mucin MUC1 is required for Salmonella SiiE-mediated entry of enterocytes via the apical route.

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<![CDATA[New Multidrug-Resistant Salmonella enterica Serovar Anatum Clone, Taiwan, 2015–2017]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c354d32d5eed0c484dd4630

In 2011, a Salmonella enterica serovar Anatum clone emerged in Taiwan. During 2016–2017, infections increased dramatically, strongly associated with emergence and spread of multidrug-resistant strains with a plasmid carrying 11 resistance genes, including blaDHA-1. Because these resistant strains infect humans and food animals, control measures are urgently needed.

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<![CDATA[CTX-M-65 Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase–Producing Salmonella enterica Serotype Infantis, United States1]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c1686b3d5eed0c48444466e

Extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) confer resistance to clinically important third-generation cephalosporins, which are often used to treat invasive salmonellosis. In the United States, ESBLs are rarely found in Salmonella. However, in 2014, the US Food and Drug Administration found blaCTX-M-65 ESBL-producing Salmonella enterica serotype Infantis in retail chicken meat. The isolate had a rare pulsed-field gel electrophoresis pattern. To clarify the sources and potential effects on human health, we examined isolates with this pattern obtained from human surveillance and associated metadata. Using broth microdilution for antimicrobial susceptibility testing and whole-genome sequencing, we characterized the isolates. Of 34 isolates, 29 carried the blaCTX-M-65 gene with <9 additional resistance genes on 1 plasmid. Of 19 patients with travel information available, 12 (63%) reported recent travel to South America. Genetically, isolates from travelers, nontravelers, and retail chicken meat were similar. Expanded surveillance is needed to determine domestic sources and potentially prevent spread of this ESBL-containing plasmid.

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<![CDATA[In-Host Adaptation of Salmonella enterica Serotype Dublin during Prosthetic Hip Joint Infection]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c1686c2d5eed0c4844448fa

Genome degradation has been central to the adaptation of Salmonella enterica serotypes to their hosts throughout evolution. We witnessed the patho-adaptation of a strain of Salmonella Dublin (a cattle-adapted serotype) to a human host during the course of a recurrent prosthetic hip joint infection evolving over several years.

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<![CDATA[Formation of phenotypic lineages in Salmonella enterica by a pleiotropic fimbrial switch]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5bb3df3f40307c54ff8ce8f4

The std locus of Salmonella enterica, an operon acquired by horizontal transfer, encodes fimbriae that permit adhesion to epithelial cells in the large intestine. Expression of the std operon is bistable, yielding a major subpopulation of StdOFF cells (99.7%) and a minor subpopulation of StdON cells (0.3%). In addition to fimbrial proteins, the std operon encodes two proteins, StdE and StdF, that have DNA binding capacity and control transcription of loci involved in flagellar synthesis, chemotaxis, virulence, conjugal transfer, biofilm formation, and other cellular functions. As a consequence of StdEF pleiotropic transcriptional control, StdON and StdOFF subpopulations may differ not only in the presence or absence of Std fimbriae but also in additional phenotypic traits. Separation of StdOFF and StdON lineages by cell sorting confirms the occurrence of lineage-specific features. Formation of StdOFF and StdON lineages may thus be viewed as a rudimentary bacterial differentiation program.

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<![CDATA[Structural definition of hSP-D recognition of Salmonella enterica LPS inner core oligosaccharides reveals alternative binding modes for the same LPS]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b498fca463d7e0897c6e028

The crystal structures of a biologically and therapeutically active recombinant homotrimeric fragment of native human SP-D (hSP-D) complexed with the inner core oligosaccharide of the Salmonella enterica sv Minnesota rough strains R5 and R7 (rough mutant chemotypes Rc and Rd1) have been determined. The structures reveal that hSP-D specifically and preferentially targets the LPS inner core via the innermost conserved Hep-Kdo pair with the flexibility for alternative recognition when this preferred epitope is not available for binding. Hep-Kdo binding is achieved through calcium dependent recognition of the heptose dihydroxyethyl side chain coupled with specific interactions between the Kdo and the binding site flanking residues Arg343 and Asp325 with evidence for an extended binding site for LPS inner cores containing multiple Kdo residues. In one subunit of the R5-bound structure this preferred mode of binding is precluded by the crystal lattice and oligosaccharide is bound through the terminal inner core glucose. The structures presented here thus provide unique multiple insights into the recognition and binding of bacterial LPS by hSP-D. Not only is it demonstrated that hSP-D targets the highly conserved LPS proximal inner core Hep-Kdo motif, but also that hSP-D can recognise either terminal or non-terminal sugars and has the flexibility and versatility to adopt alternative strategies for bacterial recognition, utilising alternative LPS epitopes when the preferred inner core Hep-Kdo disaccharide is not available for binding.

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<![CDATA[Novel Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Genotype Levels as Herald of Seasonal Salmonellosis Epidemics ]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c03c050d5eed0c4845d7b41

We examined the population dynamics of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium during seasonal salmonellosis epidemics in New South Wales, Australia, during 2009–2016. Of 15,626 isolates, 5%–20% consisted of novel genotypes. Seasons with salmonellosis epidemics were associated with a reduction in novel genotypes in the preceding winter and spring.

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<![CDATA[Molecular Characterization of Salmonella enterica Serovar Aberdeen Negative for H2S Production in China]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da9cab0ee8fa60ba41e8

Salmonella enterica infections continue to be a significant burden on public health worldwide. The ability of S. enterica to produce hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is an important phenotypic characteristic used to screen and identify Salmonella with selective medium; however, H2S-negative Salmonella have recently emerged. In this study, the H2S phenotype of Salmonella isolates was confirmed, and the selected isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing and molecular identification by multilocus sequence typing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) analysis. The phs genetic operon was also analyzed. A total of 160 S. enterica serovar Aberdeen isolates were detected between 2005 and 2013 in China. Of them, seven non-H2S-producing isolates were detected. Notably, four samples yielded four pairs of isolates with different H2S phenotypes, simultaneously. The data demonstrated that H2S-negative isolates were genetically closely related to H2S-positive isolates. Three new spacers (Abe1, Abe2, and Abe3) were identified in CRISPR locus 1 in four pairs of isolates with different H2S phenotypes from the same samples. Sequence analysis revealed a new nonsense mutation at position 208 in the phsA gene of all non-H2S-producing isolates. Additionally, we describe a new screening procedure to avoid H2S-negative Salmonella, which would normally be overlooked during laboratory and hospital screening. The prevalence of this pathogen may be underestimated; therefore, it is important to focus on improving surveillance of this organism to control its spread.

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<![CDATA[Genotypic and phenotypic characterization of multidrug resistant Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella Kentucky strains recovered from chicken carcasses]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db5aab0ee8fa60bdf628

Abstract

Salmonella Typhimurium is the leading cause of human non-typhoidal gastroenteritis in the US. S. Kentucky is one the most commonly recovered serovars from commercially processed poultry carcasses. This study compared the genotypic and phenotypic properties of two Salmonella enterica strains Typhimurium (ST221_31B) and Kentucky (SK222_32B) recovered from commercially processed chicken carcasses using whole genome sequencing, phenotype characterizations and an intracellular killing assay. Illumina MiSeq platform was used for sequencing of two Salmonella genomes. Phylogenetic analysis employing homologous alignment of a 1,185 non-duplicated protein-coding gene in the Salmonella core genome demonstrated fully resolved bifurcating patterns with varying levels of diversity that separated ST221_31B and SK222_32B genomes into distinct monophyletic serovar clades. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis identified 2,432 (ST19) SNPs within 13 Typhimurium genomes including ST221_31B representing Sequence Type ST19 and 650 (ST152) SNPs were detected within 13 Kentucky genomes including SK222_32B representing Sequence Type ST152. In addition to serovar-specific conserved coding sequences, the genomes of ST221_31B and SK222_32B harbor several genomic regions with significant genetic differences. These included phage and phage-like elements, carbon utilization or transport operons, fimbriae operons, putative membrane associated protein-encoding genes, antibiotic resistance genes, siderophore operons, and numerous hypothetical protein-encoding genes. Phenotype microarray results demonstrated that ST221_31B is capable of utilizing certain carbon compounds more efficiently as compared to SK222_3B; namely, 1,2-propanediol, M-inositol, L-threonine, α-D-lactose, D-tagatose, adonitol, formic acid, acetoacetic acid, and L-tartaric acid. ST221_31B survived for 48 h in macrophages, while SK222_32B was mostly eliminated. Further, a 3-fold growth of ST221_31B was observed at 24 hours post-infection in chicken granulosa cells while SK222_32B was unable to replicate in these cells. These results suggest that Salmonella Typhimurium can survive host defenses better and could be more invasive than Salmonella Kentucky and provide some insights into the genomic determinants responsible for these differences.

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<![CDATA[Determination and Analysis of the Putative AcaCD-Responsive Promoters of Salmonella Genomic Island 1]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da98ab0ee8fa60ba2cb4

The integrative genomic island SGI1 and its variants confer multidrug resistance in numerous Salmonella enterica serovariants and several Proteus mirabilis and Acinetobacter strains. SGI1 is mobilized by the IncA/C family plasmids. The island exploits not only the conjugation apparatus of the plasmid, but also utilizes the plasmid-encoded master regulator AcaCD to induce the excision and formation of its transfer-competent form, which is a key step in the horizontal transfer of SGI1. Triggering of SGI1 excision occurs via the AcaCD-dependent activation of xis gene expression. AcaCD binds in Pxis to an unusually long recognition sequence. Beside the Pxis promoter, upstream regions of four additional SGI1 genes, S004, S005, S012 and S018, also contain putative AcaCD-binding sites. Furthermore, SGI1 also encodes an AcaCD-related activator, FlhDCSGI1, which has no known function. Here, we have analysed the functionality of the putative AcaCD-dependent promoter regions and proved their activation by either AcaCD or FlhDCSGI1. Moreover, we provide evidence that both activators act on the same binding site in Pxis and that FlhDCSGI1 is able to complement the acaCD deletion of the IncA/C family plasmid R16a. We determined the transcription start sites for the AcaCD-responsive promoters and showed that orf S004 is expressed probably from a different start codon than predicted earlier. Additionally, expression of S003 from promoter PS004 was ruled out. Pxis and the four SGI1 promoters examined here also lack obvious -35 promoter box and their promoter profile is consistent with the class II-type activation pathway. Although the role of the four additionally analysed AcaCD/FlhDCSGI1-controlled genes in transfer and/or maintenance of SGI1 is not yet clear, the conservation of the whole region suggests the existence of some selection for their functionality.

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<![CDATA[Genomic and Evolutionary Analysis of Two Salmonella enterica Serovar Kentucky Sequence Types Isolated from Bovine and Poultry Sources in North America]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9d7ab0ee8fa60b666f2

Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Kentucky is frequently isolated from healthy poultry and dairy cows and is occasionally isolated from people with clinical disease. A genomic analysis of 119 isolates collected in the United States from dairy cows, ground beef, poultry and poultry products, and human clinical cases was conducted. Results of the analysis demonstrated that the majority of poultry and bovine-associated S. Kentucky were sequence type (ST) 152. Several bovine-associated (n = 3) and food product isolates (n = 3) collected from the United States and the majority of human clinical isolates were ST198, a sequence type that is frequently isolated from poultry and occasionally from human clinical cases in Northern Africa, Europe and Southeast Asia. A phylogenetic analysis indicated that both STs are more closely related to other Salmonella serovars than they are to each other. Additionally, there was strong evidence of an evolutionary divergence between the poultry-associated and bovine-associated ST152 isolates that was due to polymorphisms in four core genome genes. The ST198 isolates recovered from dairy farms in the United States were phylogenetically distinct from those collected from human clinical cases with 66 core genome SNPs differentiating the two groups, but more isolates are needed to determine the significance of this distinction. Identification of S. Kentucky ST198 from dairy animals in the United States suggests that the presence of this pathogen should be monitored in food-producing animals.

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<![CDATA[Development of a Flow Cytometry-Based Method for Rapid Detection of Escherichia coli and Shigella Spp. Using an Oligonucleotide Probe]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989daecab0ee8fa60bbf910

Standard methods to detect Escherichia coli contamination in food use the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and agar culture plates. These methods require multiple incubation steps and take a long time to results. An improved rapid flow-cytometry based detection method was developed, using a fluorescence-labeled oligonucleotide probe specifically binding a16S rRNA sequence. The method positively detected 51 E. coli isolates as well as 4 Shigella species. All 27 non-E. coli strains tested gave negative results. Comparison of the new genetic assay with a total plate count (TPC) assay and agar plate counting indicated similar sensitivity, agreement between cytometry cell and colony counts. This method can detect a small number of E.coli cells in the presence of large numbers of other bacteria. This method can be used for rapid, economical, and stable detection of E. coli and Shigella contamination in the food industry and other contexts.

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<![CDATA[Parallel Mutations Result in a Wide Range of Cooperation and Community Consequences in a Two-Species Bacterial Consortium]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989daaaab0ee8fa60ba9016

Multi-species microbial communities play a critical role in human health, industry, and waste remediation. Recently, the evolution of synthetic consortia in the laboratory has enabled adaptation to be addressed in the context of interacting species. Using an engineered bacterial consortium, we repeatedly evolved cooperative genotypes and examined both the predictability of evolution and the phenotypes that determine community dynamics. Eight Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strains evolved methionine excretion sufficient to support growth of an Escherichia coli methionine auxotroph, from whom they required excreted growth substrates. Non-synonymous mutations in metA, encoding homoserine trans-succinylase (HTS), were detected in each evolved S. enterica methionine cooperator and were shown to be necessary for cooperative consortia growth. Molecular modeling was used to predict that most of the non-synonymous mutations slightly increase the binding affinity for HTS homodimer formation. Despite this genetic parallelism and trend of increasing protein binding stability, these metA alleles gave rise to a wide range of phenotypic diversity in terms of individual versus group benefit. The cooperators with the highest methionine excretion permitted nearly two-fold faster consortia growth and supported the highest fraction of E. coli, yet also had the slowest individual growth rates compared to less cooperative strains. Thus, although the genetic basis of adaptation was quite similar across independent origins of cooperative phenotypes, quantitative measurements of metabolite production were required to predict either the individual-level growth consequences or how these propagate to community-level behavior.

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<![CDATA[Salmonella serovars and their distribution in Nigerian commercial chicken layer farms]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db52ab0ee8fa60bdc55c

Commercial poultry farms (n° 523), located in all the six regions of Nigeria were sampled with a view to generate baseline information about the distribution of Salmonella serovars in this country. Five different matrices (litter, dust, faeces, feed and water) were collected from each visited farm. Salmonella was isolated from at least one of the five matrices in 228 farms, with a farm prevalence of 43.6% (CI95[39.7–48.3%]). Altogether, 370 of 2615 samples collected (14.1%, CI95[12.8; 15.5%]) contained Salmonella. Considering the number of positive farms and the number of positive samples, it was evident that for the majority of the sampled farms, few samples were positive for Salmonella. With regard to the matrices, there was no difference in Salmonella prevalence among the five matrices considered. Of the 370 isolates serotyped, eighty-two different serotypes were identified and Salmonella Kentucky was identified as having the highest isolation rate in all the matrices sampled (16.2%), followed by S. Poona and S. Elisabethville. S. Kentucky was distributed across the country, whereas the other less frequent serovars had a more circumscribed diffusion. This is one of few comprehensive studies on the occurrence and distribution of Salmonella in commercial chicken layer farms from all the six regions of Nigeria. The relatively high prevalence rate documented in this study may be attributed to the generally poor infrastructure and low biosecurity measures in controlling stray animals, rodents and humans. Data collected could be valuable for instituting effective intervention strategies for Salmonella control in Nigeria and also in other developing countries with a similar poultry industry structure, with the final aim of reducing Salmonella spread in animals and ultimately in humans.

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<![CDATA[Identification of the potentiating mutations and synergistic epistasis that enabled the evolution of inter-species cooperation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db5aab0ee8fa60bdf753

Microbes often engage in cooperation through releasing biosynthetic compounds required by other species to grow. Given that production of costly biosynthetic metabolites is generally subjected to multiple layers of negative feedback, single mutations may frequently be insufficient to generate cooperative phenotypes. Synergistic epistatic interactions between multiple coordinated changes may thus often underlie the evolution of cooperation through overproduction of metabolites. To test the importance of synergistic mutations in cooperation we used an engineered bacterial consortium of an Escherichia coli methionine auxotroph and Salmonella enterica. S. enterica relies on carbon by-products from E. coli if lactose is the only carbon source. Directly selecting wild-type S. enterica in an environment that favored cooperation through secretion of methionine only once led to a methionine producer, and this producer both took a long time to emerge and was not very effective at cooperating. On the other hand, when an initial selection for resistance of S. enterica to a toxic methionine analog, ethionine, was used, subsequent selection for cooperation with E. coli was rapid, and the resulting double mutants were much more effective at cooperation. We found that potentiating mutations in metJ increase expression of metA, which encodes the first step of methionine biosynthesis. This increase in expression is required for the previously identified actualizing mutations in metA to generate cooperation. This work highlights that where biosynthesis of metabolites involves multiple layers of regulation, significant secretion of those metabolites may require multiple mutations, thereby constraining the evolution of cooperation.

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<![CDATA[Typhoidal Salmonellae: Use of Multi-Locus Sequence Typing to Determine Population Structure]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9e2ab0ee8fa60b69efb

Enteric fever is an invasive infection predominantly caused by Salmonella enterica serovars Typhi and Paratyphi A. The pathogens have evolved from other nontyphoidal salmonellaeto become invasive and host restricted. Emergence of antimicrobial resistance in typhoidal salmonellae in some countries is a major therapeutic concern as the travelers returning from endemic countries carry resistant strains to non endemic areas. In order to understand the epidemiology and to design disease control strategies molecular typing of the pathogen is very important. We performed Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST) of 251 S. Typhi and 18 S. Paratyphi strains isolated from enteric fever patients from seven centers across India during 2010-2013to determine the population structure and prevalence of MLST sequence types in India. MLST analysis revealed the presence of five sequence types (STs) of typhoidal salmonellae in India namely ST1, ST2 and ST3 for S. Typhi and ST85 and ST129 for S. Paratyphi A.S. Typhi strains showed monophyletic lineage and clustered in to 3 Sequence Types—ST1, ST2 and ST3 and S. Paratyphi A isolates segregated in two sequence types ST85 and ST129 respectively. No association was found between antimicrobial susceptibility and sequence types. This study found ST1 as the most prevalent sequence type of S. Typhi in India followed by ST2, which is in concordance with previous studies and MLST database. In addition a rare sequence type ST3 has been found which is reported for the first time from the Indian subcontinent. Amongst S. Paratyphi A, the most common sequence type is ST129 as also reported from other parts of world. This distribution and prevalence suggest the common spread of the sequence types across the globe and these findings can help in understanding the disease distribution.

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<![CDATA[Free-Living Species of Carnivorous Mammals in Poland: Red Fox, Beech Marten, and Raccoon as a Potential Reservoir of Salmonella, Yersinia, Listeria spp. and Coagulase-Positive Staphylococcus]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da0bab0ee8fa60b77a68

The objective of the study was to examine a population of free-living carnivorous mammals most commonly found in Poland (red fox, beech marten, and raccoon) for the occurrence of bacteria that are potentially pathogenic for humans and other animal species and to determine their virulence potential (the presence of selected virulence genes). From the total pool of isolates obtained (n = 328), we selected 90 belonging to species that pose the greatest potential threat to human health: Salmonella spp. (n = 19; 4.51%), Yersinia enterocolitica (n = 10; 2.37%), Listeria monocytogenes and L. ivanovii (n = 21), and Staphylococcus aureus (n = 40; 9.5%). The Salmonella spp. isolates represented three different subspecies; S. enterica subsp. enterica accounted for a significant proportion (15/19), and most of the serotypes isolated (S. Typhimurium, S. Infantis, S. Newport and S. Enteritidis) were among the 10 non-typhoidal Salmonella serotypes that are most often responsible for infections in Europe, including Poland. Y. enterococlitica was detected in the smallest percentage of animals, but 60% of strains among the isolates tested possessed the ail gene, which is responsible for attachment and invasion. Potentially pathogenic Listeria species were isolated from approx. 5% of the animals. The presence of all tested virulence genes was shown in 35% of L. monocytogenes strains, while in the case of the other strains, the genes occurred in varying numbers and configurations. The presence of the inlA, inlC, hlyA, and iap genes was noted in all strains, whereas the genes encoding PI-PLC, actin, and internalin Imo2821 were present in varying percentages (from 80% to 55%). S. aureus was obtained from 40 individuals. Most isolates possessed the hla, hld (95% for each), and hlb (32.5%) genes encoding hemolysins as well as the gene encoding leukotoxin lukED (70%). In a similar percentage of strains (77.5%), the presence of at least one gene encoding enterotoxin was found, with 12.5% exhibiting the presence of egc-like variants. In two animals, we also noted the gene encoding the TSST-1 toxin. The results of the study showed that free-living animals may be a significant reservoir of bacteria that are potentially pathogenic for humans. The results of the statistical analysis revealed that, among the animals species studied, the red fox constitutes the most important source of infections.

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<![CDATA[H-NS Mediates the Silencing of Laterally Acquired Genes in Bacteria]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da6dab0ee8fa60b939a2

Histone-like nucleoid structuring protein (H-NS) is a modular protein that is associated with the bacterial nucleoid. We used chromatin immunoprecipitation to determine the binding sites of H-NS and RNA polymerase on the Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium chromosome. We found that H-NS does not bind to actively transcribed genes and does not co-localize with RNA polymerase. This shows that H-NS principally silences gene expression by restricting the access of RNA polymerase to the DNA. H-NS had previously been shown to preferentially bind to curved DNA in vitro. In fact, at the genomic level we discovered that the level of H-NS binding correlates better with the AT-content of DNA. This is likely to have evolutionary consequences because we show that H-NS binds to many Salmonella genes acquired by lateral gene transfer, and functions as a gene silencer. The removal of H-NS from the cell causes un-controlled expression of several Salmonella pathogenicity islands, and we demonstrate that this has deleterious consequences for bacterial fitness. Our discovery of this novel role for H-NS may have implications for the acquisition of foreign genes by enteric bacteria.

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<![CDATA[Salmonella genomic island 1 (SGI1) reshapes the mating apparatus of IncC conjugative plasmids to promote self-propagation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db53ab0ee8fa60bdcd9d

IncC conjugative plasmids and Salmonella genomic island 1 (SGI1) and relatives are frequently associated with multidrug resistance of clinical isolates of pathogenic Enterobacteriaceae. SGI1 is specifically mobilized in trans by IncA and IncC plasmids (commonly referred to as A/C plasmids) following its excision from the chromosome, an event triggered by the transcriptional activator complex AcaCD encoded by these helper plasmids. Although SGI1 is not self-transmissible, it carries three genes, traNS, traHS and traGS, coding for distant homologs of the predicted mating pore subunits TraNC, TraHC and TraGC, respectively, encoded by A/C plasmids. Here we investigated the regulation of traNS and traHGS and the role of these three genes in the transmissibility of SGI1. Transcriptional fusion of the promoter sequences of traNS and traHGS to the reporter gene lacZ confirmed that expression of these genes is inducible by AcaCD. Mating experiments using combinations of deletion mutants of SGI1 and the helper IncC plasmid pVCR94 revealed complex interactions between these two mobile genetic elements. Whereas traNC and traHGC are essential for IncC plasmid transfer, SGI1 could rescue null mutants of each individual gene revealing that TraNS, TraHS and TraGS are functional proteins. Complementation assays of individual traC and traS mutants showed that not only do TraNS/HS/GS replace TraNC/HC/GC in the mating pore encoded by IncC plasmids but also that traGS and traHS are both required for SGI1 optimal transfer. In fact, remodeling of the IncC-encoded mating pore by SGI1 was found to be essential to enhance transfer rate of SGI1 over the helper plasmid. Furthermore, traGS was found to be crucial to allow DNA transfer between cells bearing IncC helper plasmids, thereby suggesting that by remodeling the mating pore SGI1 disables an IncC-encoded entry exclusion mechanism. Hence traS genes facilitate the invasion by SGI1 of cell populations bearing IncC plasmids.

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