ResearchPad - sarcopenia https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Is postural dysfunction related to sarcopenia? A population-based study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7695 Postural dysfunction is one of the most common community health symptoms and frequent chief complaints in hospitals. Sarcopenia is a syndrome characterized by degenerative loss of skeletal muscle mass, muscle quality, and muscle strength, and is the main contributor to musculoskeletal impairment in the elderly. Previous studies reported that loss of muscle mass is associated with a loss of diverse functional abilities. Meanwhile, there have been limited studies concerning postural dysfunction among older adults with sarcopenia. Although sarcopenia is primarily a disease of the elderly, its development may be associated with conditions that are not exclusively seen in older persons. Also, recent studies recognize that sarcopenia may begin to develop earlier in life. The objective of this paper was to investigate the association between the prevalence of sarcopenia and postural dysfunction in a wide age range of adults using data from a nationally representative cohort study in Korea. Korean National Health & Nutrition Exhibition Survey V (KNHANES V, 2010–2012) data from the fifth cross-sectional survey of the South Korean population performed by the Korean Ministry of Health and Welfare were used. Appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM)/height (ht)2 was used to define sarcopenia, and the Modified Romberg test using a foam pad (“foam balance test”) was performed to evaluate postural dysfunction. ASM/ht2 was lower in women and significantly decreased with age in men. Subjects with sarcopenia were significantly more likely to fail the foam balance test, regardless of sex and age. Regression analysis showed a significant relationship between sarcopenia and postural dysfunction (OR: 2.544, 95% CI: 1.683–3.846, p<0.001). Multivariate regression analysis revealed that sarcopenia (OR: 1.747, 95% CI: 1.120–2.720, p = 0.014) and age (OR: 1.131, 95% CI: 1.105–1.158, p<0.001) are independent risk factors for postural instability. In middle age subjects, the adjusted OR for sarcopenia was 3.344 (95% CI: 1.350–8.285) (p = 0.009). The prevalence of postural dysfunction is higher in sarcopenia patients, independent of sex and age.

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<![CDATA[Sarcopenia in Endocrine Disorders – The Iceberg or Its Tip?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5bfc7799d5eed0c484f2a96d

Summary

Endocrine myopathies represent disorders of the musculoskeletal system that significantly impair the state of health. Sarcopenia is their pathophysiological common denominator. Recent reports have shown that endocrine disorders, even when subclinical, may also be associated with tendinopathies. It may thus be suggested that both hormones and hormonal disorders have complex actions on the musculoskeletal system and that musculoskeletal endocrinology represents a fascinating research area still awaiting exploration.

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<![CDATA[The associations of fat tissue and muscle mass indices with all-cause mortality in patients undergoing hemodialysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6dc9bbd5eed0c48452a0c8

Protein-energy wasting, which involves loss of fat and muscle mass, is prevalent and is associated with mortality in hemodialysis (HD) patients. We investigated the associations of fat tissue and muscle mass indices with all-cause mortality in HD patients. The study included 162 patients undergoing HD. The fat tissue index (FTI) and skeletal muscle mass index (SMI), which represent respective tissue masses normalized to height squared, were measured by bioimpedance analysis after dialysis. Patients were divided into the following four groups according to the medians of FTI and SMI values: group 1 (G1), lower FTI and lower SMI; G2, higher FTI and lower SMI; G3, lower FTI and higher SMI; and G4, higher FTI and higher SMI. The associations of the FTI, SMI, and body mass index (BMI) with all-cause mortality were evaluated. During a median follow-up of 2.5 years, 29 patients died. The 5-year survival rates were 48.6%, 76.1%, 95.7%, and 87.4% in the G1, G2, G3, and G4 groups, respectively (P = 0.0002). The adjusted hazard ratio values were 0.34 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.10–0.95, P = 0.040) for G2 vs. G1, 0.13 (95%CI 0.01–0.69, P = 0.013) for G3 vs. G1, and 0.25 (95%CI 0.07–0.72, P = 0.0092) for G4 vs. G1, respectively. With regard to model discrimination, on adding both FTI and SMI to a model with established risk factors, the C-index increased significantly when compared with the value for a model with BMI (0.763 vs. 0.740, P = 0.016). Higher FTI and/or higher SMI values were independently associated with reduced risks of all-cause mortality in HD patients. Moreover, the combination of the FTI and SMI may more accurately predict all-cause mortality when compared with BMI. Therefore, these body composition indicators should be evaluated simultaneously in this population.

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<![CDATA[The Association between Sarcopenic Obesity and Depressive Symptoms in Older Japanese Adults]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9f6ab0ee8fa60b706c3

The effects of sarcopenic obesity, the co-existence of sarcopenia and obesity, on mood disorders have not been studies extensively. Our objective was to examine the association of depressive symptoms with sarcopenia and obesity status in older Japanese adults. We analyzed data from 1731 functionally-independent, community-dwelling Japanese adults aged 65 years or older (875 men, 856 women) randomly selected from the resident register of Kashiwa city, Chiba, Japan in 2012. Sarcopenia was defined based on appendicular skeletal muscle mass, grip strength and usual gait speed. Obesity was defined as the highest sex-specific quintile of the percentage body fat. Depressive symptoms were defined as a Geriatric Depression Scale 15-item score ≥ 6. Multiple logistic regression was employed to examine the association of depressive symptoms with four groups defined by the presence/absence of sarcopenia and obesity. The prevalence of depressive symptoms was 10.1% and the proportions of sarcopenia/obesity, sarcopenia/non-obesity, non-sarcopenia/obesity, non-sarcopenia/non-obesity were 3.7%, 13.6%, 16.9% and 65.8%, respectively. After adjustment for potential confounders, sarcopenia/obesity was positively associated with depressive symptoms compared with non-sarcopenia/non-obesity, whereas either sarcopenia or obesity alone was not associated with depressive symptoms. The association was particularly pronounced in those aged 65 to 74 years in age-stratified analysis. We conclude that our findings suggest a synergistic impact exerted by sarcopenic obesity on the risk of depressive symptoms, particularly in those aged 65 to 74 years.

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<![CDATA[New diagnostic index for sarcopenia in patients with cardiovascular diseases]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db5cab0ee8fa60bdfe76

Background

Sarcopenia is an aging and disease-related syndrome characterized by progressive and generalized loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength, with the risk of frailty and poor quality of life. Sarcopenia is diagnosed by a decrease in skeletal muscle index (SMI) and reduction of either handgrip strength or gait speed. However, measurement of SMI is difficult for general physicians because it requires special equipment for bioelectrical impedance assay or dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The purpose of this study was, therefore, to explore a novel, simple diagnostic method of sarcopenia evaluation in patients with cardiovascular diseases (CVD).

Methods

We retrospectively investigated 132 inpatients with CVD (age: 72±12 years, age range: 27–93 years, males: 61%) Binomial logistic regression and correlation analyses were used to assess the associations of sarcopenia with simple physical data and biomarkers, including muscle-related inflammation makers and nutritional markers.

Results

Sarcopenia was present in 29.5% of the study population. Serum concentrations of adiponectin and sialic acid were significantly higher in sarcopenic than non-sarcopenic CVD patients. Stepwise multivariate binomial logistic regression analysis revealed that adiponectin, sialic acid, sex, age, and body mass index were independent factors for sarcopenia detection. Sarcopenia index, obtained from the diagnostic regression formula for sarcopenia detection including the five independent factors, indicated a high accuracy in ROC curve analysis (sensitivity 94.9%, specificity 69.9%) and the cutoff value for sarcopenia detection was -1.6134. Sarcopenia index had a significant correlation with the conventional diagnostic parameters of sarcopenia.

Conclusions

Our new sarcopenia index using simple parameters would be useful for diagnosing sarcopenia in CVD patients.

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<![CDATA[Handgrip Strength and Factors Associated in Poor Elderly Assisted at a Primary Care Unit in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db0fab0ee8fa60bcba27

Introduction

Sarcopenia is a condition diagnosed when the patient presents low muscle mass, plus low muscle strength or low physical performance. Muscle weakness in the oldest (dynapenia) is a major public health concern because it predicts future all-cause mortality and is associated with falls, disability, cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. Grip strength is a simple method for assessment of muscle function in clinical practice.

Objective

To estimate the grip strength and identify factors associated with handgrip strength variation in elderly people with low socioeconomic status.

Methods

Cross-sectional study based on a multidimensional assessment of primary care users that were 60 years or older. The sample size was calculated using an estimated prevalence of depression in older adults of 20%. A kappa coefficient of 0.6 with a 95% confidence interval was used to generate a conservative sample size of 180 individuals. Procedures: tests and scales to assess humor, cognition (MMSE), basic (ADL) and instrumental activities (IADL) of daily living, mobility (Timed Up and Go), strength, height, Body Mass Index (BMI) and social support were applied. Questions about falls, chronic diseases and self-rated health (SRH) were also included. Statistical Analysis: Mean, standard deviation and statistical tests were used to compare grip strength means by demographic and health factors. A multivariate linear model was used to explain the relationship of the predictors with grip strength.

Results

The group was composed predominantly by women (73%) with a very low level of education (mean 3 years of schooling), mean age of 73.09 (± 7.05) years old, good mobility and without IADL impairment. Mean grip strength of male and female were 31.86Kg (SD 5.55) and 21.69Kg (SD 4.48) [p- 0.0001], respectively. Low grip strength was present in 27.7% of women and 39.6% of men. As expected, men and younger participants had higher grip strength than women and older individuals. In the adjusted model, age (p- 0.03), female sex (p- 0.0001), mobility (p- 0.05), height (p- 0.03) and depression (p- 0.03) were independently associated with low grip strength. For every second more in the mobility test, there was a mean decrease of 0.08 Kg in the grip strength. Elders with depression had a mean reduction of 1.74Kg in the grip strength in relation to those in the comparison groups. There was an average reduction of 8.36Kg in the grip strength of elderly females relative to males. For each year of age after 60 years, it was expected an average reduction of 0.11 Kg in the grip strength.

Conclusion

our results suggest that low grip strength is associated with age, female sex, height, depression and mobility problems in poor elderly. Grip strength can be a simple, quick and inexpensive means of stratifying elders’ risk of sarcopenia in the primary care setting. Efforts should be made to recognize weaker persons and the conditions associated to low grip strength in order to target early interventions to prevent frailty and disability.

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<![CDATA[Reference Values of Skeletal Muscle Mass for Korean Children and Adolescents Using Data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009-2011]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db25ab0ee8fa60bd00a6

Background

Skeletal muscle mass (SMM) plays a crucial role in systemic glucose metabolism.

Objective

To obtain reference data on absolute and relative values of SMM for Korean children and adolescents.

Methods

Cross-sectional results from 1919 children and adolescents (1024 boys) aged 10–18 years that underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) during the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009–2011 were analyzed. SMMs were evaluated as follows; absolute SMM (appendicular skeletal muscle mass [ASM]) and relative SMMs, namely, height-adjusted skeletal muscle index (SMI; ASM/height2), %SMM (ASM/weight x 100), and skeletal muscle-to-body fat ratio (MFR; ASM/body fat mass).

Results

Percentile curves illustrated the developmental patterns of the SMMs of Korean children and adolescents. ASM and SMI increased with age in both genders, and increased from age 10 throughout adolescence in boys, whereas in girls, they increased until age 13 and then stabilized. In boys, %SMM and MFR were highest at age 15 and then slowly stabilized or decreased, whereas in girls, they peaked at age 10 to 11 and then decreased through adolescence. Cut-off values for low MFR were identified and a significant association was found between a low MFR and high risk of metabolic syndrome. However, this association was found to be dependent on gender and the level of BMI.

Conclusion

This study provides reference values of absolute and relative SMM for Korean children and adolescents. Detailed body composition analyses including skeletal muscle and fat mass might provide improved measures of metabolic risk.

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<![CDATA[Development of Novel Methods to Define Deficits in Appendicular Lean Mass Relative to Fat Mass]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989daf3ab0ee8fa60bc1eea

Background

Recent studies suggest that adjustment of measures of lean mass for adiposity improves associations with physical function. Our objective was to develop and test a method to adjust appendicular lean mass for adiposity.

Methods

Whole-body DXA data in 14,850 adults in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used to generate sex-, and race-specific standard deviation scores (Z-Scores relative to age and T-scores relative to 25 year-olds) for appendicular lean mass index (ALMI, kg/m2) and fat mass index (FMI, kg/m2). Correlations between ALMI and FMI Z- and T-Scores were assessed within demographic categories. Fat-adjusted ALMI (ALMIFMI) scores were determined using residual methods. Sarcopenia was defined as a T-Score <-2.0 and low lean for age as a Z-Score <-1.0. Correlations with physical function were assessed in an at-risk population.

Results

Positive associations between ALMI and FMI Z- and T-Scores were significant (R >0.50; p<0.001) within all demographic categories. The impact of a unit greater FMI Z-score on ALMI Z-score was less in the elderly, men, white subjects, and among individuals with lower FMI (all tests for interaction p<0.001). There was fair agreement between ALMI and ALMIFMI estimates of sarcopenia and low lean for age [Kappa: 0.46, 0.52, respectively (p<0.0001)]. Elderly subjects were likely to be re-classified as sarcopenic while young subjects were likely to be re-classified as normal using ALMIFMI. ALMIFMI T-scores resulted in approximately twice the number of subjects defined as sarcopenic, compared with ALMI T-Scores. (1299 v. 534). Among rheumatoid arthritis patients, ALMIFMI Z-scores correlated with physical function (Health Assessment Questionnaire: rho = -0.22, p = 0.04; Short Physical Performance Battery: rho = 0.27, p = 0.01); however, the ALMI Z-Score did not.

Conclusions

Adjustment of ALMI for the confounding association with FMI impacts the definition of lean mass deficits. These methods provide a practical tool for investigators and clinicians based on population-based reference data.

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<![CDATA[Predictive Values of the New Sarcopenia Index by the Foundation for the National Institutes of Health Sarcopenia Project for Mortality among Older Korean Adults]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9d7ab0ee8fa60b664f0

Objective

We evaluated the Foundation for the National Institutes of Health (FNIH) Sarcopenia Project’s recommended criteria for sarcopenia’s association with mortality among older Korean adults.

Methods

We conducted a community-based prospective cohort study which included 560 (285 men and 275 women) older Korean adults aged ≥65 years. Muscle mass (appendicular skeletal muscle mass-to-body mass index ratio (ASM/BMI)), handgrip strength, and walking velocity were evaluated in association with all-cause mortality during 6-year follow-up. Both the lowest quintile for each parameter (ethnic-specific cutoff) and FNIH-recommended values were used as cutoffs.

Results

Forty men (14.0%) and 21 women (7.6%) died during 6-year follow-up. The deceased subjects were older and had lower ASM, handgrip strength, and walking velocity. Sarcopenia defined by both low lean mass and weakness had a 4.13 (95% CI, 1.69–10.11) times higher risk of death, and sarcopenia defined by a combination of low lean mass, weakness, and slowness had a 9.56 (3.16–28.90) times higher risk of death after adjusting for covariates in men. However, these significant associations were not observed in women. In terms of cutoffs of each parameter, using the lowest quintile showed better predictive values in mortality than using the FNIH-recommended values. Moreover, new muscle mass index, ASM/BMI, provided better prognostic values than ASM/height2 in all associations.

Conclusions

New sarcopenia definition by FNIH was better able to predict 6-year mortality among Korean men. Moreover, ethnic-specific cutoffs, the lowest quintile for each parameter, predicted the higher risk of mortality than the FNIH-recommended values.

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<![CDATA[Coenzyme Q10 Status as a Determinant of Muscular Strength in Two Independent Cohorts]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da7dab0ee8fa60b99246

Aging is associated with sarcopenia, which is a loss of skeletal muscle mass and function. Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is involved in several important functions that are related to bioenergetics and protection against oxidative damage; however, the role of CoQ10 as a determinant of muscular strength is not well documented. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the determinants of muscular strength by examining hand grip force in relation to CoQ10 status, gender, age and body mass index (BMI) in two independent cohorts (n = 334, n = 967). Furthermore, peak flow as a function of respiratory muscle force was assessed. Spearman’s correlation revealed a significant positive association between CoQ10/cholesterol level and hand grip in the basic study population (p<0.01) as well as in the validation population (p<0.001). In the latter, we also found a negative correlation with the CoQ10 redox state (p<0.01), which represents a lower percentage of the reduced form of CoQ10 (ubiquinol) in subjects who exhibit a lower muscular strength. Furthermore, the age of the subjects showed a negative correlation with hand grip (p<0.001), whereas BMI was positively correlated with hand grip (p<0.01), although only in the normal weight subgroup (BMI <25 kg/m2). Analysis of the covariance (ANCOVA) with hand grip as the dependent variable revealed CoQ10/cholesterol as a determinant of muscular strength and gender as the strongest effector of hand grip. In conclusion, our data suggest that both a low CoQ10/cholesterol level and a low percentage of the reduced form of CoQ10 could be an indicator of an increased risk of sarcopenia in humans due to their negative associations to upper body muscle strength, peak flow and muscle mass.

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<![CDATA[The Relationship between Sarcopenia and Systemic Inflammatory Response for Cancer Cachexia in Small Cell Lung Cancer]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da0bab0ee8fa60b779c1

Background

The prognostic significance of sarcopenia, an important component of cancer cachexia, has been demonstrated in oncologic patients. Catabolic drivers have been suggested to be key features of cancer cachexia.

Objective

To determine the relationship between systemic inflammatory markers and CT-determined muscle mass in patients with SCLC.

Methods

Cross-sectional muscle areas were evaluated at the level of the third lumbar vertebra (L3) using baseline CT images in 186 SCLC patients. Sarcopenia was defined as a L3 muscle index (L3MI, muscle area at L3/height2) of < 55 cm2/m2 for men and of < 39 cm2/m2 for women. Systemic inflammatory markers investigated included serum white blood cell count (WBC), neutrophil: lymphocyte ratio (NLR), C-reactive protein (CRP), and albumin.

Results

Mean L3MI was 47.9 ± 9.7 cm2/m2 for men and 41.6 ± 7.0 cm2/m2 for women. Sarcopenia was present in 128 patients (68.8%), and sarcopenic patients had significant serum lymphocyte counts and albumin levels (p = 0.002 and 0.041, respectively), and higher NLRs and CRP levels (p = 0.011 and 0.026) than non-sarcopenic patients. Multivariable analysis revealed that CRP independently predicted L3MI (β = -0.208; 95% CI, -0.415 to -0.002; p = 0.048), along with gender and BMI (p values < 0.001) and performance status (p = 0.010).

Conclusion

The present study confirms a significant linear relationship exists between CT-determined muscle mass and CRP in SCLC patients. This association might provide a better understanding of the mechanism of cancer cachexia.

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<![CDATA[Serum Uric Acid Is Positively Associated with Handgrip Strength among Japanese Community-Dwelling Elderly Women]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da8cab0ee8fa60b9e6a7

Serum uric acid (UA) has strong anti-oxidant properties. Muscle strength and mass decrease with age, and recently, this decrease has been defined as sarcopenia. Sarcopenia may be triggered by oxidative stress. We investigated whether serum UA is associated with handgrip strength (HGS), which is a useful indicator of sarcopenia, among Japanese community-dwelling elderly persons. The present study included 602 men aged 72 ± 7 years and 847 women aged 71 ± 6 years from a rural village. We examined the cross-sectional relationship between serum UA and HGS. In both genders, HGS increased significantly with increased serum UA levels. A multiple linear regression analysis using HGS as an objective variable and various confounding factors as explanatory variables showed that in men age, drinking status, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and estimated glomerular filtration ratio (eGFRCKDEPI) were independently and significantly associated with HGS, and in women, serum UA as well as age, body mass index, drinking status, diastolic blood pressure, and eGFRCKDEPI were independently and significantly associated with HGS. In women, age and multivariate-adjusted HGS were significantly higher in the Quartile-3 (4.8–5.4 mg/dL) and Quartile-4 groups (5.5–9.3 mg/dL) of serum UA than in the lower groups (0.7–4.7 mg/dL). These results suggest that serum UA may have a protective role in aging-associated decline in muscle strength in community-dwelling elderly women.

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<![CDATA[Sarcopenia in patients with chronic kidney disease not yet on dialysis: Analysis of the prevalence and associated factors]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db5aab0ee8fa60bdf233

Introduction

Sarcopenia is a chronic condition that is associated with aging and characterized by a reduction of muscle mass, strength, and function. Sarcopenia is prevalent in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and associated with increased morbidity and mortality, as well as cardiovascular complications.

Objectives

To investigate the prevalence of sarcopenia in patients with CKD not yet on dialysis and its correlation with clinical and laboratory variables and inflammatory markers.

Methods

A total of 100 patients of both sexes aged over 18 were evaluated. Sarcopenia was defined using the criteria of the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP) and of the Foundation for the National Institutes of Health (FNIH) Sarcopenia Project. Sociodemographic and clinical data, activities of daily living, functional capacity, and physical activity were also evaluated. Inflammation was assessed by the serum levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and interleukin (IL) 4 and 6.

Results

The prevalence of sarcopenia was 11.9% and 28.7% using the EWGSOP and FNIH criteria, respectively. Sarcopenia was more prevalent in the more advanced stages of CKD (34.5% in stages 2 and 3A; and 65.5% in stages 3B, 4, and 5) and associated with worse performance in activities of daily living (p = 0.049), lower walking speeds (p < 0.001), and higher body mass indexes (BMIs) (p = 0.001) in the non-adjusted model. In addition, patients with sarcopenia had lower functional capacity (p = 0.012) and higher prevalence of physical inactivity (p = 0.041) compared with patients without sarcopenia. After adjustment for confounding variables, sarcopenia was still significantly correlated with walking speed (p = 0.004) and BMI (p = 0.002). HsCRP levels were inversely correlated with appendicular lean mass adjusted for BMI (p = 0.007) and were also positively associated with BMI (p = 0.001). IL4 levels were positively correlated with walking speed (p = 0.007) and lean mass in the lower limbs (p = 0.022).

Conclusions

Sarcopenia is common in patients with CKD, particularly in the most advanced stages of the disease. We observed an association between the levels of inflammatory markers and peripheral lean body mass, physical performance, and BMI. This association between sarcopenia and modifiable factors highlights the importance of early diagnosis and the implementation of therapeutic measures to minimize adverse outcomes in patients with CKD not yet on dialysis.

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<![CDATA[Sarcopenia as an Independent Risk Factor for Decreased BMD in COPD Patients: Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys IV and V (2008-2011)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dabeab0ee8fa60bafa20

Background

A decrease in bone mineral density (BMD) is a systemic consequence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Past reports have rarely examined any correlation between sarcopenia and BMD. We investigated the relationship cross-sectionally between the presence of sarcopenia and BMD reduction in COPD patients.

Methods

COPD patients aged 50 or older with qualifying spirometry and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry data were from participants in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys IV and V (2008–2011).

Results

There were 286 (33.3%) subjects in the sarcopenia group and 572 (66.7%) in the non-sarcopenia group. The sarcopenia group had lower T-scores than the non-sarcopenia group (femur: -0.73±0.88 vs. -0.18±0.97, p < 0.001; femur neck: -1.44±0.98 vs. -0.99±1.06, p < 0.001; lumbar: -1.38±1.36 vs. -0.84±1.38, p < 0.001). The prevalences of osteopenia and osteoporosis were 60.8% and 22.0%, respectively, in the sarcopenia group and 45.6% and 13.3% in the non-sarcopenia group (both p < 0.001). After adjusting for multiple variables, the presence of sarcopenia associated with increased the risk of osteopenia, osteoporosis, and a low BMD (OR = 3.227, 95% CI = 2.125–4.899, p < 0.001, OR = 6.952, 95% CI = 3.418–14.139, p < 0.001, and OR = 3.495, 95% CI = 2.315–5.278, p < 0.001, respectively). In a subgroup analysis, similar OR changes were confirmed in the high-body-weight group (n = 493) (OR = 2.248, 95% CI = 1.084–4.665, p = 0.030, OR = 4.621, 95% CI = 1.167–18.291, p = 0.029, and OR = 2.376, 95% CI = 1.158–4.877, p = 0.018, respectively).

Conclusions

The presence of sarcopenia was associated with increased the risk for decreased BMD in COPD.

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<![CDATA[Prognostic Impact of CT-Quantified Muscle and Fat Distribution before and after First-Line-Chemotherapy in Lung Cancer Patients]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db53ab0ee8fa60bdce02

Introduction

Cachexia and sarcopenia are associated with poor outcome and increased chemotherapy-induced toxicity in lung cancer patients. However, the complex interplay of obesity, sarcopenia and cachexia, and its impact on survival in the context of first-line-chemotherapy is not yet understood.

Methods

In 200 consecutively recruited lung cancer patients (70 female, mean age 62y; mean BMI 25 kg/m2; median follow-up 15.97 months) with routine staging-CT before and after chemotherapy (CTX, mean interval: 4.3 months), densitometric quantification of total (TFA), visceral (VFA), and subcutaneous-fat-area (SFA), inter-muscular-fat-area (IMFA), muscle-density (MD), muscle-area (MA) and skeletal-muscle-index (SMI) was performed retrospectively to evaluate changes under chemotherapy and the impact on survival.

Results

We observed increases in TFA, VFA, SFA, VFA/SFA, and IMFA (p<0.05–0.001), while there were decreases in MA, MD and BMI (p<0.05–0.001) after chemotherapy. High pre-therapeutic VFA/SFA was a predictive factor for poor survival (HR = 1.272; p = 0.008), high pre-therapeutic MD for improved survival (HR = 0.93; p<0.05). Decrease in BMI (HR = 1.303; p<0.001), weight (HR = 1.067; p<0.001) and SMI (HR = 1.063; p<0.001) after chemotherapy were associated with poor survival. Patients with ≥4 CTX-cycles showed increased survival (17.6 vs. 9.1months), less muscle depletion (SMIdifference: p<0.05) and no BMI loss (BMIdifference: p<0.001).

Conclusions

After chemotherapy, patients exhibited sarcopenia with decreased muscle and increased adipose tissue compartments, which was not adequately mirrored by BMI and weight loss but by imaging. Particularly sarcopenic patients received less CTX-cycles and had poorer survival. As loss of BMI, weight and muscle were associated with poor survival, early detection (via imaging) and prevention (via physical exercise and nutrition) of sarcopenia may potentially improve outcome and reduce chemotherapy-induced toxicity.

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<![CDATA[Using relative handgrip strength to identify children at risk of sarcopenic obesity]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db5cab0ee8fa60bdff9b

Identifying children at risk of developing childhood sarcopenic obesity often requires specialized equipment and costly testing procedures, so cheaper and quicker methods would be advantageous, especially in field-based settings. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationships between the muscle-to-fat ratio (MFR) and relative handgrip strength, and to determine the ability of handgrip strength relative to body mass index (grip-to-BMI) to identify children who are at risk of developing sarcopenic obesity. Grip-to-BMI was measured in 730 Czech children (4 to 14 yrs). Bioelectrical impedance was used to estimate body fat mass and skeletal muscle mass, from which the MFR was calculated.

The area under the curve (AUC) was 0.791 (95% CI 0.692–0.890, p ˂ 0.001) in girls 4–9; 0.789 (95% CI 0.688–0.890, p ˂ 0.001) in girls 10–14 years old; 0.719 (95% CI 0.607–0.831, p = 0.001) in boys 4–9; and 0.896 (95% CI 0.823–0.969, p ˂ 0.001) in boys 10–14 years old. Calculated using the grip-to-BMI ratio, the OR (95% CI) for girls to be at risk of sarcopenic obesity identified by MFR was 9.918 (4.243–23.186, p ˂ 0.001) and was 11.515 (4.280–30.982, p ˂ 0.001) for boys. The grip-to-BMI ratio can be used to predict the presence of sarcopenic obesity in children, which can play a role in pediatric health interventions.

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<![CDATA[Poor sleep quality and later sleep timing are risk factors for osteopenia and sarcopenia in middle-aged men and women: The NEO study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db59ab0ee8fa60bdf1bc

Context

Sleep deprivation has detrimental metabolic consequences. Osteopenia and sarcopenia usually occur together and increase risk of fractures and disease. Results from studies linking sleep parameters to osteopenia or sarcopenia are scarce and inconsistent.

Objective

To examine the associations of sleep parameters with osteopenia and sarcopenia, considering the influence of sex and menopause.

Design, setting and participants

Cross-sectional analysis of 915 participants (45–65 years, 56% women, BMI 26 (range: 18–56) kg/m2) in the Netherlands Epidemiology of Obesity (NEO) study, a population-based cohort study. Sleep duration, quality, and timing were assessed with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI); bone mineral density and relative appendicular muscle mass were measured by DXA scans. Linear and logistic regressions were performed to associate sleep parameters to bone mineral density, relative appendicular muscle mass, osteopenia (t-score between -1 and -2.5) and sarcopenia (1 SD below average muscle mass).

Results

After adjustment for confounding factors, one unit increase in PSQI score (OR and 95% CI, 1.09, 1.03–1.14), declined self-rated sleep quality (1.76, 1.03–3.01), sleep latency (1.18, 1.06–1.31), and a one hour later sleep timing (1.51, 1.08–2.11), but not sleep duration (1.05, 0.90–1.23), were associated with osteopenia. PSQI score (1.10, 1.02–1.19) was also associated with sarcopenia; OR’s of sleep latency and later mid-sleep time with sarcopenia were 1.14 (0.99–1.31) and 1.54 (0.91–2.61), respectively. Associations were somewhat stronger in women and varied per menopausal status.

Conclusions

These results suggest that decreased sleep quality and a later sleep timing are risk factors for osteopenia and sarcopenia in middle aged individuals.

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<![CDATA[Heavy Alcohol Consumption with Alcoholic Liver Disease Accelerates Sarcopenia in Elderly Korean Males: The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2010]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dad4ab0ee8fa60bb77bf

Background and Aim

Although a few studies have reported that sarcopenia is associated with alcoholic liver disease (ALD), no studies have investigated this association in a large sample representative of the elderly Korean population.

Methods

This was a cross-sectional study that used data from the Fourth and Fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES) on subjects aged 65 years and older. Sarcopenia was defined as a skeletal muscle index (SMI) more than 1 SD below the gender-specific mean for young adults; SMI was calculated as the appendicular muscle mass divided by height squared (ASM/Ht2). Heavy alcohol consumption was defined as consuming at least 210 g/week, and elevated liver enzymes were defined as alanine aminotransferase levels of at least 32 U/L or aspartate aminotransferase levels of at least 34 U/L. ALD was defined as heavy alcohol consumption and elevated liver enzymes.

Results

The mean age of the 1,151 elderly males was 71.6 ± 0.2 years, and the prevalence of heavy alcohol consumption was 11.8% (136 subjects). SMI did not differ between the non-heavy and heavy alcohol consumer groups (7.1 ± 0.0 kg/m2 vs. 7.3 ± 0.1 kg/m2, respectively, P = 0.145). However, after stratifying by the presence of liver disease and heavy alcohol consumption and adjusting for other confounders in the multivariate logistic regression, SMI was significantly lower among heavy alcohol consumers with ALD (all P < 0.05). Additionally, two-way ANOVA showed a significant interaction between heavy alcohol consumption and liver disease (P = 0.011).

Conclusion

Sarcopenia was accelerated in the elderly male ALD group, with a significant interaction between alcohol consumption and liver disease.

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<![CDATA[Low Skeletal Muscle Mass in the Lower Limbs Is Independently Associated to Knee Osteoarthritis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da87ab0ee8fa60b9cc0d

Objectives

It has been reported that low skeletal muscle mass correlates with knee osteoarthritis in obese individuals. This study aimed to investigate whether lower limb skeletal muscle mass is independently associated with knee osteoarthritis in the general population.

Materials and Methods

This cross-sectional study used public data from the Fourth and Fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Subjects included 4924 community-dwelling adults aged ≥50 years (821 subjects with knee osteoarthritis and 4,103 controls). Skeletal muscle mass index (SMI) was calculated from the appendicular skeletal muscle mass measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Independent effects of total and lower limb SMI values on knee osteoarthritis were determined using odds ratios (OR) adjusted for age, sex, obesity, total femur bone mineral density, serum vitamin D level, diabetes mellitus status, and physical activity on multivariate logistic regression analysis.

Results

The adjusted logistic regression model revealed that older age, female sex, and obesity were significantly associated with knee osteoarthritis. A higher serum vitamin D level was also positively correlated with knee osteoarthritis (OR, 1.015; 95% CI, 1.003–1.027; P = 0.010). Although total SMI was not significantly associated with knee osteoarthritis (OR, 0.976; 95% CI, 0.946–1.007; P = 0.127), a low lower limb SMI had an independent effect on knee osteoarthritis (OR, 0.941; 95% CI, 0.900–0.983; P = 0.006).

Conclusions

Low skeletal muscle mass in the lower limbs but not in the whole body was independently associated with knee osteoarthritis.

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<![CDATA[Health Outcomes of Sarcopenia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9e1ab0ee8fa60b69a1c

Objective

The purpose of this study was to perform a systematic review to assess the short-, middle- and long-term consequences of sarcopenia.

Methods

Prospective studies assessing the consequences of sarcopenia were searched across different electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, EBM Reviews, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, EBM Reviews ACP Journal Club, EBM Reviews DARE and AMED). Only studies that used the definition of the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People to diagnose sarcopenia were included. Study selection and data extraction were performed by two independent reviewers. For outcomes reported by three or more studies, a meta-analysis was performed. The study results are expressed as odds ratios (OR) with 95% CI.

Results

Of the 772 references identified through the database search, 17 were included in this systematic review. The number of participants in the included studies ranged from 99 to 6658, and the duration of follow-up varied from 3 months to 9.8 years. Eleven out of 12 studies assessed the impact of sarcopenia on mortality. The results showed a higher rate of mortality among sarcopenic subjects (pooled OR of 3.596 (95% CI 2.96–4.37)). The effect was higher in people aged 79 years or older compared with younger subjects (p = 0.02). Sarcopenia is also associated with functional decline (pooled OR of 6 studies 3.03 (95% CI 1.80–5.12)), a higher rate of falls (2/2 studies found a significant association) and a higher incidence of hospitalizations (1/1 study). The impact of sarcopenia on the incidence of fractures and the length of hospital stay was less clear (only 1/2 studies showed an association for both outcomes).

Conclusion

Sarcopenia is associated with several harmful outcomes, making this geriatric syndrome a real public health burden.

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