ResearchPad - screening-guidelines https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Health profile of adult special immigrant visa holders arriving from Iraq and Afghanistan to the United States, 2009–2017: A cross-sectional analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13850 Between 2,000 and 19,000 Special Immigrant Visa holders (SIVH) from Iraq and Afghanistan have resettled in the United States annually since 2008.Per the Immigration and Nationality Act, SIVH, like other immigrants and refugees, must be examined by a physician before arriving in the US. Results of these overseas examinations are transmitted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to US state and local health departments via CDC’s Electronic Disease Notification system (EDN).Increasing provider knowledge about the health conditions most commonly encountered in SIVH as well as any differences in health conditions between SIVH from Iraq and Afghanistan may facilitate diagnostic screening, examination, and referrals to additional healthcare providers in the US.Information about the health of SIV populations is limited and would be beneficial for US clinicians who see SIVH in their clinics.What did the researchers do and find?In this cross-sectional analysis, we analyzed overseas medical exam data in CDC’s EDN for 19,167 SIV Iraqi and Afghan adults who resettled to the United States from April 2009 through December 2017.Among all SIVH, 56.5% were overweight or had obesity, 2.4% reported hypertension, 1.1% reported diabetes, and 19.4% reported current or previous tobacco use.In general, Iraqi SIVH were more likely to have obesity, diabetes, and be current or former smokers than Afghan SIVH.What do these findings mean?State public health agencies and clinicians screening SIVH should consider screening for diabetes among those with risk factors and prompt referral and management of obesity, hypertension, and smoking.Behavioral risk factor counseling and referral to culturally appropriate chronic disease prevention programs can be initiated at screening visits and subsequently reemphasized with primary care providers and other healthcare professionals.Limitations include the inability to obtain all SIVH records, self-reported medical history of NCDs, and underdiagnosis of NCDs such as hypertension and diabetes because formal laboratory testing for NCDs is not used during overseas medical exams. ]]> <![CDATA["Clicks, likes, shares and comments" a systematic review of breast cancer screening discourse in social media]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N8d8d3073-6769-4a60-aed8-e2beb958c228

Background

Unsatisfactory participation rate at population based organised breast cancer screening is a long standing problem. Social media, with 3.2 billion users in 2019, is potentially an important site of breast cancer related discourse. Determining whether these platforms might be used as channels by screening providers to reach under-screened women may have considerable public health significance.

Objectives

By systematically reviewing original research studies on breast cancer related social media discourse, we had two aims: first, to assess the volume, participants and content of breast screening social media communication and second, to find out whether social media can be used by screening organisers as a channel of patient education.

Methods

We followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). After searching PubMed, ScienceDirect, Web of Science, Springer and Ebsco, 17 studies were found that met our criteria. A systematic narrative framework was used for data synthesis. Owing to the high degree of heterogeneity in social media channels, outcomes and measurement included in this study, a meta-analytic approach was not appropriate.

Results

The volume of breast cancer related social media discourse is considerable. The majority of participants are lay individuals as opposed to healthcare professionals or advocacy groups. The lay misunderstandings surrounding the harms and benefits of mammography is well mirrored in the content of social media discourse. Although there is criticism, breast cancer screening sentiment on the social media ranges from the neutral to the positive. Social media is suitable for offering peer emotional support for potential participants.

Conclusion

Dedicated breast screening websites operated by screening organisers would ensure much needed quality controlled information and also provide space for reliable question and answer forums, the sharing of personal experience and the provision of peer and professional support.

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<![CDATA[Assessment of availability, awareness and perception of stakeholders regarding preschool vision screening in Kumasi, Ghana: An exploratory study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N637f6c02-dcec-48f9-ae4a-5e42bca666db

Background

Regardless of the importance of preschool vision screening (PSVS), there is limited data on the current state of these programs in Africa (particularly Ghana). This study sought to investigate the level of awareness and perception of stakeholders regarding PSVS, its availability and related policies/programmes in the Kumasi Metropolis, Ghana.

Methods

This descriptive cross-sectional study included 100 systematically sampled preschools in the metropolis (using probability proportional-to-size method); 72 private schools and 28 public schools. Convenience sampling was used to recruit stakeholders of preschools (teachers, head teachers, proprietors, administrators, directors, and educationists), and were interviewed using a well-structured questionnaire. Questionnaires were administered to all eligible respondents who were present at the time of data collection.

Results

A total of 344 respondents participated in the study; 123 (35.8%) males and 221 (64.2%) females. The overall mean age of respondents was 37.63 ±12.20 years (18–71 years). Of the respondents, 215 (62.5%), 94 (27.3%), and 35 (10.2%) were enrolled from private schools, public schools, and Metropolitan Education Directorate, respectively. 73.8% of respondents reported the absence of routine PSVS in schools whereas 90.1% reported no written policies for PSVS in schools. Only 63.6% of respondents were aware of PSVS whereas more than half (59.6%) of all respondents perceived PSVS to be very important for preschoolers. Private school ownership was significantly associated with availability of PSVS whereas age, teachers, private school ownership, and preschool experience > 10 years were significantly associated with awareness of PSVS (P < 0.05). However, there was no significant association between sociodemographic factors and perception of PSVS.

Conclusion

PSVS is largely unavailable in most Ghanaian schools. Majority of stakeholders were aware of PSVS and agreed to its implementation and incorporation into schools’ health programmes. There is the need to implement a national programme/policy on preschool vision screening in Ghana.

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<![CDATA[Health system barriers to implementation of TB preventive strategies in South African primary care facilities]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6f14b4d5eed0c48467a684

Background

Isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) is a key component of TB/HIV control, but few countries achieve high IPT coverage.

Methods

Using a behavioural COM-B design approach, the intervention consisted of a training on IPT guidelines and tuberculin skin testing (TST), identification of the optimal IPT implementation strategy by the health care workers (HCWs) of 3 primary care clinics, and a 2-month mentoring period. Using routine register data, TST and IPT uptake was determined 3 months before and 5 months after the intervention. Records were reviewed to identify factors associated with IPT initiation and HCW fidelity to the guidelines. A survey among HCWs was conducted to determine barriers to IPT.

Results

Two clinics implemented TST-guided IPT for all clients receiving HIV care, one clinic decided against use of TST. According to routine register data, the proportion of clients initiating IPT increased substantially at the clinic not opting for TST (6% vs 36%), but minimally (34% vs 37% and 0.7% vs 3%) in the two other clinics. TST uptake did not increase (0 vs 0% and 0.5%). In addition to poor IPT uptake, HCW fidelity to investigation for TB and timing of IPT initiation was poor, with only 68% of symptomatic patients investigated and IPT initiation delayed to a median of 374 days post-ART initiation. In multivariate analysis, pregnancy (aOR 18.62, 95% CI 6.99–53.46), recent HIV diagnosis (aOR 3.65, 95% CI 1.73–7.41), being on ART (aOR 9.44, 95% CI 3.05–36.17), and CD4 <500 cells/mm3 (aOR 2.19, 95% CI 1.22–4.18) were associated with IPT initiation. Time needed to perform a TST, motivating patients to return for TST reading, and low IPT patient awareness were the main barriers to IPT implementation.

Conclusion

Despite using a behavioural intervention framework including training and participatory development of the clinic IPT strategy, HCW fidelity to the guidelines was poor, resulting in low TST coverage and low IPT uptake under primary care conditions. To achieve the benefits of IPT, health system level approaches including TST-free guidelines and sensitization are needed.

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<![CDATA[Time to review policy on screening for, and managing, hypertension in South Africa: Evidence from primary care]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c40f7afd5eed0c48438660c

Background

Current policy in South Africa requires measurement of blood pressure at every visit in primary care. The number of patients regularly visiting primary care clinics for routine care is increasing rapidly, causing long queues, and unmanageable workloads.

Methods

We used data collected during a randomised control trial in primary care clinics in South Africa to estimate how changes in policy might affect workloads and improve identification of undiagnosed hypertension.

Results

The prevalence of raised blood pressure increased with age; 65% of individuals aged over 60 years had a raised blood pressure, and 49% of them were not on any treatment. Over three months, eight health facilities saw 8,947 individual chronic disease patients, receiving 22,323 visits from them. Of these visits, 60% were related to hypertension, with or without HIV, and a further 35% were related to HIV alone. Long waits for blood pressure checks caused friction at all levels of the clinics. Blood pressure machines frequently broke down due to heavy use, and high blood pressures readings were often ignored. If chronic disease patients without a diagnosis of hypertension had their blood pressure checked only once a year, the number of checks would be reduced by more than 80%. Individuals with hypertension had a blood pressure check on average once every 7 weeks, but South African guidelines recommend that this should be done every 3 months at most.

Conclusions

The numbers of chronic disease patients in primary care clinics in South Africa is rising rapidly. New policies for measuring blood pressure in these patients attending clinics are urgently needed.

Trial registration

Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN12128227 5th March 2014.

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<![CDATA[Methodologic approach to sampling and field-based data collection for a large-scale in-depth interview study: The Social Position and Family Formation (SPAFF) project]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c478c74d5eed0c484bd26a6

Over the past several decades there have been dramatic shifts in demographic patterns pertaining to family formation, with declining and delayed marriage and childbearing, and increased cohabitation in the United States and other Western industrialized nations. These trends in family demography have been predominantly studied using large-scale datasets, which have identified total population and subgroup trends over time, including differences by age, gender, racial/ethnic, economic, educational, religious, and other characteristics. However, there is limited knowledge and understanding of how individuals across different levels of social position, as well as other important characteristics, make decisions around forming families. This lack of qualitative data on contemporary attitudes regarding family formation has hampered our ability to more completely understand the factors driving behaviors pertaining to the large-scale (ie, international) shifts in demographic trends. The Social Position and Family Formation (SPAFF) project is an in-depth interview study that used quantitative data to guide recruitment of a large sample for qualitative interview data collection on factors influencing different aspects of family formation among heterosexual females and males (18–35 years) in the context of individuals’ social position. This methodological paper describes the use of a ‘quantitatively-informed’ purposive sampling approach in a large metropolitan area to collect qualitative data (through in-depth interviews) from a large sample (n = 200), utilizing web-based tools for successful community-based recruitment and project management.

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<![CDATA[Acute post stroke depression at a Primary Stroke Center in the Middle East]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c254586d5eed0c48442c8e4

Objective

Depression occurs in approximately 30 percent of stroke patients, leading to increased disability, lower quality of life and increased mortality. Given new recommendations to assess depression in acute stroke patients this study evaluated rates of acute post stroke depression at a Primary Stroke Center in Doha, Qatar.

Methods

Acute stroke patients (n = 233) were given the PHQ-9 and the Mini-Cog test by stroke unit nurses within the first few days post stroke. This was part of a clinical improvement project conducted from March 2016 thru March 2017.

Results

Approximately 20% of acute post stroke patients (46/233) scored in the moderately depressed range on the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9 ≥10 with item 1 and/or 2 endorsed). Nationality and dysarthria were significantly associated with depression. Females were twice as likely to be depressed. A significantly greater number of Middle Eastern and African patients were depressed (30.18%) than Southeast Asian and Western Pacific patients (16.76%). A PHQ-2 cut off of 2 was optimal with sensitivity of 91.3 and specificity of 71.6.

Conclusions

Almost 20% of acute stroke patients were moderately depressed on the PHQ-9, with Middle Eastern/African patients almost twice as likely to be depressed. This may reflect higher baseline pre-stroke depression levels in those of Middle Eastern/African background, perhaps due to greater levels or stress or trauma exposure in these groups. Dysarthria was found to be significantly associated with depression. Initial screening with the PHQ-2 using a cut-off of 2 (versus the cut-off of 3 used in primary care settings) may be beneficial. Based on these results acute post stroke depression screening is recommended in the Middle East, coupled with culturally sensitive psychiatric care.

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<![CDATA[High seroprevalence of Strongyloides stercoralis among individuals from endemic areas considered for solid organ transplant donation: A retrospective serum-bank based study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c09940cd5eed0c4842ae1af

Background

Strongyloides stercoralis is a worldwide disseminated parasitic disease that can be transmitted from solid organ transplant (SOT) donors to recipients. We determined the serological prevalence of S. stercoralis among deceased individuals from endemic areas considered for SOT donation, using our institution’s serum bank.

Methodology

Retrospective study including all deceased potential donors from endemic areas of strongyloidiasis considered for SOT between January 2004 and December 2014 in a tertiary care hospital. The commercial serological test IVD-Elisa was used to determine the serological prevalence of S. stercoralis.

Principal findings

Among 1025 deceased individuals during the study period, 90 were from endemic areas of strongyloidiasis. There were available serum samples for 65 patients and 6 of them tested positive for S. stercoralis (9.23%). Only one of the deceased candidates was finally a donor, without transmitting the infection.

Conclusions

Among deceased individuals from endemic areas considered for SOT donation, seroprevalence of strongyloidiasis was high. This highlights the importance of adhering to current recommendations on screening for S. stercoralis among potential SOT donors at high risk of the infection, together with the need of developing a rapid diagnostic test to fully implement these screening strategies.

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<![CDATA[Family history–based colorectal cancer screening in Australia: A modelling study of the costs, benefits, and harms of different participation scenarios]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b8b29df40307c405292ca51

Background

The Australian National Bowel Cancer Screening Programme (NBCSP) was introduced in 2006. When fully implemented, the programme will invite people aged 50 to 74 to complete an immunochemical faecal occult blood test (iFOBT) every 2 years.

Methods and findings

To investigate colorectal cancer (CRC) screening occurring outside of the NBCSP, we classified participants (n = 2,480) in the Australasian Colorectal Cancer Family Registry (ACCFR) into 3 risk categories (average, moderately increased, and potentially high) based on CRC family history and assessed their screening practices according to national guidelines. We developed a microsimulation to compare hypothetical screening scenarios (70% and 100% uptake) to current participation levels (baseline) and evaluated clinical outcomes and cost for each risk category. The 2 main limitations of this study are as follows: first, the fact that our cost-effectiveness analysis was performed from a third-party payer perspective, which does not include indirect costs and results in overestimated cost-effectiveness ratios, and second, that our natural history model of CRC does not include polyp sojourn time, which determines the rate of cancerous transformation.

Screening uptake was low across all family history risk categories (64%–56% reported no screening). For participants at average risk, 18% reported overscreening, while 37% of those in the highest risk categories screened according to guidelines. Higher screening levels would substantially reduce CRC mortality across all risk categories (95 to 305 fewer deaths per 100,000 persons in the 70% scenario versus baseline). For those at average risk, a fully implemented NBCSP represented the most cost-effective approach to prevent CRC deaths (AUS$13,000–16,000 per quality-adjusted life year [QALY]). For those at moderately increased risk, higher adherence to recommended screening was also highly cost-effective (AUS$19,000–24,000 per QALY).

Conclusion

Investing in public health strategies to increase adherence to appropriate CRC screening will save lives and deliver high value for money.

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<![CDATA[Informal Allopathic Provider Knowledge and Practice Regarding Hypertension in Urban and Rural Bangladesh]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da72ab0ee8fa60b9541f

Objectives

Describe informal allopathic practitioner (IAP) knowledge and practice about management of hypertension and identify gaps in IAP knowledge and practice amenable to interventions.

Methods

A cross sectional descriptive survey of 642 IAPs in Kamalapur (urban) and Mirsarai (rural) Bangladesh was conducted from March to April, 2011. Using a structured, pre-tested questionnaire sociodemographic, training, knowledge and practice data about management of hypertension was collected. Comparative statistics were preformed to show differences between urban and rural practitioners using SAS 8.0.

Findings

99.4% of IAPs were male, mean age was 37.5 (12.5 SD) years. Greater than 65% correctly identified the upper limit of normal blood pressure. 50.2% underestimated lower limit of systolic hypertension. 79.8% allowed age to affect their treatment approach. As blood pressure increased, willingness to treat with medication decreased and tendency to refer increased. Sedative/sleeping pills, antidepressants, and beta blockers were the most commonly prescribed medications for prehypertension (58.7%, 50.3% and 53.7% respectively), stage I hypertension (55.0%, 38.6%, 49.8% respectively) and stage II hypertension (42.4%, 23.7%, and 28.8% respectively). Rural IAPs were more likely than urban IAPs to treat (84.7% vs 77.7%), order tests (27.1% vs 6.0%) and write prescriptions (60.4% vs 18.7%).

Conclusion

While IAPs are crucial to Bangladesh’s pluralistic healthcare system, gaps in knowledge and practice could cause unnecessary harm. To include IAPs in the public sector’s fight against the chronic disease epidemic, interventions aimed at standardizing IAPs knowledge and practice will be essential. Successfully utilizing IAPs will have beneficial implications not only for Bangladesh, but for all developing countries.

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<![CDATA[Yield and Efficiency of Mental Health Screening: A Comparison of Screening Protocols at Intake to Prison]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dae2ab0ee8fa60bbc1da

Background

The value of screening for mental illness has increasingly been questioned in low prevalence settings due to high false positive rates. However, since false positive rates are related to prevalence, screening may be more effective in higher prevalence settings, including correctional institutions. We compared the yield (i.e. newly detected cases) and efficiency (i.e. false positives) of five screening protocols to detect mental illness in prisons against the use of mental health history taking (the prior approach to detecting mental illness).

Methods and Findings

We estimated the accuracy of the six approaches to detect an Axis I disorder among a sample of 467 newly admitted male inmates (83.1% participation rate). Mental health history taking identified only 41.0% (95% CI 32.1, 50.6) of all inmates with mental illness. Screening protocols identified between 61.9 and 85.7% of all cases, but referred between 2 and 3 additional individuals who did not have a mental illness for every additional case detected compared to the mental health history taking approach. In low prevalence settings (i.e. 10% or less) the screening protocols would have had between 4.6 and 16.2 false positives per true positive.

Conclusions

While screening may not be practical in low prevalence settings, it may be beneficial in jails and prisons where the prevalence of mental illness is higher. Further consideration of the context in which screening is being implemented, and of the impacts of policies and clinical practices on the benefits and harms of screening is needed to determine the effectiveness of screening in these settings.

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<![CDATA[Adherence by Dutch Public Health Nurses to the National Guidelines for Tuberculosis Contact Investigation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db22ab0ee8fa60bcf928

Objectives

To assess whether public health nurses adhered to Dutch guidelines for tuberculosis contact investigations and to explore which factors influenced the process of identifying contacts, prioritizing contacts for testing and scaling up a contact investigation.

Methods

A multiple-case study (2010–2012) compared the contact investigation guidelines as recommended with their use in practice. We interviewed twice 14 public health nurses of seven Public Health Services while they conducted a contact investigation.

Results

We found more individuals to be identified as contacts than recommended, owing to a desire to gain insight into the infectiousness of the index case and prevent anxiety among potential contacts. Because some public health nurses did not believe the recommendations for prioritizing contacts fully encompassed daily practice, they preferred their own regular routine. In scaling up a contact investigation, they hardly applied the stone-in-the-pond principle. They neither regularly compared the infection prevalence in the contact investigation with the background prevalence in the community, especially not in immigrant populations. Nonadherence was related to ambiguity of the recommendations and a tendency to act from an individual health-care position rather than a population health perspective.

Conclusions

The adherence to the contact investigation guidelines was limited, restraining the effectiveness, efficiency and uniformity of tuberculosis control. Adherence could be optimized by specifying guideline recommendations, actively involving the TB workforce, and training public health nurses.

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<![CDATA[A Dynamic Model of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder for Military Personnel and Veterans]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dad6ab0ee8fa60bb828c

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) stands out as a major mental illness; however, little is known about effective policies for mitigating the problem. The importance and complexity of PTSD raise critical questions: What are the trends in the population of PTSD patients among military personnel and veterans in the postwar era? What policies can help mitigate PTSD? To address these questions, we developed a system dynamics simulation model of the population of military personnel and veterans affected by PTSD. The model includes both military personnel and veterans in a “system of systems.” This is a novel aspect of our model, since many policies implemented at the military level will potentially influence (and may have side effects on) veterans and the Department of Veterans Affairs. The model is first validated by replicating the historical data on PTSD prevalence among military personnel and veterans from 2000 to 2014 (datasets from the Department of Defense, the Institute of Medicine, the Department of Veterans Affairs, and other sources). The model is then used for health policy analysis. Our results show that, in an optimistic scenario based on the status quo of deployment to intense/combat zones, estimated PTSD prevalence among veterans will be at least 10% during the next decade. The model postulates that during wars, resiliency-related policies are the most effective for decreasing PTSD. In a postwar period, current health policy interventions (e.g., screening and treatment) have marginal effects on mitigating the problem of PTSD, that is, the current screening and treatment policies must be revolutionized to have any noticeable effect. Furthermore, the simulation results show that it takes a long time, on the order of 40 years, to mitigate the psychiatric consequences of a war. Policy and financial implications of the findings are discussed.

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<![CDATA[The effects of implementing a point-of-care electronic template to prompt routine anxiety and depression screening in patients consulting for osteoarthritis (the Primary Care Osteoarthritis Trial): A cluster randomised trial in primary care]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db5aab0ee8fa60bdf2b8

Background

This study aimed to evaluate whether prompting general practitioners (GPs) to routinely assess and manage anxiety and depression in patients consulting with osteoarthritis (OA) improves pain outcomes.

Methods and findings

We conducted a cluster randomised controlled trial involving 45 English general practices. In intervention practices, patients aged ≥45 y consulting with OA received point-of-care anxiety and depression screening by the GP, prompted by an automated electronic template comprising five questions (a two-item Patient Health Questionnaire–2 for depression, a two-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder–2 questionnaire for anxiety, and a question about current pain intensity [0–10 numerical rating scale]). The template signposted GPs to follow National Institute for Health and Care Excellence clinical guidelines for anxiety, depression, and OA and was supported by a brief training package. The template in control practices prompted GPs to ask the pain intensity question only. The primary outcome was patient-reported current pain intensity post-consultation and at 3-, 6-, and 12-mo follow-up. Secondary outcomes included pain-related disability, anxiety, depression, and general health.

During the trial period, 7,279 patients aged ≥45 y consulted with a relevant OA-related code, and 4,240 patients were deemed potentially eligible by participating GPs. Templates were completed for 2,042 patients (1,339 [31.6%] in the control arm and 703 [23.1%] in the intervention arm). Of these 2,042 patients, 1,412 returned questionnaires (501 [71.3%] from 20 intervention practices, 911 [68.0%] from 24 control practices). Follow-up rates were similar in both arms, totalling 1,093 (77.4%) at 3 mo, 1,064 (75.4%) at 6 mo, and 1,017 (72.0%) at 12 mo. For the primary endpoint, multilevel modelling yielded significantly higher average pain intensity across follow-up to 12 mo in the intervention group than the control group (adjusted mean difference 0.31; 95% CI 0.04, 0.59). Secondary outcomes were consistent with the primary outcome measure in reflecting better outcomes as a whole for the control group than the intervention group. Anxiety and depression scores did not reduce following the intervention. The main limitations of this study are two potential sources of bias: an imbalance in cluster size (mean practice size 7,397 [intervention] versus 5,850 [control]) and a difference in the proportion of patients for whom the GP deactivated the template (33.6% [intervention] versus 27.8% [control]).

Conclusions

In this study, we observed no beneficial effect on pain outcomes of prompting GPs to routinely screen for and manage comorbid anxiety and depression in patients presenting with symptoms due to OA, with those in the intervention group reporting statistically significantly higher average pain scores over the four follow-up time points than those in the control group.

Trial registration

ISRCTN registry ISRCTN40721988

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<![CDATA[Spleen Stiffness Is Superior to Liver Stiffness for Predicting Esophageal Varices in Chronic Liver Disease: A Meta-Analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989daf8ab0ee8fa60bc3b4f

Background and Aims

Liver stiffness (LS) and spleen stiffness (SS) are two most widely accessible non-invasive parameters for predicting esophageal varices (EV), but the reported accuracy of the two predictors have been inconsistent across studies. This meta-analysis aims to evaluate the diagnostic performance of LS and SS measurement for detecting EV in patients with chronic liver disease (CLD), and compare their accuracy.

Methods

Pubmed/Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library and Ovid were searched for all studies assessing SS and LS simultaneously in EV diagnosis. A total of 16 studies including 1892 patients were included in this meta-analysis, and the pooled statistical parameters were calculated using the bivariate mixed effects models.

Results

In detection of any EV, for LS measurement, the summary sensitivity was 0.83 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.78–0.87), and the specificity was 0.66 (95% CI: 0.60–0.72). While for SS measurement, the pooled sensitivity and specificity was 0.88 (95% CI: 0.83–0.92) and 0.78 (95% CI: 0.73–0.83). The summary receiver operating characteristic (SROC) curve values of LS and SS were 0.81 (95% CI: 0.77–0.84) and 0.88 (95% CI: 0.85–0.91) respectively, and the results had statistical significance (P<0.01). The diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) of SS (25.73) was significantly higher than that of LS (9.54), with the relative DOR value was 2.48 (95%CI: 1.10–5.60), P<0.05.

Conclusions

Under current techniques, SS is significantly superior to LS for identifying the presence of EV in patients with CLD. SS measurement may help to select patients for endoscopic screening.

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<![CDATA[Screening for Unruptured Intracranial Aneurysms in Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease: A Survey of 420 Nephrologists]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9fcab0ee8fa60b72468

Background

Despite a high prevalence of intracranial aneurysm (ICA) in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), rupture events are rare. The current recommendations for ICA screening are based on expert opinions and studies with low levels of evidence.

Objectives

The aim of our study was to describe the attitudes of practicing nephrologists in Europe towards screening for ICA using magnetic resonance angiography (MRA).

Methods

We conducted a web-based survey among 1315 European French-speaking nephrologists and nephrology residents. An anonymous, electronic questionnaire including 24 independent questions related to ICA screening modalities, indications and participant profiles was sent by email between September and December 2014. Four hundred and twenty nephrologists (mostly from France) participated, including 31 nephrology residents; the response rate was 32%.

Results

Systematic screening for ICA was advocated by 28% of the nephrologists. A family history of ICA rupture, sudden death, stroke and migraine were consensual indications for screening (> 90% of the panel). In other clinical situations largely not covered by the recommendations (pregnancy, nephrectomy, kidney transplantation, cardiac or hepatic surgery, uncontrolled hypertension, lack of familial ADPKD history, at-risk activity, tobacco use), the attitudes towards screening were highly divergent. ICA screening was influenced by nephrologists experience with ADPKD and by their practice setting. The majority of participants (57%) would not repeat a normal ICA screening. Only a few participants (22%) knew that non-contrast MRA was the reference diagnostic tool for ICA screening, whereas most participants thought that contrast enhancement was necessary to screen for ICA. The results from the nephrology residents were analyzed separately and yielded similar results.

Conclusion

This practice survey revealed that most nephrologists follow the current recommendations for the initial screening of ICAs. However, more than a quarter of the panel was in favor of systematic ICA screening, most nephrologists did not know that contrast medium was not necessary to screen for ICA using MRA, and many areas of uncertainty remain.

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<![CDATA[Loss to Follow-Up from HIV Screening to ART Initiation in Rural China]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db0dab0ee8fa60bcae8a

Background

Patients who are newly screened HIV positive by EIA are lost to follow-up due to complicated HIV testing procedures. Because this is the first step in care, it affects the entire continuum of care. This is a particular concern in rural China.

Objective(s)

To assess the routine HIV testing completeness and treatment initiation rates at 18 county-level general hospitals in rural Guangxi.

Methods

We reviewed original hospital HIV screening records. Investigators also engaged with hospital leaders and key personnel involved in HIV prevention activities to characterize in detail the routine care practices in place at each county.

Results

699 newly screened HIV-positive patients between January 1 and June 30, 2013 across the 18 hospitals were included in the study. The proportion of confirmatory testing across the 18 hospitals ranged from 14% to 87% (mean of 43%), and the proportion of newly diagnosed individuals successfully initiated antiretroviral treatment across the hospitals ranged from 3% to 67% (mean of 23%). The average interval within hospitals for individuals to receive the Western Blot (WB) and CD4 test results from HIV positive screening (i.e. achieving testing completion) ranged from 14–116 days (mean of 41.7 days) across the hospitals. The shortest interval from receiving a positive EIA screening test result to receiving WB and CD4 testing and counseling was 0 day and the longest was 260 days.

Conclusion

The proportion of patients newly screened HIV positive that completed the necessary testing procedures for HIV confirmation and received ART was very low. Interventions are urgently needed to remove barriers so that HIV patients can have timely access to HIV/AIDS treatment and care in rural China.

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<![CDATA[The Global Risk Approach Should Be Better Applied in French Hypertensive Patients: A Comparison between Simulation and Observation Studies]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da61ab0ee8fa60b90f5a

Background

The prediction of the public health impact of a preventive strategy provides valuable support for decision-making. International guidelines for hypertension management have introduced the level of absolute cardiovascular risk in the definition of the treatment target population. The public health impact of implementing such a recommendation has not been measured.

Methodology/Principal Findings

We assessed the efficiency of three treatment scenarios according to historical and current versions of practice guidelines on a Realistic Virtual Population representative of the French population aged from 35 to 64 years: 1) BP≥160/95 mm Hg; 2) BP≥140/90 mm Hg and 3) BP≥140/90 mm Hg plus increased CVD risk. We compared the eligibility following the ESC guidelines with the recently observed proportion of treated amongst hypertensive individuals reported by the Etude Nationale Nutrition Santé survey. Lowering the threshold to define hypertension multiplied by 2.5 the number of eligible individuals. Applying the cardiovascular risk rule reduced this number significantly: less than 1/4 of hypertensive women under 55 years and less than 1/3 of hypertensive men below 45 years of age. This was the most efficient strategy. Compared to the simulated guidelines application, men of all ages were undertreated (between 32 and 60%), as were women over 55 years (70%). By contrast, younger women were over-treated (over 200%).

Conclusion

The global CVD risk approach to decide for treatment is more efficient than the simple blood pressure level. However, lack of screening rather than guideline application seems to explain the low prescription rates among hypertensive individuals in France. Multidimensional analyses required to obtain these results are possible only through databases at the individual level: realistic virtual populations should become the gold standard for assessing the impact of public health policies at the national level.

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<![CDATA[Performance of Risk-Based Criteria for Targeting Acute HIV Screening in San Francisco]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db43ab0ee8fa60bd7a11

Background

Federal guidelines now recommend supplemental HIV RNA testing for persons at high risk for acute HIV infection. However, many rapid HIV testing sites do not include HIV RNA or p24 antigen testing due to concerns about cost, the need for results follow-up, and the impact of expanded venipuncture on clinic flow. We developed criteria to identify patients in a municipal STD clinic in San Francisco who are asymptomatic but may still be likely to have acute infection.

Methods

Data were from patients tested with serial HIV antibody and HIV RNA tests to identify acute HIV infection. BED-CEIA results were used to classify non-acute cases as recent or longstanding. Demographics and self-reported risk behaviors were collected at time of testing. Multivariate models were developed and preliminarily evaluated using predictors associated with recent infection in bivariate analyses as a proxy for acute HIV infection. Multivariate models demonstrating ≥70% sensitivity for recent infection while testing ≤60% of patients in this development dataset were then validated by determining their performance in identifying acute infections.

Results

From 2004–2007, 137 of 12,622 testers had recent and 36 had acute infections. A model limiting acute HIV screening to MSM plus any one of a series of other predictors resulted in a sensitivity of 83.3% and only 47.6% of patients requiring testing. A single-factor model testing only patients reporting any receptive anal intercourse resulted in 88.9% sensitivity with only 55.2% of patients requiring testing.

Conclusions

In similar high risk HIV testing sites, acute screening using “supplemental” HIV p24 antigen or RNA tests can be rationally targeted to testers who report particular HIV risk behaviors. By improving the efficiency of acute HIV testing, such criteria could facilitate expanded acute case identification.

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<![CDATA[Increases in HIV Testing among Men Who Have Sex with Men — National HIV Behavioral Surveillance System, 20 U.S. Metropolitan Statistical Areas, 2008 and 2011]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da14ab0ee8fa60b7ac73

In 2011, 62% of estimated new HIV diagnoses in the United States were attributed to male-to-male sexual contact (men who have sex with men, MSM); 39% of these MSM were black or African American. HIV testing, recommended at least annually by CDC for sexually active MSM, is an essential first step in HIV care and treatment for HIV-positive individuals. A variety of HIV testing initiatives, designed to reach populations disproportionately affected by HIV, have been developed at both national and local levels. We assessed changes in HIV testing behavior among MSM participating in the National HIV Behavioral Surveillance System in 2008 and 2011. We compared the percentages tested in the previous 12 months in 2008 and 2011, overall and by race/ethnicity and age group. In unadjusted analyses, recent HIV testing increased from 63% in 2008 to 67% in 2011 overall (P<0.001), from 63% to 71% among black MSM (P<0.001), and from 63% to 75% among MSM of other/multiple races (P<0.001); testing did not increase significantly for white or Hispanic/Latino MSM. Multivariable model results indicated an overall increase in recent HIV testing (adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR] = 1.07, P<0.001). Increases were largest for black MSM (aPR = 1.12, P<0.001) and MSM of other/multiple races (aPR = 1.20, P<0.001). Among MSM aged 18–19 years, recent HIV testing was shown to increase significantly among black MSM (aPR = 1.20, P = 0.007), but not among MSM of other racial/ethnic groups. Increases in recent HIV testing among populations most affected by HIV are encouraging, but despite these increases, improved testing coverage is needed to meet CDC recommendations.

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