ResearchPad - secretion https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Serum and cervicovaginal IgG immune responses against α7 and α9 HPV in non-vaccinated women at risk for cervical cancer: Implication for catch-up prophylactic HPV vaccination]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_15726 Cervical cancer associated with high risk-human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) infection is becoming the one of the most common female cancer in many sub-Saharan African countries. First-generation immigrant African women living in Europe are at-risk for cervical cancer, in a context of social vulnerability, with frequent lack of cervical cancer screening and HPV vaccination.ObjectiveOur objective was to address immunologically the issue of catch-up prophylactic HPV vaccination in first-generation African immigrant women living in France.MethodsIgG immune responses and cross-reactivities to α7 (HPV-18, -45 and -68) and α9 (HPV-16, -31, -33, -35, -52 and -58) HPV types, including 7 HR-HPV targeted by the Gardasil-9® prophylactic vaccine, were evaluated in paired serum and cervicovaginal secretions (CVS) by HPV L1-virus-like particles-based ELISA. Genital HPV were detected by multiplex real time PCR (Seegene, Seoul, South Korea).ResultsFifty-one immigrant women (mean age, 41.7 years; 72.5% HIV-infected) were prospectively included. More than two-third (68.6%) of them carried genital HPV (group I) while 31.4% were negative (group II). The majority (90.2%) exhibited serum IgG to at least one α7/α9 HR-HPV. Serum HPV-specific IgG were more frequently detected in group I than group II (100% versus 68.7%; P = 0.002). The distribution of serum and genital HPV-specific IgG was similar, but mean number of IgG reactivities to α7/α9 HR-HPV was higher in serum than CVS (5.6 IgG per woman in serum versus 3.2 in CVS; P<0.001). Rates of IgG cross-reactivities against HPV different from detected cervicovaginal HPV were higher in serum and CVS in group I than group II. Finally, the majority of groups I and II women (68.6% and 68.7%, respectively) exhibited serum or cervicovaginal IgG to Gardasil-9® HR-HPV, with higher mean rates in group I than group II (6.1 Gardasil-9® HR-HPV per woman versus 1.4; P<0.01). One-third (31.2%) of group II women did not show any serum and genital HPV-specific IgG.ConclusionsAround two-third of first-generation African immigrant women living in France showed frequent ongoing genital HPV infection and high rates of circulating and genital IgG to α7/α9 HPV, generally cross-reacting, avoiding the possibility of catch-up vaccination. Nevertheless, about one-third of women had no evidence of previous HPV infection, or showed only low levels of genital and circulating HR-HPV-specific IgG and could therefore be eligible for catch-up vaccination. ]]> <![CDATA[Association between the rs1544410 polymorphism in the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene and insulin secretion after gestational diabetes mellitus]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14643 Genetic variants involved in vitamin D metabolism have been associated with diabetes and related syndromes/diseases. We wanted to investigate possible associations of polymorphisms in genes involved in vitamin D metabolism with indices of insulin resistance and insulin secretion, and also with development of diabetes after gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM).Materials and methodsWe have studied 376 women with previous GDM. Eight single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the genes for vitamin D receptor (VDR) [rs731236, rs7975232, rs10735810, and rs1544410], vitamin D binding protein (DBP) [rs7041 and rs4588], and cytochrome P450 family 27 subfamily B member 1 (CYP27B1) [rs10877012 and rs4646536] were genotyped by TaqMan Allelic Discrimination Assay using the Quantstudio 7 Flex system. A 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed 1–2 years postpartum. The homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and the disposition index [(insulinogenic index: I30/G30)/HOMA-IR] were used to calculate insulin resistance and insulin secretion, respectively. Serum samples for determination of 25(OH)D3 were collected at the time of the OGTT. Manifestation of diabetes was followed up to five years postpartum.ResultsAfter adjustment for BMI, age, and ethnicity, the A-allele of the VDR rs1544410 polymorphism was found to be associated with increased disposition index (difference per allele = 3.56, 95% CI: 0.4567–6.674; p = 0.03). The A-allele of the DBP rs7041 polymorphism was found to be associated with 25(OH)D3 levels (difference [in nmol/L] per allele = −5.478, 95% CI: -8.315 to −2.641; p = 0.0002), as was the T-allele of the DBP rs4588 polymorphism (OR = −6.319, 95% CI: −9.466 to −3.171; p = 0.0001). None of the SNPs were significantly associated with HOMA-IR or postpartum diabetes.ConclusionsThis study provides evidence that the rs1544410 polymorphism of the VDR gene may be associated with increased insulin secretion in women after pregnancy complicated by GDM. Further studies in other populations are needed to confirm the results. ]]> <![CDATA[Identification and characterization of alternative STK39 transcripts within human and mouse kidneys reveals species‐specific regulation of blood pressure]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nfd6aec1a-f247-462f-b5bd-96de01ebb4e9

Abstract

STK39 encodes a serine threonine kinase, SPAK, which is part of a multi‐kinase network that determines renal Na+ reabsorption and blood pressure (BP) through regulation of sodium‐chloride co‐transporters in the kidney. Variants within STK39 are associated with susceptibility to essential hypertension, and constitutively active SPAK mice are hypertensive and hyperkalemic, similar to familial hyperkalemic hyperkalemia in humans. SPAK null mice are hypotensive and mimic Gitelman syndrome, a rare monogenic salt wasting human disorder. Mice exhibit nephron segment‐specific expression of full length SPAK and N‐terminally truncated SPAK isoforms (SPAK2 and KS‐SPAK) with impaired kinase function. SPAK2 and KS‐SPAK function to inhibit phosphorylation of cation co‐transporters by full length SPAK. However, the existence of orthologous SPAK2 or KS‐SPAK within the human kidney, and the role of such SPAK isoforms in nephron segment‐specific regulation of Na+ reabsorption, still have not been determined. In this study, we examined both human and mouse kidney transcriptomes to uncover novel transcriptional regulation of STK39. We established that humans also express STK39 transcript isoforms similar to those found in mice but differ in abundance and are transcribed from human‐specific promoters. In summary, STK39 undergoes species‐specific transcriptional regulation, resulting in differentially expressed alternative transcripts that have implications for the design and testing of novel SPAK‐targeting antihypertensive medications.

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<![CDATA[Mystery or method? Evaluating claims of increased energy expenditure during a ketogenic diet]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N1fb27919-9738-4fc6-9f1b-08c7be150010 ]]> <![CDATA[Heterochrony of puberty in the European badger (Meles meles) can be explained by growth rate and group-size: Evidence for two endocrinological phenotypes]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c897769d5eed0c4847d2c1b

Puberty is a key stage in mammalian ontogeny, involving endocrinological, physiological and behavioural changes, moderated by intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Thus, not all individuals within one population achieve sexual maturity simultaneously. Here, using the European badger (Meles meles) as a model, we describe male testosterone and female oestrone profiles (using Enzyme-immunoassays) from first capture (3 months, post-weaning) until 28 months (attaining sexual maturity and final body size), along with metrics of somatic growth, scent gland development and maturation of external reproductive organs as well as intra-specific competition. In both sexes, endocrinological puberty commenced at ca. 11 months. Thereafter, cub hormone levels followed adult seasonal hormone patterns but at lower levels, with the majority of cubs reaching sexual maturity during their second mating season (22–28 months). Interestingly, there was evidence for two endocrinological phenotypes among male cubs (less evident in females), with early developers reaching sexual maturity at 11 months (first mating season) and late developers reaching sexual maturity at 22–26 months (second mating season). Early developers also attained a greater proportion of their ultimate adult size by 11 months, exhibiting faster growth rates than late developers (despite having similar adult size). Male cubs born into larger social groups tended to follow the late developer phenotype. Our results support the hypothesis that a minimum body size is required to reach sexual maturity, which may be achieved at different ages, even within a single population, where early maturity can confer individual fitness advantages and enhance population growth rate.

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<![CDATA[The role of embryo contact and focal adhesions during maternal recognition of pregnancy]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c8823f5d5eed0c484639429

Maternal recognition of pregnancy (MRP) in the mare is an unknown process. In a non-pregnant mare on day 14 post-ovulation (PO), prostaglandin F (PGF) is secreted by the endometrium causing regression of the corpus luteum. Prior to day 14, MRP must occur in order to attenuate secretion of PGF. The embryo is mobile throughout the uterus due to uterine contractions from day of entry to day 14. It is unknown what signaling is occurring. Literature stated that infusing oil or placing a glass marble into the equine uterus prolongs luteal lifespan and that in non-pregnant mares, serum exosomes contain miRNA that are targeting the focal adhesion (FA) pathway. The hypothesis of this study is embryo contact with endometrium causes a change in abundance of focal adhesion molecules (FA) in the endometrium leading to decrease in PGF secretion. Mares (n = 3/day) were utilized in a cross-over design with each mare serving as a pregnant and non-pregnant (non-mated) control on days 9 and 11 PO. Mares were randomly assigned to collection day and endometrial samples and embryos were collected on the specified day. Biopsy samples were divided into five pieces, four for culture for 24 hours and one immediately snap frozen. Endometrial biopsies for culture were placed in an incubator with one of four treatments: [1] an embryo in contact on the luminal side of the endometrium, [2] beads in contact on the luminal side of the endometrium, [3] peanut oil in contact on the luminal side of the endometrium or [4] the endometrium by itself. Biopsies and culture medium were frozen for further analysis. RNA and protein were isolated from biopsies for PCR and Western blot analysis for FA. PGF assays were performed on culture medium to determine concentration of PGF. Statistics were performed using SAS (P ≤ 0.05 indicated significance). The presence of beads on day 9 impacted samples from pregnant mares more than non-pregnant mares and had very little impact on day 11. Presence of oil decreased FA in samples from pregnant mares on day 9. On day 11, oil decreased FA abundance in samples from non-pregnant mares. Embryo contact caused multiple changes in RNA and protein abundance in endometrium from both pregnant and non-pregnant mares. The PGF secretion after 24 hours with each treatment was also determined. On day 9, there was no change in PGF secretion compared to any treatments. On day 11, presence of peanut oil increased PGF secretion in samples from non-pregnant mares. In samples from non-pregnant mares, presence of an embryo decreased PGF secretion compared to control samples from non-pregnant mares. Results revealed that while beads and peanut oil may impact abundance of FA RNA and protein in endometrial samples, it does not appear to impact PGF secretion. Conversely, embryo contact for 24 hours with endometrium from a non-pregnant mare causes a decrease in PGF secretion. These results suggest that it is not just contact of any substance/object causing attenuation of PGF secretion, but the embryo itself is necessary to decrease PGF secretion.

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<![CDATA[Antiretroviral adherence and virologic suppression in partnered and unpartnered HIV-positive individuals in southern Brazil]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c803c70d5eed0c484ad896d

Background

An undetectable serum HIV-1 load is key to effectiveness of antiretroviral (ARV) therapy, which depends on adherence to treatment. We evaluated factors possibly associated with ARV adherence and virologic response in HIV-infected heterosexual individuals.

Methods

A cross-sectional study was conducted in 200 HIV-1 serodiscordant couples and 100 unpartnered individuals receiving ARV treatment at a tertiary hospital in southern Brazil. All subjects provided written informed consent, answered demographic/behavioral questionnaires through audio computer-assisted self-interviews (ACASI), and collected blood and vaginal samples for biological markers and assessment of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). HIV-negative partners were counseled and tested for HIV-1.

Results

The study population mean age was 39.9 years, 53.6% were female, 62.5% were Caucasian, 52.6% had incomplete or complete elementary education, 63.1% resided in Porto Alegre. Demographic, behavioral and biological marker characteristics were similar between couples and single individuals. There was an association between adherence reported on ACASI and an undetectable serum viral load (P<0.0001). Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that single-tablet ARV-regimens were independently associated with adherence (OR = 2.3; 95CI%: 1.2–4.4; P = 0.011) after controlling for age, gender, education, marital status, personal income, ARV regimen, and median time of ARV use. A positive correlation between genital secretion PCR results and serum viral load was significant in the presence of STIs (r = 0.359; P = 0.017). Although HIV PCR detection in vaginal secretions was more frequent in women with detectable viremia (9/51, 17.6%), it was also present in 7 of 157 women with undetectable serum viral loads (4.5%), p = 0.005.

Conclusions

ARV single tablet regimens are associated with adherence. Detectable HIV-1 may be present in the genital secretions of women with undetectable viremia which means there is potential for HIV transmission in adherent individuals with serologic suppression.

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<![CDATA[Analysis of Epichloë festucae small secreted proteins in the interaction with Lolium perenne]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6dc9b2d5eed0c48452a041

Epichloë festucae is an endophyte of the agriculturally important perennial ryegrass. This species systemically colonises the aerial tissues of this host where its growth is tightly regulated thereby maintaining a mutualistic symbiotic interaction. Recent studies have suggested that small secreted proteins, termed effectors, play a vital role in the suppression of host defence responses. To date only a few effectors with important roles in mutualistic interactions have been described. Here we make use of the fully assembled E. festucae genome and EffectorP to generate a suite of 141 effector candidates. These were analysed with respect to their genome location and expression profiles in planta and in several symbiosis-defective mutants. We found an association between effector candidates and a class of transposable elements known as MITEs, but no correlation with other dynamic features of the E. festucae genome, such as transposable element-rich regions. Three effector candidates and a small GPI-anchored protein were chosen for functional analysis based on their high expression in planta compared to in culture and their differential regulation in symbiosis defective E. festucae mutants. All three candidate effector proteins were shown to possess a functional signal peptide and two could be detected in the extracellular medium by western blotting. Localization of the effector candidates in planta suggests that they are not translocated into the plant cell, but rather, are localized in the apoplastic space or are attached to the cell wall. Deletion and overexpression of the effector candidates, as well as the putative GPI-anchored protein, did not affect the plant growth phenotype or restrict growth of E. festucae mutants in planta. These results indicate that these proteins are either not required for the interaction at the observed life stages or that there is redundancy between effectors expressed by E. festucae.

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<![CDATA[Inward rectifier potassium (Kir) channels mediate salivary gland function and blood feeding in the lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c65dccbd5eed0c484dec23d

Background

Tick feeding causes extreme morbidity and mortality to humans through transmission of pathogens and causes severe economic losses to the agricultural industry by reducing livestock yield. Salivary gland secretions are essential for tick feeding and thus, reducing or preventing saliva secretions into the vertebrate host is likely to reduce feeding and hinder pathogen life cycles. Unfortunately, the membrane physiology of tick salivary glands is underexplored and this gap in knowledge limits the development of novel therapeutics for inducing cessation of tick feeding.

Methodology

We studied the influence of inward rectifier potassium (Kir) channel subtypes to the functional capacity of the isolated tick salivary gland through the use of a modified Ramsay assay. The secreted saliva was subsequently used for quantification of the elemental composition of the secreted saliva after the glands were exposed to K+ channel modulators as a measure of osmoregulatory capacity. Lastly, changes to blood feeding behavior and mortality were measured with the use of a membrane feeding system.

Principal findings

In this study, we characterized the fundamental role of Kir channel subtypes in tick salivary gland function and provide evidence that pharmacological inhibition of these ion channels reduces the secretory activity of the Amblyomma americanum salivary gland. The reduced secretory capacity of the salivary gland was directly correlated with a dramatic reduction of blood ingestion during feeding. Further, exposure to small-molecule modulators of Kir channel subtypes induced mortality to ticks that is likely resultant from an altered osmoregulatory capacity.

Conclusions

Our data contribute to understanding of tick salivary gland function and could guide future campaigns aiming to develop chemical or reverse vaccinology technologies to reduce the worldwide burden of tick feeding and tick-vectored pathogens.

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<![CDATA[Consistency of compact and extended models of glucose-insulin homeostasis: The role of variable pancreatic reserve]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c7067acd5eed0c4847c74a3

Published compact and extended models of the glucose-insulin physiologic control system are compared, in order to understand why a specific functional form of the compact model proved to be necessary for a satisfactory representation of acute perturbation experiments such as the Intra Venous Glucose Tolerance Test (IVGTT). A spectrum of IVGTT’s of virtual subjects ranging from normal to IFG to IGT to frank T2DM were simulated using an extended model incorporating the population-of-controllers paradigm originally hypothesized by Grodsky, and proven to be able to capture a wide array of experimental results from heterogeneous perturbation procedures. The simulated IVGTT’s were then fitted with the Single-Delay Model (SDM), a compact model with only six free parameters, previously shown to be very effective in delivering precise estimates of insulin sensitivity and secretion during an IVGTT. Comparison of the generating, extended-model parameter values with the obtained compact model estimates shows that the functional form of the nonlinear insulin-secretion term, empirically found to be necessary for the compact model to satisfactorily fit clinical observations, captures the pancreatic reserve level of the simulated virtual patients. This result supports the validity of the compact model as a meaningful analysis tool for the clinical assessment of insulin sensitivity.

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<![CDATA[Role of SpaO in the assembly of the sorting platform of a Salmonella type III secretion system]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c50c486d5eed0c4845e8885

Many bacterial pathogens and symbionts use type III secretion machines to interact with their hosts by injecting bacterial effector proteins into host target cells. A central component of this complex machine is the cytoplasmic sorting platform, which orchestrates the engagement and preparation of type III secreted proteins for their delivery to the needle complex, the substructure of the type III secretion system that mediates their passage through the bacterial envelope. The sorting platform is thought to be a dynamic structure whose components alternate between assembled and disassembled states. However, how this dynamic behavior is controlled is not understood. In S. Typhimurium a core component of the sorting platform is SpaO, which is synthesized in two tandemly translated products, a full length (SpaOL) and a short form (SpaOS) composed of the C-terminal 101 amino acids. Here we show that in the absence of SpaOS the assembly of the needle substructure of the needle complex, which requires a functional sorting platform, can still occur although with reduced efficiency. Consistent with this observation, in the absence of SpaOS secretion of effectors proteins, which requires a fully assembled injectisome, is only slightly compromised. In the absence of SpaOS we detect a significant number of fully assembled needle complexes that are not associated with fully assembled sorting platforms. We also find that although binding of SpaOL to SpaOS can be detected in the absence of other components of the sorting platform, this interaction is not detected in the context of a fully assembled sorting platform suggesting that SpaOS may not be a core structural component of the sorting platform. Consistent with this observation we find that SpaOS and OrgB, a component of the sorting platform, share the same binding surface on SpaOL. We conclude that SpaOS regulates the assembly of the sorting platform during type III secretion.

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<![CDATA[Toll-like receptor 3 regulates Zika virus infection and associated host inflammatory response in primary human astrocytes]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6730aad5eed0c484f37e84

The connection between Zika virus (ZIKV) and neurodevelopmental defects is widely recognized, although the mechanisms underlying the infectivity and pathology in primary human glial cells are poorly understood. Here we show that three isolated strains of ZIKV, an African strain MR766 (Uganda) and two closely related Asian strains R103451 (Honduras) and PRVABC59 (Puerto Rico) productively infect primary human astrocytes, although Asian strains showed a higher infectivity rate and increased cell death when compared to the African strain. Inhibition of AXL receptor significantly attenuated viral entry of MR766 and PRVABC59 and to a lesser extend R103451, suggesting an important role of TAM receptors in ZIKV cell entry, irrespective of lineage. Infection by PRVABC59 elicited the highest release of inflammatory molecules, with a 8-fold increase in the release of RANTES, 10-fold increase in secretion of IP-10 secretion and a 12-fold increase in IFN-β secretion when compared to un-infected human astrocytes. Minor changes in the release of several growth factors, endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-stress response factors and the transcription factor, NF-κB were detected with the Asian strains, while significant increases in FOXO6, MAPK10 and JNK were detected with the African strain. Activation of the autophagy pathway was evident with increased expression of the autophagy related proteins Beclin1, LC3B and p62/SQSTM1 with all three strains of ZIKV. Pharmacological inhibition of the autophagy pathway and genetic inhibition of the Beclin1 showed minimal effects on ZIKV replication. The expression of toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) was significantly increased with all three strains of ZIKV; pharmacological and genetic inhibition of TLR3 caused a decrease in viral titers and in viral-induced inflammatory response in infected astrocytes. We conclude that TLR3 plays a vital role in both ZIKV replication and viral-induced inflammatory responses, irrespective of the strains, while the autophagy protein Beclin1 influences host inflammatory responses.

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<![CDATA[The Human Cytomegalovirus UL38 protein drives mTOR-independent metabolic flux reprogramming by inhibiting TSC2]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c536b4cd5eed0c484a485ec

Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection induces several metabolic activities that are essential for viral replication. Despite the important role that this metabolic modulation plays during infection, the viral mechanisms involved are largely unclear. We find that the HCMV UL38 protein is responsible for many aspects of HCMV-mediated metabolic activation, with UL38 being necessary and sufficient to drive glycolytic activation and induce the catabolism of specific amino acids. UL38’s metabolic reprogramming role is dependent on its interaction with TSC2, a tumor suppressor that inhibits mTOR signaling. Further, shRNA-mediated knockdown of TSC2 recapitulates the metabolic phenotypes associated with UL38 expression. Notably, we find that in many cases the metabolic flux activation associated with UL38 expression is largely independent of mTOR activity, as broad spectrum mTOR inhibition does not impact UL38-mediated induction of glycolysis, glutamine consumption, or the secretion of proline or alanine. In contrast, the induction of metabolite concentrations observed with UL38 expression are largely dependent on active mTOR. Collectively, our results indicate that the HCMV UL38 protein induces a pro-viral metabolic environment via inhibition of TSC2.

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<![CDATA[An analog of glibenclamide selectively enhances autophagic degradation of misfolded α1-antitrypsin Z]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c521814d5eed0c48479726d

The classical form of α1-antitrypsin deficiency (ATD) is characterized by intracellular accumulation of the misfolded variant α1-antitrypsin Z (ATZ) and severe liver disease in some of the affected individuals. In this study, we investigated the possibility of discovering novel therapeutic agents that would reduce ATZ accumulation by interrogating a C. elegans model of ATD with high-content genome-wide RNAi screening and computational systems pharmacology strategies. The RNAi screening was utilized to identify genes that modify the intracellular accumulation of ATZ and a novel computational pipeline was developed to make high confidence predictions on repurposable drugs. This approach identified glibenclamide (GLB), a sulfonylurea drug that has been used broadly in clinical medicine as an oral hypoglycemic agent. Here we show that GLB promotes autophagic degradation of misfolded ATZ in mammalian cell line models of ATD. Furthermore, an analog of GLB reduces hepatic ATZ accumulation and hepatic fibrosis in a mouse model in vivo without affecting blood glucose or insulin levels. These results provide support for a drug discovery strategy using simple organisms as human disease models combined with genetic and computational screening methods. They also show that GLB and/or at least one of its analogs can be immediately tested to arrest the progression of human ATD liver disease.

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<![CDATA[Integrated transcriptomic and proteomic analysis of pathogenic mycobacteria and their esx-1 mutants reveal secretion-dependent regulation of ESX-1 substrates and WhiB6 as a transcriptional regulator]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c521834d5eed0c484797785

The mycobacterial type VII secretion system ESX-1 is responsible for the secretion of a number of proteins that play important roles during host infection. The regulation of the expression of secreted proteins is often essential to establish successful infection. Using transcriptome sequencing, we found that the abrogation of ESX-1 function in Mycobacterium marinum leads to a pronounced increase in gene expression levels of the espA operon during the infection of macrophages. In addition, the disruption of ESX-1-mediated protein secretion also leads to a specific down-regulation of the ESX-1 substrates, but not of the structural components of this system, during growth in culture medium. This effect is observed in both M. marinum and M. tuberculosis. We established that down-regulation of ESX-1 substrates is the result of a regulatory process that is influenced by the putative transcriptional regulator whib6, which is located adjacent to the esx-1 locus. In addition, the overexpression of the ESX-1-associated PE35/PPE68 protein pair resulted in a significantly increased secretion of the ESX-1 substrate EsxA, demonstrating a functional link between these proteins. Taken together, these data show that WhiB6 is required for the secretion-dependent regulation of ESX-1 substrates and that ESX-1 substrates are regulated independently from the structural components, both during infection and as a result of active secretion.

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<![CDATA[Tobramycin reduces key virulence determinants in the proteome of Pseudomonas aeruginosa outer membrane vesicles]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c57e695d5eed0c484ef385a

Tobramycin is commonly used to treat Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infections in patients with Cystic Fibrosis (CF). Tobramycin treatment leads to increased lung function and fewer clinical exacerbations in CF patients, and modestly reduces the density of P. aeruginosa in the lungs. P. aeruginosa resides primarily in the mucus overlying lung epithelial cells and secretes outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) that diffuse through the mucus and fuse with airway epithelial cells, thus delivering virulence factors into the cytoplasm that modify the innate immune response. The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that Tobramycin reduces the abundance of virulence factors in OMVs secreted by P. aeruginosa. Characterization of the proteome of OMVs isolated from control or Tobramycin-exposed P. aeruginosa strain PAO1 revealed that Tobramycin reduced several OMV-associated virulence determinants, including AprA, an alkaline protease that enhances P. aeruginosa survival in the lung, and is predicted to contribute to the inhibitory effect of P. aeruginosa on Phe508del-CFTR Cl- secretion by primary human bronchial epithelial cells. Deletion of the gene encoding AprA reduced the inhibitory effect of P. aeruginosa on Phe508del-CFTR Cl- secretion. Moreover, as predicted by our proteomic analysis, OMVs isolated from Tobramycin treated P. aeruginosa had a diminished inhibitory effect on Phe508del-CFTR Cl- secretion compared to OMVs isolated from control P. aeruginosa. Taken together, our proteomic analysis of OMVs and biological validation suggest that Tobramycin may improve lung function in CF patients infected with P. aeruginosa by reducing several key virulence factors in OMVs that reduce CFTR Cl- secretion, which is essential for bacterial clearance from the lungs.

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<![CDATA[Role of tau N-terminal motif in the secretion of human tau by End Binding proteins]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c50c48cd5eed0c4845e88c1

For unknown reasons, humans appear to be particular susceptible to developing tau pathology leading to neurodegeneration. Transgenic mice are still undoubtedly the most popular and extensively used animal models for studying Alzheimer’s disease and other tauopathies. While these murine models generally overexpress human tau in the mouse brain or specific brain regions, there are differences between endogenous mouse tau and human tau protein. Among them, a main difference between human and mouse tau is the presence of a short motif spanning residues 18 to 28 in the human tau protein that is missing in murine tau, and which could be at least partially responsible for that different susceptibility across species. Here we report novel data using affinity chromatography analysis indicating that the sequence containing human tau residues 18 to 28 acts a binding motif for End Binding proteins and that this interaction could facilitate tau secretion to the extracellular space.

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<![CDATA[Behavior and exocrine glands in the myrmecophilous beetle Dinarda dentata (Gravenhorst, 1806) (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Aleocharinae)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c4243a0d5eed0c4845e08c0

The nests of advanced eusocial ant species can be considered ecological islands with a diversity of ecological niches inhabited by not only the ants and their brood, but also a multitude of other organisms adapted to particular niches. In the current paper, we describe the myrmecophilous behavior and the exocrine glands that enable the staphylinid beetle Dinarda dentata to live closely with its host ants Formica sanguinea. We confirm previous anecdotal descriptions of the beetle’s ability to snatch regurgitated food from ants that arrive with a full crop in the peripheral nest chambers, and describe how the beetle is able to appease its host ants and dull initial aggression in the ants.

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<![CDATA[Multifaceted activity of millipede secretions: Antioxidant, antineurodegenerative, and anti-Fusarium effects of the defensive secretions of Pachyiulus hungaricus (Karsch, 1881) and Megaphyllum unilineatum (C. L. Koch, 1838) (Diplopoda: Julida)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c37b7abd5eed0c48449087c

Members of the millipede order Julida rely on dominantly quinonic defensive secretions with several minor, non-quinonic components. The free radical-scavenging activities of ethanol, methanol, hexane, and dichloromethane extracts of defensive secretions emitted by Pachyiulus hungaricus (Karsch, 1881) and Megaphyllum unilineatum (C. L. Koch, 1838) were investigated using the ABTS, DPPH, and total reducing power (TRP) tests. The obtained extracts were also tested for inhibition of acetylcholinesterase and tyrosinase activity. Finally, the antifungal potential of both julid extracts was evaluated against seven Fusarium species. Secretions of both species showed activity against free radicals, acetylcholinesterase, tyrosinase, and all of the selected fungal species. The secretions of P. hungaricus exhibited a more potent antioxidative effect than did those of M. unilineatum, while there were no significant differences of antiacetylcholinesterase activity between the tested extracts. Only the hexane extract of M. unilineatum showed an effect on tyrosinase activity stronger than that of P. hungaricus. Fusarium sporotrichioides, F. graminearum, and F. verticillioides were the fungi most resistant to secretions of both julids. The Fusarium species most susceptible to the secretion of P. hungaricus was F. avenaceum, while the concentrations of M. unilienatum extracts needed to inhibit and completely suppress fungal growth were lowest in the case of their action on F. lateritium. Our data support previous findings that julid defensive secretions possess an antimicrobial potential and reveal their antioxidative and antineurodegenrative properties. Bearing in mind the chemical complexity of the tested defensive secretions, we presume that they can also exhibit other biological activities.

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<![CDATA[Increased von Willebrand factor parameters in children with febrile seizures]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c37b7a6d5eed0c4844907c3

Introduction

Primary blood coagulation and wound sealing are orchestrated by von Willebrand factor (VWF), a large multimeric glycoprotein. Upon release of arginine vasopressin (AVP), VWF containing high molecular weight multimers is secreted. By measuring copeptin, the C-terminal part of the AVP prohormone, we recently found strongly increased AVP levels in children with febrile seizures (FS) as compared to children with fever but without seizures. It is unknown if increased AVP levels in FS are of any biological function. Therefore, our a priori hypothesis was that children with FS have increased VWF parameters in parallel with higher AVP levels.

Methods

We conducted a prospective, cross-sectional study of children aged between 6 months and 5 years. Children that presented at our emergency department with fever or a recent FS (within four hours) were evaluated to be included to the study. We measured serum copeptin and VWF parameters, including analyses of VWF:Antigen (WVF:Ag), VWF:collagen binding activity (VWF:CB) and VWF multimers in children with FS, febrile infections without seizures and additionally, in a non-febrile control group.

Results

We included 54 children in our study, 30 with FS, 10 in the febrile control group, and 14 in the non-febrile control group. Serum copeptin levels were significantly higher in children with FS (median [IQR] 24.73 pmol/l [13.65–68.65]) compared to the febrile control group (5.66 pmol/l [4.15–8.07], p = 0.002) and the non-febrile control group (4.78 pmol/l [3.33–5.3], p<0.001). VWF:CB levels were also significantly higher in children with FS (VWF:CB 2.29 U/ml [1.88–2.97]) as compared to the febrile (VWF:CB 1.41 U/ml [1.27–1.93], p = 0.048) and the non-febrile control group (VWF:CB 1.15 U/ml [0.98–1.21], p<0.001). VWF:Ag tended to be higher in children with FS compared to both control groups. Multivariate regression analysis revealed FS and copeptin as major determinants of VWF:CB.

Conclusions

Our results suggest that increased secretion of AVP in children with FS is associated with higher plasma levels of VWF parameters. Especially VWF:CB may serve as additional biomarker in the diagnosis of FS.

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