ResearchPad - sedation https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Social approach and place aversion in relation to conspecific pain in dairy calves]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14573 Despite scientific interest in animal empathy, and growing public concern for farm animal welfare, the empathic abilities of farm animals remain under researched. In this study, we investigated empathic responses of young Holstein dairy calves to conspecifics recovering from hot-iron disbudding, a painful procedure common on dairy farms. A combination of social approach and place conditioning was used. First, ‘observer’ calves witnessed two ‘demonstrator’ calves recover from either a painful procedure (hot-iron disbudding and sedation) or a sham procedure (sedation alone) in distinct pens. Observer calves spent more time in proximity and paid more attention to calves recovering from the painful procedure compared to sham calves (proximity: 59.6 ± 4.3%; attention: 54.3 ± 1.5%). Observers were then tested for conditioned place aversion (in the absence of demonstrators) at 48h, 72h and 96h after the second demonstration; observers tended to avoid the pen associated with conspecific pain during the second of the three tests, spending 34.8 ± 9.6% of their time in this pen. No strong evidence of pain empathy was found, but our tentative results encourage further research on empathy in animals.

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<![CDATA[Associations of anxiety with discomfort and tolerance in Chinese patients undergoing esophagogastroduodenoscopy]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c75ac6fd5eed0c484d08793

Objectives

To evaluate the associations of pre-endoscopy anxiety with discomfort and tolerance in patients undergoing unsedated esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD).

Methods

This is a hospital-based cohort study of 348 patients undergoing routine, non-advanced EGD without sedation. The primary outcomes were discomfort and tolerance. The anxiety before endoscopy was evaluated with a 10-point visual analogue scale (VAS). The associations of pre-endoscopy anxiety with the outcomes were evaluated with logistic regression adjusting for potential confounders like age, sex, and body mass index.

Results

Seventy patients reported severe discomfort and 56 patients reported poor tolerance after endoscopy. The risk of severe discomfort increased with pre-endoscopy anxiety and reached a platform around 7–10 points. Compared with the participants with low pre-endoscopy anxiety, those with moderate (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 2.70, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.17 to 6.22) and high level of anxiety (adjusted OR 6.87, 95% CI 2.16 to 21.79) were associated with a gradual increase in the risk of severe discomfort (P-trend < 0.001). The association between pre-endoscopy anxiety and tolerance was linear, with an adjusted OR of 1.67(95% CI 1.33 to 2.08) for a 1-score increase in pre-endoscopy anxiety VAS. The associations were not modified by age, sex, pharyngitis, duration of endoscopy, and diameter of the endoscope.

Conclusions

Pre-endoscopy anxiety was an independent predictor of severe discomfort and poor tolerance in Chinese patients undergoing unsedated EGD. Our findings suggested the importance of the management of anxiety to reduce adverse endoscopic experience and taking high level of anxiety as an indication for sedation.

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<![CDATA[Brainstem response patterns in deeply-sedated critically-ill patients predict 28-day mortality]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db59ab0ee8fa60bdf0ab

Background and purpose

Deep sedation is associated with acute brain dysfunction and increased mortality. We had previously shown that early-assessed brainstem reflexes may predict outcome in deeply sedated patients. The primary objective was to determine whether patterns of brainstem reflexes might predict mortality in deeply sedated patients. The secondary objective was to generate a score predicting mortality in these patients.

Methods

Observational prospective multicenter cohort study of 148 non-brain injured deeply sedated patients, defined by a Richmond Assessment sedation Scale (RASS) <-3. Brainstem reflexes and Glasgow Coma Scale were assessed within 24 hours of sedation and categorized using latent class analysis. The Full Outline Of Unresponsiveness score (FOUR) was also assessed. Primary outcome measure was 28-day mortality. A “Brainstem Responses Assessment Sedation Score” (BRASS) was generated.

Results

Two distinct sub-phenotypes referred as homogeneous and heterogeneous brainstem reactivity were identified (accounting for respectively 54.6% and 45.4% of patients). Homogeneous brainstem reactivity was characterized by preserved reactivity to nociceptive stimuli and a partial and topographically homogenous depression of brainstem reflexes. Heterogeneous brainstem reactivity was characterized by a loss of reactivity to nociceptive stimuli associated with heterogeneous brainstem reflexes depression. Heterogeneous sub-phenotype was a predictor of increased risk of 28-day mortality after adjustment to Simplified Acute Physiology Score-II (SAPS-II) and RASS (Odds Ratio [95% confidence interval] = 6.44 [2.63–15.8]; p<0.0001) or Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) and RASS (OR [95%CI] = 5.02 [2.01–12.5]; p = 0.0005). The BRASS (and marginally the FOUR) predicted 28-day mortality (c-index [95%CI] = 0.69 [0.54–0.84] and 0.65 [0.49–0.80] respectively).

Conclusion

In this prospective cohort study, around half of all deeply sedated critically ill patients displayed an early particular neurological sub-phenotype predicting 28-day mortality, which may reflect a dysfunction of the brainstem.

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<![CDATA[Analogosedation during flexible bronchoscopy using a combination of midazolam, propofol and fentanyl – A retrospective analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db52ab0ee8fa60bdc7c6

Background

According to current guidelines flexible bronchoscopy is usually performed under sedation. Previously it has been demonstrated that combined sedation with e. g. the combination of midazolam and propofol or an opioid might have several advantages over sedation with just one sedative drug. However, little is known about the efficacy and safety of combined sedation with midazolam, fentanyl and propofol (MFP) compared to sedation with midazolam and fentanyl (MF) or midazolam and propofol (MP).

Methods

We carried out a retrospective analysis of bronchoscopies performed under triple (MFP) or double sedation (MF and MP) in an academic hospital. 1392 procedures were analyzed (MFP: n = 824; MF: n = 272; MP: n = 296). In particular, we compared the occurrence of complications and the dosage of administered sedative drugs between the groups.

Results

The occurrence of adverse events (MFP vs. MF: odds ratio (OR) 1.116 [95% CI 0.7741 to 1.604]; MFP vs. MP: OR 0.8296 [95% CI 0.5939 to 1.16] and severe adverse events (MFP vs. MF: OR 1.581 [95% CI 0.5594 to 4.336]; MFP vs. MP: OR 3.47 [95% CI 0.908 to 15.15]; all p>0.05) was similar in all groups. The dosage of midazolam was lower in the MFP compared to the MF or MP group (MFP vs. MF: Cohen’s d 0.075; MFP vs. MP: Cohen’s d 0.225; all p<0.001). In addition patients in the MFP group received significantly less propofol compared to the MP group (Cohen’s d 1.22; p<0.001).

Conclusions

In summary we were able to demonstrate that triple sedation can safely be administered during flexible bronchoscopy and is associated with a reduced dosage of midazolam and propofol.

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<![CDATA[Comparing the Effects of Isoflurane and Alpha Chloralose upon Mouse Physiology]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da04ab0ee8fa60b75336

Functional magnetic resonance imaging of mice requires that the physiology of the mouse (body temperature, respiration and heart rates, blood pH level) be maintained in order to prevent changes affecting the outcomes of functional scanning, namely blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) measures and cerebral blood flow (CBF). The anesthetic used to sedate mice for scanning can have major effects on physiology. While alpha chloralose has been commonly used for functional imaging of rats, its effects on physiology are not well characterized in the literature for any species. In this study, we anesthetized or sedated mice with isoflurane or alpha chloralose for up to two hours, and monitored physiological parameters and arterial blood gasses. We found that, when normal body temperature is maintained, breathing rates for both drugs decrease over the course of two hours. In addition, alpha chloralose causes a substantial drop in heart rate and blood pH with severe hypercapnia (elevated blood CO2) that is not seen in isoflurane-treated animals. We suggest that alpha chloralose does not maintain normal mouse physiology adequately for functional brain imaging outcome measures.

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<![CDATA[Defining Optimal Head-Tilt Position of Resuscitation in Neonates and Young Infants Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging Data]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9feab0ee8fa60b72f60

Head-tilt maneuver assists with achieving airway patency during resuscitation. However, the relationship between angle of head-tilt and airway patency has not been defined. Our objective was to define an optimal head-tilt position for airway patency in neonates (age: 0–28 days) and young infants (age: 29 days–4 months). We performed a retrospective study of head and neck magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of neonates and infants to define the angle of head-tilt for airway patency. We excluded those with an artificial airway or an airway malformation. We defined head-tilt angle a priori as the angle between occipito-ophisthion line and ophisthion-C7 spinous process line on the sagittal MR images. We evaluated medical records for Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy (HIE) and exposure to sedation during MRI. We analyzed MRI of head and neck regions of 63 children (53 neonates and 10 young infants). Of these 63 children, 17 had evidence of airway obstruction and 46 had a patent airway on MRI. Also, 16/63 had underlying HIE and 47/63 newborn infants had exposure to sedative medications during MRI. In spontaneously breathing and neurologically depressed newborn infants, the head-tilt angle (median ± SD) associated with patent airway (125.3° ± 11.9°) was significantly different from that of blocked airway (108.2° ± 17.1°) (Mann Whitney U-test, p = 0.0045). The logistic regression analysis showed that the proportion of patent airways progressively increased with an increasing head-tilt angle, with > 95% probability of a patent airway at head-tilt angle 144–150°.

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<![CDATA[Dexmedetomidine versus Midazolam in Procedural Sedation. A Systematic Review of Efficacy and Safety]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db54ab0ee8fa60bdd042

Objectives

To systematically review the literature comparing the efficacy and safety of dexmedetomidine and midazolam when used for procedural sedation.

Materials and Methods

We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and COCHRANE for clinical trials comparing dexmedetomidine and midazolam for procedural sedation up to June 20, 2016. Inclusion criteria: clinical trial, human subjects, adult subjects (≥18 years), article written in English, German, French or Dutch, use of study medication for conscious sedation and at least one group receiving dexmedetomidine and one group receiving midazolam. Exclusion criteria: patients in intensive care, pediatric subjects and per protocol use of additional sedative medication other than rescue medication. Outcome measures for efficacy comparison were patient and clinician satisfaction scores and pain scores; outcome measures for safety comparison were hypotension, hypoxia, and circulatory and respiratory complications.

Results

We identified 89 papers, of which 12 satisfied the inclusion and exclusion criteria; 883 patients were included in these studies. Dexmedetomidine was associated with higher patient and operator satisfaction than midazolam. Patients receiving dexmedetomidine experienced less pain and had lower analgesic requirements. Respiratory and hemodynamic safety were similar.

Conclusions

Dexmedetomidine is a promising alternative to midazolam for use in procedural sedation. Dexmedetomidine provides more comfort during the procedure for the patient and clinician. If carefully titrated, the safety profiles are similar.

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<![CDATA[Polyp detection rate in transverse and sigmoid colon significantly increases with longer withdrawal time during screening colonoscopy]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db50ab0ee8fa60bdbf45

Background

The guidelines for colonoscopy present withdrawal time (WT) and adenoma detection rate (ADR) as the quality indicator. The purpose of this retrospective study is to analyze the predicting factors with polyp detection rate (PDR) as a surrogate for ADR by using comprehensive health checkup data, and assess the correlation between PDR per each colonic segment and WT, and factors influencing WT.

Methods

One thousand and thirty six consecutive health checkup cases from April 2015 to March 2016 were enrolled in this study, and 880 subjects who undertook colonoscopy without polyp removal or biopsy were divided into the two groups (polyp not detected group vs polyp detected group). The two groups were compared by subjects and clinical characteristics with univariate analysis followed by multivariate analysis. Colonoscopies with longer WT (≥ 6 min) and those with shorter WT (< 6 min) were compared by PDR per each colonic segment, and also by subjects and clinical characteristics.

Results

A total of 1009 subjects included two incomplete colonoscopies (CIR, 99.9%) and overall PDR was 35.8%. A multiple logistic regression model demonstrated that age, gender, and WT were significantly related factors for polyp detection (odds ratio, 1.036; 1.771; 1.217). PDR showed a linear increase as WT increased from 3 min to 9 min (r = 0.989, p = 0.000) and PDR with long WT group was higher than that with short WT group per each colonic segment, significantly in transverse (2.3 times, p = 0.004) and sigmoid colon (2.1 times, p = 0.001). Not only bowel preparation quality but also insertion difficulty evaluated by endoscopist were significant factors relating with WT (odds ratio, 3.811; 1.679).

Conclusion

This study suggests that endoscopists should be recommended to take more time up to 9 min of WT to observe transverse and sigmoid colon, especially when they feel no difficulty during scope insertion.

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<![CDATA[Intranasal Dexmedetomidine as a Sedative Premedication for Patients Undergoing Suspension Laryngoscopy: A Randomized Double-Blind Study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db37ab0ee8fa60bd3aee

Background

Intranasal dexmedetomidine, a well-tolerated and convenient treatment option, has been shown to induce a favorable perioperative anxiolysis in children. We investigate intranasal dexmedetomidine as a sedative premedication for anesthesia recovery in an adult population.

Methods

A prospective randomized controlled trial; 81 adult patients scheduled for elective suspension laryngoscopy received intranasal dexmedetomidine (1 μg∙kg–1) or a placebo 45–60 min before anesthetic induction. Extubation time was used as the primary outcome measure. Secondary variables included the levels of sedation (Observer’s Assessment of Alertness/Sedation scale, OAA/S) and anxiety (4-point anxiety score), anesthetic and analgesic requirements, hemodynamic fluctuations, and anesthesia recovery as well as side effects.

Results

The levels of sedation and anxiety differed significantly between the two groups at anesthesia pre-induction (p < 0.001 and = 0.001, respectively). Repeated-measure general linear model determined no significant interaction effect between group and time on the targeted concentration of propofol (F = 1.635, p = 0.200), but a significant main effect of group existed (F = 6.880, p = 0.010). A moderate but significant decrease in the heart rate was recorded in the dexmedetomidine group at pre-induction. Episodes of tachycardia and hypertension after tracheal intubation and extubation were more frequent in the placebo group.

Conclusions

Intranasal dexmedetomidine as a sedative premedication induced a favorable perioperative anxiolysis without prolongation in anesthesia recovery; the hemodynamic effect was modest.

Trial Registration

ClinicalTrials.gov NCT 02108171

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<![CDATA[Improved costs and outcomes with conscious sedation vs general anesthesia in TAVR patients: Time to wake up?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db50ab0ee8fa60bdc1f2

Background

Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) has become a commonplace procedure for the treatment of aortic stenosis in higher risk surgical patients. With the high cost and steadily increasing number of patients receiving TAVR, emphasis has been placed on optimizing outcomes as well as resource utilization. Recently, studies have demonstrated the feasibility of conscious sedation in lieu of general anesthesia for TAVR. This study aimed to investigate the clinical as well as cost outcomes associated with conscious sedation in comparison to general anesthesia in TAVR.

Methods

Records for all adult patients undergoing TAVR at our institution between August 2012 and June 2016 were included using our institutional Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) and American College of Cardiology (ACC) registries. Cost data was gathered using the BIOME database. Patients were stratified into two groups according to whether they received general anesthesia (GA) or conscious sedation (CS) during the procedure. No-replacement propensity score matching was done using the validated STS predicted risk of mortality (PROM) as a propensity score. Primary outcome measure with survival to discharge and several secondary outcome measures were also included in analysis. According to our institution's data reporting guidelines, all cost data is presented as a percentage of the general anesthesia control group cost.

Results

Of the 231 patients initially identified, 225 (157 GA, 68 CS) were included for analysis. After no-replacement propensity score matching, 196 patients (147 GA, 49 CS) remained. Overall mortality was 1.5% in the matched population with a trend towards lower mortality in the CS group. Conscious sedation was associated with significantly fewer ICU hours (30 vs 96 hours, p = <0.001) and total hospital days (4.9 vs 10.4, p<0.001). Additionally, there was a 28% decrease in direct cost (p<0.001) as well as significant decreases in all individual all cost categories associated with the use of conscious sedation. There was no difference in composite major adverse events between groups. These trends remained on all subsequent subgroup analyses.

Conclusion

Conscious sedation is emerging as a safe and viable option for anesthesia in patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement. The use of conscious sedation was not only associated with similar rates of adverse events, but also shortened ICU and overall hospital stays. Finally, there were significant decreases in all cost categories when compared to a propensity matched cohort receiving general anesthesia.

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<![CDATA[Continuous Multimodality Monitoring in Children after Traumatic Brain Injury—Preliminary Experience]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dac7ab0ee8fa60bb2c09

Introduction

Multimodality monitoring is regularly employed in adult traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients where it provides physiologic and therapeutic insight into this heterogeneous condition. Pediatric studies are less frequent.

Methods

An analysis of data collected prospectively from 12 pediatric TBI patients admitted to Addenbrooke’s Hospital, Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) between August 2012 and December 2014 was performed. Patients’ intracranial pressure (ICP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) were monitored continuously using brain monitoring software ICM+®,) Pressure reactivity index (PRx) and ‘Optimal CPP’ (CPPopt) were calculated. Patient outcome was dichotomized into survivors and non-survivors.

Results

At 6 months 8/12 (66%) of the cohort survived the TBI. The median (±IQR) ICP was significantly lower in survivors 13.1±3.2 mm Hg compared to non-survivors 21.6±42.9 mm Hg (p = 0.003). The median time spent with ICP over 20 mm Hg was lower in survivors (9.7+9.8% vs 60.5+67.4% in non-survivors; p = 0.003). Although there was no evidence that CPP was different between survival groups, the time spent with a CPP close (within 10 mm Hg) to the optimal CPP was significantly longer in survivors (90.7±12.6%) compared with non-survivors (70.6±21.8%; p = 0.02). PRx provided significant outcome separation with median PRx in survivors being 0.02±0.19 compared to 0.39±0.62 in non-survivors (p = 0.02).

Conclusion

Our observations provide evidence that multi-modality monitoring may be useful in pediatric TBI with ICP, deviation of CPP from CPPopt, and PRx correlating with patient outcome.

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<![CDATA[Morphine and Clonidine Combination Therapy Improves Therapeutic Window in Mice: Synergy in Antinociceptive but Not in Sedative or Cardiovascular Effects]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da76ab0ee8fa60b96e1f

Opioids are used to manage all types of pain including acute, cancer, chronic neuropathic and inflammatory pain. Unfortunately, opioid-related adverse effects such as respiratory depression, tolerance, physical dependence and addiction have led to an underutilization of these compounds for adequate pain relief. One strategy to improve the therapeutic utility of opioids is to co-administer them with other analgesic agents such as agonists acting at α2-adrenergic receptors (α2ARs). Analgesics acting at α2ARs and opioid receptors (ORs) frequently synergize when co-administered in vivo. Multimodal analgesic techniques offer advantages over single drug treatments as synergistic combination therapies produce analgesia at lower doses, thus reducing undesired side effects. This inference presumes, however, that the synergistic interaction is limited to the analgesic effects. In order to test this hypothesis, we examined the effects of α2AR/OR combination therapy in acute antinociception and in the often-undesired side effects of sedation and cardiovascular depression in awake unrestrained mice. Morphine, clonidine or their combination was administered by spinal or systemic injection in awake mice. Antinociception was determined using the warm water tail flick assay (52.5°C). Sedation/motor impairment was evaluated using the accelerating rotarod assay and cardiovascular function was monitored by pulse oximetry. Data were converted to percent maximum possible effect and isobolographic analysis was performed to determine if an interaction was subadditive, additive or synergistic. Synergistic interactions between morphine and clonidine were observed in the antinociceptive but not in the sedative/motor or cardiovascular effects. As a result, the therapeutic window was improved ∼200-fold and antinociception was achieved at non-sedating doses with little to no cardiovascular depression. In addition, combination therapy resulted in greater maximum analgesic efficacy over either drug alone. These data support the utility of combination adrenergic/opioid therapy in pain management for antinociceptive efficacy with reduced side-effect liability.

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<![CDATA[Optimising EEG-fMRI for Localisation of Focal Epilepsy in Children]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da29ab0ee8fa60b81b53

Background

Early surgical intervention in children with drug resistant epilepsy has benefits but requires using tolerable and minimally invasive tests. EEG-fMRI studies have demonstrated good sensitivity for the localization of epileptic focus but a poor yield although the reasons for this have not been systematically addressed. While adults EEG-fMRI studies are performed in the “resting state”; children are commonly sedated however, this has associated risks and potential confounds. In this study, we assessed the impact of the following factors on the tolerability and results of EEG-fMRI in children: viewing a movie inside the scanner; movement; occurrence of interictal epileptiform discharges (IED); scan duration and design efficiency. This work’s motivation is to optimize EEG-fMRI parameters to make this test widely available to paediatric population

Methods

Forty-six children with focal epilepsy and 20 controls (6–18) underwent EEG-fMRI. For two 10 minutes sessions subjects were told to lie still with eyes closed, as it is classically performed in adult studies (“rest sessions”), for another two sessions, subjects watched a child friendly stimulation i.e. movie (“movie sessions”). IED were mapped with EEG-fMRI for each session and across sessions. The resulting maps were classified as concordant/discordant with the presumed epileptogenic focus for each subject.

Findings

Movement increased with scan duration, but the movie reduced movement by ~40% when played within the first 20 minutes. There was no effect of movie on the occurrence of IED, nor in the concordance of the test. Ability of EEG-fMRI to map the epileptogenic region was similar for the 20 and 40 minute scan durations. Design efficiency was predictive of concordance.

Conclusions

A child friendly natural stimulus improves the tolerability of EEG-fMRI and reduces in-scanner movement without having an effect on IED occurrence and quality of EEG-fMRI maps. This allowed us to scan children as young as 6 and obtain localising information without sedation. Our data suggest that ~20 minutes is the optimal length of scanning for EEG-fMRI studies in children with frequent IED. The efficiency of the fMRI design derived from spontaneous IED generation is an important factor for producing concordant results.

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<![CDATA[Airway Microbiota in Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid from Clinically Well Infants with Cystic Fibrosis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db2aab0ee8fa60bd1153

Background

Upper airway cultures guide the identification and treatment of lung pathogens in infants with cystic fibrosis (CF); however, this may not fully reflect the spectrum of bacteria present in the lower airway. Our objectives were to characterize the airway microbiota using bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) from asymptomatic CF infants during the first year of life and to investigate the relationship between BALF microbiota, standard culture and clinical characteristics.

Methods

BALF, nasopharyngeal (NP) culture and infant pulmonary function testing data were collected at 6 months and one year of age during periods of clinical stability from infants diagnosed with CF by newborn screening. BALF was analyzed for total bacterial load by qPCR and for bacterial community composition by 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing. Clinical characteristics and standard BALF and NP culture results were recorded over five years of longitudinal follow-up.

Results

12 BALF samples were collected from 8 infants with CF. Streptococcus, Burkholderia, Prevotella, Haemophilus, Porphyromonas, and Veillonella had the highest median relative abundance in infant CF BALF. Two of the 3 infants with repeat BALF had changes in their microbial communities over six months (Morisita-Horn diversity index 0.36, 0.38). Although there was excellent percent agreement between standard NP and BALF cultures, these techniques did not routinely detect all bacteria identified by sequencing.

Conclusions

BALF in asymptomatic CF infants contains complex microbiota, often missed by traditional culture of airway secretions. Anaerobic bacteria are commonly found in the lower airways of CF infants.

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<![CDATA[Analgesic efficacy of tramadol in cats with naturally occurring osteoarthritis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db52ab0ee8fa60bdc63f

Objectives

This study aimed to (1) compare outcome assessments in normal and osteoarthritic cats and (2) evaluate the analgesic efficacy of tramadol in feline osteoarthritis (OA), in a prospective, randomised, blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover design.

Methods

Twenty cats were included after clinical examination, blood work and full body radiographs were performed. In Phase 1, outcome assessments aimed to differentiate normal (n = 5; i.e. exempt of any radiographic and clinical sign of OA) from OA (n = 15) cats. In Phase 2, OA cats were treated twice daily with a placebo (PG: cornstarch 15 mg) or tramadol (TG: 3 mg/kg) orally for 19 days, with a 3-month washout period between treatments. Evaluations were performed in normal and OA cats at baseline and consisted of: 1) peak vertical force (PVF) after staircase exercise; 2) telemetered night-time motor activity (NMA); and 3) response to mechanical temporal summation (RMTS). After treatment, PVF, NMA and RMTS evaluations were repeated in OA cats. Data were analysed with mixed model methods with an alpha-threshold of 5%.

Results

Phase 1: 1) PVF (% of body weight; mean ± SD) was higher in normal (59 ± 10.5) than in OA cats (50.6 ± 5.7) (p = 0.005); 2) NMA (no unit) was not different between groups; 3) RMTS (number of stimuli; median (range)) was higher in normal [29.5 (23.5–30)] than in OA cats [14 (8.5–28)] (p < 0.0001). Phase 2: PVF, NMA and RMTS presented a treatment effect (p = 0.024, p = 0.008 and p = 0.018, respectively). No clinically important adverse-effects were observed.

Conclusion

Outcome assessments such as kinetics (PVF) and evaluation of central sensitisation (RMTS) are discriminant of OA status. Mobility measured by NMA was not discriminant of OA status, however it increased in OA cats with tramadol treatment. Nociceptive hypersensitivity quantified by RMTS was evident in OA cats and was responsive to tramadol treatment.

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<![CDATA[Bilateral Deep Brain Stimulation of the Subthalamic Nucleus under Sedation with Propofol and Fentanyl]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dab7ab0ee8fa60bad23f

Awakening during deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery may be stressful to patients. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effect on MER signals and their applicability to subthalmic nucleus (STN) DBS surgery for patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) under sedation with propofol and fentanyl. Sixteen consecutive patients with PD underwent STN-DBS surgery with propofol and fentanyl. Their MER signals were achieved during the surgery. To identify the microelectrodes positions, the preoperative MRI and postoperative CT were used. Clinical profiles were also collected at the baseline and at 6 months after surgery. All the signals were slightly attenuated and contained only bursting patterns, compared with our previous report. All electrodes were mostly located in the middle one third part of the STN on both sides of the brain in the fused images. Six months later, the patients were improved significantly in the medication-off state and they met with less dyskinesia and less off-duration. Our study revealed that the sedation with propofol and fentanyl was applicable to STN-DBS surgery. There were no significant problems in precise positioning of bilateral electrodes. The surgery also improved significantly clinical outcomes in 6-month follow-up.

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<![CDATA[Randomized clinical trial on the efficacy of intranasal or oral ketamine-midazolam combinations compared to oral midazolam for outpatient pediatric sedation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c900d09d5eed0c48407de80

Purpose

The optimal sedative regime that provides the greatest comfort and the lowest risk for procedural sedation in young children remains to be determined. The aim of this randomized, blinded, controlled, parallel-design trial was to evaluate the efficacy of intranasal ketamine and midazolam as the main component of the behavioral guidance approach for preschoolers during dental treatment.

Materials and methods

Children under seven years of age, with caries and non-cooperative behavior, were randomized into three groups: (KMIN) intranasal ketamine and midazolam; (KMO) oral ketamine and midazolam; or (MO) oral midazolam. The dental sedation appointments were videotaped, and the videos were analyzed using the Ohio State University Behavioral Rating Scale (OSUBRS) to determine the success of the sedation in each group. Intra- and postoperative adverse events were recorded. Data analysis involved descriptive statistics and non-parametric tests (P < 0.05, IBM SPSS).

Results

Participants were 84 children (28 per group; 43 boys), with a mean age of 3.1 years (SD 1.2). Children’s baseline and the dental sedation session characteristics were balanced among groups. The success of the treatment as assessed by the dichotomous variable ‘quiet behavior for at least 60% of the session length’ was: KMIN 50.0% (n = 14; OR 2.10, 95% CI 0.71 to 6.30), KMO 46.4% (n = 13; OR 1.80, 95% CI 0.62 to 5.40), MO 32.1% (n = 9) (P = 0.360). Adverse events were minor, occurred in 37 of 84 children (44.0%), and did not differ among groups (P = 0.462).

Conclusion

All three regimens provided moderate dental sedation with minor adverse events, with marked variability in the behavior of children during dental treatment. The potential benefit of the ketamine–midazolam combination should be further investigated in studies with larger samples.

Trial registration

ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier: NCT02447289. Registered on 11 May 2015, named “Midazolam and Ketamine Effect Administered Through the Nose for Sedation of Children for Dental Treatment (NASO).”

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<![CDATA[Selection of Patients and Anesthetic Types for Endovascular Treatment in Acute Ischemic Stroke: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db1aab0ee8fa60bcdf19

Background

and Purpose Recent randomized controlled trials have demonstrated consistent effectiveness of endovascular treatment (EVT) for acute ischemic stroke, leading to update on stroke management guidelines. We conducted this meta-analysis to assess the efficacy and safety of EVT overall and in subgroups stratified by age, baseline stroke severity, brain imaging feature, and anesthetic type.

Methods

Published randomized controlled trials comparing EVT and standard medical care alone were evaluated. The measured outcomes were 90-day functional independence (modified Rankin Scale ≤2), all-cause mortality, and symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage.

Results

Nine trials enrolling 2476 patients were included (1338 EVT, 1138 standard medical care alone). For patients with large vessel occlusions confirmed by noninvasive vessel imaging, EVT yielded improved functional outcome (pooled odds ratio [OR], 2.02; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.64–2.50), lower mortality (OR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.58–0.97), and similar symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage rate (OR, 1.12; 95% CI, 0.72–1.76) compared with standard medical care. A higher proportion of functional independence was seen in patients with terminus intracranial artery occlusion (±M1) (OR, 3.16; 95% CI, 1.64–6.06), baseline Alberta Stroke Program Early CT score of 8–10 (OR, 2.11; 95% CI, 1.25–3.57) and age ≤70 years (OR, 3.01; 95% CI, 1.73–5.24). EVT performed under conscious sedation had better functional outcomes (OR, 2.08; 95% CI, 1.47–2.96) without increased risk of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage or short-term mortality compared with general anesthesia.

Conclusions

Vessel-imaging proven large vessel occlusion, a favorable scan, and younger age are useful predictors to identify anterior circulation stroke patients who may benefit from EVT. Conscious sedation is feasible and safe in EVT based on available data. However, firm conclusion on the choice of anesthetic types should be drawn from more appropriate randomized controlled trials.

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<![CDATA[Anaesthesia Management for Awake Craniotomy: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da9cab0ee8fa60ba4326

Background

Awake craniotomy (AC) renders an expanded role in functional neurosurgery. Yet, evidence for optimal anaesthesia management remains limited. We aimed to summarise the latest clinical evidence of AC anaesthesia management and explore the relationship of AC failures on the used anaesthesia techniques.

Methods

Two authors performed independently a systematic search of English articles in PubMed and EMBASE database 1/2007-12/2015. Search included randomised controlled trials (RCTs), observational trials, and case reports (n>4 cases), which reported anaesthetic approach for AC and at least one of our pre-specified outcomes: intraoperative seizures, hypoxia, arterial hypertension, nausea and vomiting, neurological dysfunction, conversion into general anaesthesia and failure of AC. Random effects meta-analysis was used to estimate event rates for four outcomes. Relationship with anaesthesia technique was explored using logistic meta-regression, calculating the odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals [95%CI].

Results

We have included forty-seven studies. Eighteen reported asleep-awake-asleep technique (SAS), twenty-seven monitored anaesthesia care (MAC), one reported both and one used the awake-awake-awake technique (AAA). Proportions of AC failures, intraoperative seizures, new neurological dysfunction and conversion into general anaesthesia (GA) were 2% [95%CI:1–3], 8% [95%CI:6–11], 17% [95%CI:12–23] and 2% [95%CI:2–3], respectively. Meta-regression of SAS and MAC technique did not reveal any relevant differences between outcomes explained by the technique, except for conversion into GA. Estimated OR comparing SAS to MAC for AC failures was 0.98 [95%CI:0.36–2.69], 1.01 [95%CI:0.52–1.88] for seizures, 1.66 [95%CI:1.35–3.70] for new neurological dysfunction and 2.17 [95%CI:1.22–3.85] for conversion into GA. The latter result has to be interpreted cautiously. It is based on one retrospective high-risk of bias study and significance was abolished in a sensitivity analysis of only prospectively conducted studies.

Conclusion

SAS and MAC techniques were feasible and safe, whereas data for AAA technique are limited. Large RCTs are required to prove superiority of one anaesthetic regime for AC.

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<![CDATA[A New Anaesthetic Protocol for Adult Zebrafish (Danio rerio): Propofol Combined with Lidocaine]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da2bab0ee8fa60b825d3

Background

The increasing use of zebrafish model has not been accompanied by the evolution of proper anaesthesia for this species in research. The most used anaesthetic in fishes, MS222, may induce aversion, reduction of heart rate, and consequently high mortality, especially during long exposures. Therefore, we aim to explore new anaesthetic protocols to be used in zebrafish by studying the quality of anaesthesia and recovery induced by different concentrations of propofol alone and in combination with different concentrations of lidocaine.

Material and Methods

In experiment A, eighty-three AB zebrafish were randomly assigned to 7 different groups: control, 2.5 (2.5P), 5 (5P) or 7.5 μg/ml (7.5P) of propofol; and 2.5 μg/ml of propofol combined with 50, (P/50L), 100 (P/100L) or 150 μg/ml (P/150L) of lidocaine. Zebrafish were placed in an anaesthetic water bath and time to lose the equilibrium, reflex to touch, reflex to a tail pinch, and respiratory rate were measured. Time to gain equilibrium was also assessed in a clean tank. Five and 24 hours after anaesthesia recovery, zebrafish were evaluated concerning activity and reactivity. Afterwards, in a second phase of experiments (experiment B), the best protocol of the experiment A was compared with a new group of 8 fishes treated with 100 mg/L of MS222 (100M).

Results

In experiment A, only different concentrations of propofol/lidocaine combination induced full anaesthesia in all animals. Thus only these groups were compared with a standard dose of MS222 in experiment B. Propofol/lidocaine induced a quicker loss of equilibrium, and loss of response to light and painful stimuli compared with MS222. However zebrafish treated with MS222 recovered quickly than the ones treated with propofol/lidocaine.

Conclusion

In conclusion, propofol/lidocaine combination and MS222 have advantages in different situations. MS222 is ideal for minor procedures when a quick recovery is important, while propofol/lidocaine is best to induce a quick and complete anaesthesia.

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