ResearchPad - seedlings https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[A MYB transcription factor, <i>BnMYB2</i>, cloned from ramie (<i>Boehmeria nivea</i>) is involved in cadmium tolerance and accumulation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_15762 MYB-related transcription factors play important roles in plant development and response to various environmental stresses. In the present study, a novel MYB gene, designated as BnMYB2 (GenBank accession number: MF741319.1), was isolated from Boehmeria nivea using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) and RT-PCR on a sequence fragment from a ramie transcriptome. BnMYB2 has a 945 bp open reading frame encoding a 314 amino acid protein that contains a DNA-binding domain and shares high sequence identity with MYB proteins from other plant species. The BnMYB2 promoter contains several putative cis-acting elements involved in stress or phytohormone responses. A translational fusion of BnMYB2 with enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) showed nuclear and cytosolic subcellular localization. Real-time PCR results indicated that BnMYB2 expression was induced by Cadmium (Cd) stress. Overexpression of BnMYB2 in Arabidopsis thaliana resulted in a significant increase of Cd tolerance and accumulation. Thus, BnMYB2 positively regulated Cd tolerance and accumulation in Arabidopsis, and could be used to enhance the efficiency of Cd removal with plants.

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<![CDATA[Production location of the gelling agent Phytagel has a significant impact on <i>Arabidopsis thaliana</i> seedling phenotypic analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14611 Recently, it was found that 1% Phytagel plates used to conduct Arabidopsis thaliana seedling phenotypic analysis no longer reproduced previously published results. This Phytagel, which is produced in China (Phytagel C), has replace American-made Phytagel (Phytagel), which is no longer commercially available. In this study, we present the impact of Phytagel produced in the United States vs. China on seedling phenotypic analysis. As a part of this study, an alternative gelling agent has been identified that is capable of reproducing previously published seedling morphometrics.ResultsPhytagel and Phytagel C were investigated based on their ability to reproduce the subtle phenotype of the sob3-4 esc-8 double mutant. Fluence-rate-response analysis of seedlings grown on 1% Phytagel C plates failed to replicate the sob3-4 esc-8 subtle phenotype seen on 1% Phytagel. Furthermore, root penetrance analysis showed a significant difference between sob3-4 esc-8 seedlings grown on 1% Phytagel and 1% Phytagel C. It was also found that 1% Phytagel C was significantly harder than 1% Phytagel. As a replacement for Phytagel C, Gellan was tested. 1% Gellan was able to reproduce the subtle phenotype of sob3-4 esc-8. Furthermore, there was no significant difference in root penetration of the wild type or sob3-4 esc-8 seedlings between 1% Phytagel and 1% Gellan. This may be due to the significant reduction in hardness in 1% Gellan plates compared to 1% Phytagel plates. Finally, we tested additional concentrations of Gellan and found that seedlings on 0.6% Gellan looked more uniform while also being able to reproduce previously published results.ConclusionsPhytagel has been the standard gelling agent for several studies involving the characterization of subtle seedling phenotypes. After production was moved to China, Phytagel C was no longer capable of reproducing these previously published results. An alternative gelling agent, Gellan, was able to reproduce previously published seedling phenotypes at both 1% and 0.6% concentrations. The information provided in this manuscript is beneficial to the scientific community as whole, specifically phenomics labs, as it details key problematic differences between gelling agents that should be performing identically (Phytagel and Phytagel C). ]]> <![CDATA[A framework for gene mapping in wheat demonstrated using the Yr7 yellow rust resistance gene]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N8aa5bdf2-6390-43c2-aef2-b7a76659179a

We used three approaches to map the yellow rust resistance gene Yr7 and identify associated SNPs in wheat. First, we used a traditional QTL mapping approach using a double haploid (DH) population and mapped Yr7 to a low-recombination region of chromosome 2B. To fine map the QTL, we then used an association mapping panel. Both populations were SNP array genotyped allowing alignment of QTL and genome-wide association scans based on common segregating SNPs. Analysis of the association panel spanning the QTL interval, narrowed the interval down to a single haplotype block. Finally, we used mapping-by-sequencing of resistant and susceptible DH bulks to identify a candidate gene in the interval showing high homology to a previously suggested Yr7 candidate and to populate the Yr7 interval with a higher density of polymorphisms. We highlight the power of combining mapping-by-sequencing, delivering a complete list of gene-based segregating polymorphisms in the interval with the high recombination, low LD precision of the association mapping panel. Our mapping-by-sequencing methodology is applicable to any trait and our results validate the approach in wheat, where with a near complete reference genome sequence, we are able to define a small interval containing the causative gene.

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<![CDATA[Identification and expression analysis of miRNAs and elucidation of their role in salt tolerance in rice varieties susceptible and tolerant to salinity]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N52f944dc-26d8-4e67-9222-1bf646d955e0

Soil salinization is a serious problem for cultivation of rice, as among cereals rice is the most salt sensitive crop, and more than 40% of the total agricultural land amounting to approximately 80 million ha the world over is salt affected. Salinity affects a plant in a varieties of ways, including ion toxicity, osmotic stress and oxidative damage. Since miRNAs occupy the top place in biochemical events determining a trait, understanding their role in salt tolerance is highly desirable, which may allow introduction of the trait in the rice cultivars of choice through biotechnological interventions. High throughput sequencing of sRNAs in the root and shoot tissues of the seedlings of the control and NaCl treated Pokkali, a salt-tolerant rice variety, identified 75 conserved miRNAs and mapped 200 sRNAs to the rice genome as novel miRNAs. Expression of nine novel miRNAs and two conserved miRNAs were confirmed by Northern blotting. Several of both conserved and novel miRNAs that expressed differentially in root and/or shoot tissues targeted transcription factors like AP2/EREBP domain protein, ARF, NAC, MYB, NF-YA, HD-Zip III, TCP and SBP reported to be involved in salt tolerance or in abiotic stress tolerance in general. Most of the novel miRNAs expressed in the salt tolerant wild rice Oryza coarctata, suggesting conservation of miRNAs in taxonomically related species. One of the novel miRNAs, osa-miR12477, also targeted L-ascorbate oxidase (LAO), indicating build-up of oxidative stress in the plant upon salt treatment, which was confirmed by DAB staining. Thus, salt tolerance might involve miRNA-mediated regulation of 1) cellular abundance of the hormone signaling components like EREBP and ARF, 2) synthesis of abiotic stress related transcription factors, and 3) antioxidative component like LAO for mitigation of oxidative damage. The study clearly indicated importance of osa-miR12477 regulated expression of LAO in salt tolerance in the plant.

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<![CDATA[Using morphological attributes for the fast assessment of nutritional responses of Buddhist pine (Podocarpus macrophyllus [Thunb.] D. Don) seedlings to exponential fertilization]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N5094337c-fdbe-414d-8545-a46f7fbb230f

Culturing slowly growing tree seedlings is a potential approach for managing the conflict between the increasing demand for ornamental stock and the decreasing area of farmlands due to urbanization. In this study, Buddhist pine (Podocarpus macrophyllus [Thunb.] D. Don) seedlings were raised in multishelves with light-emitting diode lighting in the spectrum of 17:75:8 (red:green:blue) at 190–320 μmol m-2 s-1 with controlled temperature and relative humidity at 19.5°C and 60%, respectively. Seedlings were fed by exponential fertilization (EF) (nitrogen [N]-phosphorus [P]2O5-K2O, 10-7-9) at eight rates of 0 (control), 20 (E20), 40 (E40), 60 (E60), 80 (E80), 100 (E100), 120 (E120), and 140 (E140) mg N seedling-1 for four months through 16 fertilizer applications. The nutritional responses of Buddhist pine seedlings can be identified and classified into various stages in response to increasing doses, up to and over 120 N seedling-1. Morphological traits, i.e., the green color index and leaf area (LA) obtained by digital analysis and the fine root growth, all remained constant in response to doses that induced steady nutrient loading. LA had a positive relationship with most of the nutritional parameters. A dose range between 60 and 120 mg N seedling-1 was recommended for the culture of Buddhist pine seedlings. At this range of fertilizer doses, measuring the leaf area through digital scanning can easily and rapidly indicate the inherent nutrient status of the seedlings.

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<![CDATA[Human disturbance impacts the integrity of sacred church forests, Ethiopia]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c8977abd5eed0c4847d32dd

Land-use change can have profound effects on forest communities, compromising seedling recruitment and growth, and long-term persistence of forests on the landscape. Continued forest conversion to agriculture causes forest fragmentation which decreases forest size, increases edge effects and forest isolation, all of which negatively impact forest health. These fragmentation effects are magnified by human use of forests, which can compromise the continued persistence of species in these forests and the ability of the forests to support the communities that depend on them. We examined the extent and influence of human disturbance (e.g. weedy taxa, native and exotic tree plantations, clearings, buildings) on the ecological status of sacred church forests in the northern highlands of South Gondar, Ethiopia and hypothesized that disturbance would have a negative effect. We found that disturbance was high across all forests (56%) and was negatively associated with tree species richness, density, and biomass and seedling richness and density. Contrary to expectation, we found that forests < 15.5 ha show no difference in disturbance level with distance from population center. Based on our findings, we recommend that local conservation strategies not only protect large forests, but also the small and highly used forests in South Gondar which are critical to the needs of local people, including preserving large trees for seed sources, removing exotic and weedy species from forests, and reducing clearings and trails within forests.

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<![CDATA[Biological soil crusts inhibit seed germination in a temperate pine barren ecosystem]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c76fe25d5eed0c484e5b5ce

Biological soil crusts (BSCs) are known to affect plants’ germination and seedling establishment in arid ecosystems, but their ecological role in more mesic climates is not so well-known. We tested the effects of moss-crusted versus uncrusted soils on seed germination dynamics in a temperate pine barren ecosystem. We conducted a 35-day laboratory assay of seed germination on moss-crusted soils versus uncrusted soils from the Albany (NY) Pine Bush Preserve. We compared total seed germination and the number of days to 50% of total germination of two herbaceous perennial forb species in each soil type. Three and five times more seeds germinated on uncrusted soil than on crusted soil for bush clover (Lespedeza capitata) and wild lupine (Lupinus perennis), respectively. Seeds of both species also germinated approximately 10 days earlier on uncrusted soil than on crusted soil. This study, and others in similar habitats, show that BSCs in mesic climates can influence germination and other early life-history stages of plants. We hope that further study of the interactions between BSCs and vascular plants in mesic climates will contribute to our understanding of the ecology of BSCs outside the arid and semiarid climates where they are more extensively studied.

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<![CDATA[Mutation in DDM1 inhibits the homology directed repair of double strand breaks]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6b26a4d5eed0c484289dd2

In all organisms, DNA damage must be repaired quickly and properly, as it can be lethal for cells. Because eukaryotic DNA is packaged into nucleosomes, the structural units of chromatin, chromatin modification is necessary during DNA damage repair and is achieved by histone modification and chromatin remodeling. Chromatin remodeling proteins therefore play important roles in the DNA damage response (DDR) by modifying the accessibility of DNA damage sites. Here, we show that mutation in a SWI2/SNF2 chromatin remodeling protein (DDM1) causes hypersensitivity in the DNA damage response via defects in single-strand annealing (SSA) repair of double-strand breaks (DSBs) as well as in the initial steps of homologous recombination (HR) repair. ddm1 mutants such as ddm1-1 and ddm1-2 exhibited increased root cell death and higher DSB frequency compared to the wild type after gamma irradiation. Although the DDM1 mutation did not affect the expression of most DDR genes, it did cause substantial decrease in the frequency of SSA as well as partial inhibition in the γ-H2AX and Rad51 induction, the initial steps of HR. Furthermore, global chromatin structure seemed to be affected by DDM1 mutations. These results suggest that DDM1 is involved in the homology directed repair such as SSA and HR, probably by modifying chromatin structure.

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<![CDATA[Alternative splicing of ZmCCA1 mediates drought response in tropical maize]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5b5269d5eed0c4842bc7b1

The circadian clock regulates numerous biological processes in plants, especially development and stress responses. CIRCADIAN CLOCK-ASSOCIATED 1 (CCA1) is one of the core components of the day–night rhythm response and is reportedly associated with ambient temperature in Arabidopsis thaliana. However, it remains unknown if alternative splicing of ZmCCA1 is modulated by external stress in maize, such as drought stress and photoperiod. Here, we identified three ZmCCA1 splice variants in the tropical maize line CML288, which are predicted to encode three different protein isoforms, i.e., ZmCCA1.1, ZmCCA1.2, and ZmCCA1.3, which all retain the MYB domain. In maize, the expression levels of ZmCCA1 splice variants were influenced by photoperiod, tissue type, and drought stress. In transgenic A. thaliana, ZmCCA1.1 may be more effective than ZmCCA1.3 in increasing drought tolerance while ZmCCA1.2 may have only a small effect on tolerance to drought stress. Additionally, although CCA1 genes have been found in many plant species, alternative CCA1 splicing events are known to occur in species-specific ways. Our study provides new sight to explore the function of ZmCCA1 splice variants’ response to abiotic stress, and clarify the linkage between circadian clock and environmental stress in maize.

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<![CDATA[Genetics of zonal leaf chlorosis and genetic linkage to a major gene regulating skin anthocyanin production (MdMYB1) in the apple (Malus × domestica) cultivar Honeycrisp]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c58d667d5eed0c484031d98

‘Honeycrisp’ is a widely grown and acclaimed apple cultivar that is commonly used in breeding programs. It also has a well-documented tendency to develop the physiological disorder, zonal leaf chlorosis (ZLC). This disorder causes reduced photosynthetic capacity and is thought to be due to a problem with phloem loading, although the underlying genetics of the disorder have not previously been discerned. In order to understand the breeding implications of the disorder, six families with ‘Honeycrisp’ as a parent and one family with ‘Honeycrisp’ as both a maternal and paternal grandparent were evaluated for ZLC incidence over two years. One major quantitative trait locus (QTL) for ZLC incidence was identified on linkage group (LG) 9. A haplotype in ‘Honeycrisp’ that originated from grandparent ‘Duchess of Oldenburg’ was associated with increased ZLC incidence in offspring in both years and all families evaluated. The LG9 QTL was 5 to 10 cM from MdMYB1, which is a major gene regulating fruit skin anthocyanin production. ‘Honeycrisp’ is heterozygous for red fruit skin overcolor at MdMYB1. The ‘Honeycrisp’ haplotype at the LG9 QTL associated with increased ZLC is in linkage phase with the allele at MdMYB1 associated with red color. Selection for the red allele from ‘Honeycrisp’ at MdMYB1 will result in most offspring also inheriting the haplotype at the LG9 QTL associated with high ZLC. The occurrence of two copies of this haplotype was sub-lethal in seedlings of a family where both parents inherited both the red overcolor allele at MdMYB1 and the haplotype at the LG9 QTL associated with high ZLC. This is the first study to have identified a genetic component of ZLC with clear breeding implications.

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<![CDATA[A method for the quantification of phototropic and gravitropic sensitivities of plants combining an original experimental device with model-assisted phenotyping: Exploratory test of the method on three hardwood tree species]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c644898d5eed0c484c2e9dc

Perception of inclination in the gravity field and perception of light direction are two important environmental signals implicated in the control of plant shape and habit. However, their quantitative study in light-grown plants remains a challenge. We present a novel method here to determine the sensitivities to gravitropism and phototropism. The method combines: (i) an original experimental device of isotropic light to disentangle gravitropic and phototropic plant responses; and (ii) model-assisted phenotyping using recent models of tropism perception—the AC model for gravitropism alone and the ArC model for gravitropism combined with phototropism. We first assessed the validity of the AC and ArC models on poplar, the classical species model for woody plants. We then tested the method on three woody species contrasted by their habit and tolerance to shade: poplar (Populus tremula*alba), oak (Quercus petraea) and beech (Fagus sylvatica). The method was found to be effective to quantitatively discriminate the tested species by their ratio of tropistic sensitivities. The method thus appears as an interesting tool to quantitatively determine tropistic sensitivities, a prerequisite for assessing the role of tropisms in the control of the variability of the habit and/or tolerance to shade of woody species in the future.

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<![CDATA[Determination of absorption dose in chemical mutagenesis in plants]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c46658ad5eed0c484519ad7

Chemical mutagenesis is a useful tool for inducing mutations in plants. Seeds are often used as the material for chemical mutagenesis. The biological effect of a chemical mutagen on seeds is determined by absorption dose (the product of mutagen concentration and acting time, which starts after the mutagen is absorbed by the seeds). In practice, however, the concept of exposure dose (the product of mutagen concentration and treating time) is usually used instead because the time for absorbing mutagen is unknown. In this study, we conducted an experiment using ethyl methane sulphonate (EMS) to treat cauliflower seeds, in which five EMS concentrations (0%, 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5% and 2.0%), three treating time lengths (4 h, 6 h and 8 h) and two pretreatments (non-presoaking and presoaking of seeds for 2 h) were set. We obtained a well-fitted nonlinear regression model for the relationship between seedling survival rate and the EMS treatment, and its marginal models for the two pretreatments. Based on the models, we determined the EMS absorption doses under the two different pretreatments and identified their 50% lethality dose (LD50). We found that presoaking could delay EMS absorption and therefore reduce the injury caused by EMS within a given treating time, but could hardly change the biological effect of EMS after it is absorbed. The conclusions about absorption dose and presoaking effect obtained in this study might be generally applicable to plant chemical mutagenesis in principle.

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<![CDATA[BRASSINOSTEROID-SIGNALING KINASE 3, a plasma membrane-associated scaffold protein involved in early brassinosteroid signaling]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c3d00fcd5eed0c4840374aa

Brassinosteroids (BRs) are steroid hormones essential for plant growth and development. The BR signaling pathway has been studied in some detail, however, the functions of the BRASSINOSTEROID-SIGNALING KINASE (BSK) family proteins in the pathway have remained elusive. Through forward genetics, we identified five semi-dominant mutations in the BSK3 gene causing BSK3 loss-of-function and decreased BR responses. We therefore investigated the function of BSK3, a receptor-like cytoplasmic kinase, in BR signaling and plant growth and development. We find that BSK3 is anchored to the plasma membrane via N-myristoylation, which is required for its function in BR signaling. The N-terminal kinase domain is crucial for BSK3 function, and the C-terminal three tandem TPR motifs contribute to BSK3/BSK3 homodimer and BSK3/BSK1 heterodimer formation. Interestingly, the effects of BSK3 on BR responses are dose-dependent, depending on its protein levels. Our genetic studies indicate that kinase dead BSK3K86R protein partially rescues the bsk3-1 mutant phenotypes. BSK3 directly interacts with the BSK family proteins (BSK3 and BSK1), BRI1 receptor kinase, BSU1 phosphatase, and BIN2 kinase. BIN2 phosphorylation of BSK3 enhances BSK3/BSK3 homodimer and BSK3/BSK1 heterodimer formation, BSK3/BRI1 interaction, and BSK3/BSU1 interaction. Furthermore, we find that BSK3 upregulates BSU1 transcript and protein levels to activate BR signaling. BSK3 is broadly expressed and plays an important role in BR-mediated root growth, shoot growth, and organ separation. Together, our findings suggest that BSK3 may function as a scaffold protein to regulate BR signaling. The results of our studies provide new insights into early BR signaling mechanisms.

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<![CDATA[RSM1, an Arabidopsis MYB protein, interacts with HY5/HYH to modulate seed germination and seedling development in response to abscisic acid and salinity]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c23f311d5eed0c48404a31b

MYB transcription factors are involved in many biological processes, including metabolism, development and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. RADIALIS-LIKE SANT/MYB 1 (RSM1) belongs to a MYB-related subfamily, and previous transcriptome analysis suggests that RSM1 may play roles in plant development, stress responses and plant hormone signaling. However, the molecular mechanisms of RSM1 action in response to abiotic stresses remain obscure. We show that down-regulation or up-regulation of RSM1 expression alters the sensitivity of seed germination and cotyledon greening to abscisic acid (ABA), NaCl and mannitol in Arabidopsis. The expression of RSM1 is dynamically regulated by ABA and NaCl. Transcription factors ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL 5 (HY5) and HY5 HOMOLOG (HYH) regulate RSM1 expression via binding to the RSM1 promoter. Genetic analyses reveal that RSM1 mediates multiple functions of HY5 in responses of seed germination, post-germination development to ABA and abiotic stresses, and seedling tolerance to salinity. Pull-down and BiFC assays show that RSM1 interacts with HY5/HYH in vitro and in vivo. RSM1 and HY5/HYH may function as a regulatory module in responses to ABA and abiotic stresses. RSM1 binds to the promoter of ABA INSENSITIVE 5 (ABI5), thereby regulating its expression, while RSM1 interaction also stimulates HY5 binding to the ABI5 promoter. However, no evidence was found in the dual-luciferase transient expression assay to support that RSM enhances the activation of ABI5 expression by HY. In summary, HY5/HYH and RSM1 may converge on the ABI5 promoter and independently or somehow dependently regulate ABI5 expression and ABI5-downstream ABA and abiotic stress-responsive genes, thereby improving the adaption of plants to the environment.

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<![CDATA[Contrasting fine-scale genetic structure of two sympatric clonal plants in an alpine swampy meadow featured by tussocks]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c26973ad5eed0c48470efa2

Tussocks are unique vegetation structures in wetlands. Many tussock species mainly reproduce by clonal growth, resulting in genetically identical offspring distributed in various spatial patterns. These fine-scale patterns could influence mating patterns and thus the long-term evolution of wetland plants. Here, we contribute the first genetic and clonal structures of two key species in alpine wetlands on the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau, Kobresia tibetica and Blysmus sinocompressus, using > 5000 SNPs identified by 2b-RAD sequencing. The tussock-building species, K. tibetica, has a phalanx (clumping) growth form, but different genets could co-occur within the tussocks, indicating that it is not proper to treat a tussock as one genetic individual. Phalanx growth does not necessarily lead to increased inbreeding in K. tibetica. B. sinocompressus has a guerilla (spreading) growth form, with the largest detected clone size being 18.32 m, but genets at the local scale tend to be inbred offspring. Our results highlight that the combination of clone expansion and seedling recruitment facilitates the contemporary advantage of B. sinocompressus, but its evolutionary potential is limited by the input genetic load of the original genets. The tussocks of K. tibetica are more diverse and a valuable genetic legacy of former well-developed wet meadows, and they are worthy of conservation attention.

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<![CDATA[Transgenerational effects of ungulates and pre-dispersal seed predators on offspring success and resistance to herbivory]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c1ab875d5eed0c484028209

Herbivorous mammals and insect pre-dispersal seed predators are two types of herbivores that, despite their functional and morphological differences, tend to severely impact many plant species, highly decreasing their seed production and even imperiling the performance of their offspring through transgenerational effects. However, how they influence offspring resistance to herbivory remains largely unknown. In this study we experimentally examined the effects of ungulates and pre-dispersal seed predators on seed quality as well as on the emergence, survival and resistance to herbivory of the seedlings of a semiarid herb. We found that ungulates reduced seedling recruitment but increased seedling resistance to leaf miners. These effects were probably a consequence of insufficient carbon provisioning in seeds that reduced seed viability and provoked carbon limitation in seedlings. Pre-dispersal seed predators did not influence seedling recruitment, but seedlings from mothers damaged by ungulates and by pre-dispersal seed predators suffered less herbivory by grasshoppers. Remarkably, intra-individual differences in damage by pre-dispersal seed predators affected the rate of damage underwent by seedlings. That is, seedlings derived from fruits attacked by seed predators were more resistant to herbivores than siblings derived from un-attacked fruits in plant populations exposed to ungulates. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting variation in transgenerational-induced resistance of seedlings from the same maternal plant. This study is a valuable contribution to the understanding of transgenerational effects of multiple herbivores and their implications for a deeper comprehension of the natural systems in which they co-occur.

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<![CDATA[Cereal aphids differently affect benzoxazinoid levels in durum wheat]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c0ed77bd5eed0c484f14221

Aphids are major pests in cereal crops that cause direct and indirect damage leading to yield reduction. Despite the fact that wheat provides 20% of the world’s caloric and protein diet, its metabolic responses to aphid attack, in general, and specifically its production of benzoxazinoid defense compounds are poorly understood. The objective of this study was to compare the metabolic diversity of durum wheat seedlings (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum) under attack by three different cereal aphids: i) the English grain aphid (Sitobion avenae Fabricius), ii) the bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi L.), and iii) the greenbug aphid (Schizaphis graminum Rondani), which are some of the most destructive aphid species to wheat. Insect progeny bioassays and metabolic analyses using chromatography/Q-Exactive/mass spectrometry non-targeted metabolomics and a targeted benzoxazinoid profile were performed on infested leaves. The insect bioassays revealed that the plants were susceptible to S. graminum, resistant to S. avenae, and mildly resistant to R. padi. The metabolic analyses of benzoxazinoids suggested that the predominant metabolites DIMBOA (2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-1,4-benzoxazin- 3-one) and its glycosylated form DIMBOA-glucoside (Glc) were significantly induced upon both S. avenae, and R. padi aphid feeding. However, the levels of the benzoxazinoid metabolite HDMBOA-Glc (2-hydroxy-4,7-dimethoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one glucoside) were enhanced due to the feeding of S. avenae and S. graminum aphids, to which Svevo was the most resistant and the most susceptible, respectively. The results showed a partial correlation between the induction of benzoxazinoids and aphid reproduction. Overall, our observations revealed diverse metabolic responses of wheat seedlings to cereal aphid feeding.

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<![CDATA[IAA producing fungal endophyte Penicillium roqueforti Thom., enhances stress tolerance and nutrients uptake in wheat plants grown on heavy metal contaminated soils]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c0993ced5eed0c4842ad9b0

Heavy metals contaminated soil is a serious environmental concern that has a negative impact on agriculture and ecosystem. Economical and efficient ways are needed to address this problem worldwide. In this regard, exploration and application of proficient microbial strains that can help the crop plants to thrive in agricultural soils that are greatly contaminated with heavy metals. The present study mainly focused on the effect of IAA producing endophytic fungi Penicillium ruqueforti Thom., on wheat plants cultivated in soil rich in heavy metals (Ni, Cd, Cu, Zn, and Pb). P. ruqueforti has induced great resistance in wheat inoculated plants grown in heavy metal contaminated soil. Application of the isolated strain of P. ruqueforti restricted the transfer of heavy metals from soil to the plants by secreting indole acetic acid (IAA). Furthermore, P. ruqueforti inoculated wheat seedlings watered with waste water had higher plant growth, nutrient uptake and low concentrations of heavy metals in shoot and roots. On the contrary, non-inoculated wheat plants under heavy metal stress had stunted growth with symptoms of chlorosis. From the results, it is concluded that P. ruqueforti inoculation can establish a symbiotic relationship with host plants, which is useful for phytostabilization of heavy metals or in other words helping the host crops to flourish through soil that are highly contaminated with heavy metals.

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<![CDATA[Invasive rat control is an efficient, yet insufficient, method for recovery of the critically endangered Hawaiian plant hau kuahiwi (Hibiscadelphus giffardianus)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c084211d5eed0c484fcbaac

Biological invasions of rodents and other species have been especially problematic on tropical islands. Invasive Rattus rattus consumption of Hibiscadelphus giffardianus (Malvaceae; common Hawaiian name hau kuahiwi) fruit and seeds has been hypothesized to be the most-limiting factor inhibiting the critically endangered tree, but this has not been experimentally tested, and little is known about other factors affecting seed dispersal, germination, and seedling establishment. Thus, we do not know if rat removal is sufficient to increase hau kuahiwi recruitment. This study aims to evaluate the effect of rat population control on the ability of hau kuahiwi to retain fruit and establish seedlings. We compared hau kuahiwi fruiting and seedling recruitment in a stand treated to reduce rat abundance and a neighbouring control stand. Fruit retention increased following treatment but seedling establishment did not. Although rat control improves the ability of hau kuahiwi to retain fruit, other, presently unknown inhibitors to seed dispersal, germination, and/or seedling development remain. Seed and seedling predation by other species, competition from numerous invasive plant species, unsuitable climate, and/or other factors may be primary inhibitors in the absence of rats, but we emphasize that progressive isolation of these factors at individual hau kuahiwi life stages may be necessary to identify the remaining threats to the conservation of this critically endangered plant.

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<![CDATA[Exogenous glycine inhibits root elongation and reduces nitrate-N uptake in pak choi (Brassica campestris ssp. Chinensis L.)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5bae98e140307c0c23a1c14a

Nitrogen (N) supply, including NO3--N and organic N in the form of amino acids can influence the morphological attributes of plants. For example, amino acids contribute to plant nutrition; however, the effects of exogenous amino acids on NO3--N uptake and root morphology have received little attention. In this study, we evaluated the effects of exogenous glycine (Gly) on root growth and NO3--N uptake in pak choi (Brassica campestris ssp. Chinensis L.). Addition of Gly to NO3--N agar medium or hydroponic solution significantly decreased pak choi seedling root length; these effects of Gly on root morphology were not attributed to the proportion of N supply derived from Gly. When pak choi seedlings were exposed to mixtures of Gly and NO3--N in hydroponic culture, Gly significantly reduced 15NO3--N uptake but significantly increased the number of root tips per unit root length, root activity and 15NO3--N uptake rate per unit root length. In addition, 15N-Gly was taken up into the plants. In contrast to absorbed NO3--N, which was mostly transported to the shoots, a larger proportion of absorbed Gly was retained in the roots. Exogenous Gly enhanced root 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase (ACS) and oxidase (ACO) activities and ethylene production. The ethylene antagonists aminoethoxyvinylglycine (0.5 μM AVG) and silver nitrate (10 μM AgNO3) partly reversed Gly-induced inhibition of primary root elongation on agar plates and increased the NO3--N uptake rate under hydroponic conditions, indicating exogenous Gly exerts these effects at least partly by enhancing ethylene production in roots. These findings suggest Gly substantially affects root morphology and N uptake and provide new information on the specific responses elicited by organic N sources.

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