ResearchPad - sepsis https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Plasma cytokine profiles in very preterm infants with late-onset sepsis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14557 Deficiencies in innate immune responses may contribute to the increased susceptibility to infection in preterm infants. In vivo cytokine profiles in response to sepsis in very preterm infants are not fully understood.AimsTo characterise plasma pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine concentrations and pre-defined ratios in very preterm infants with late-onset sepsis (LOS).MethodsIn this observational study, peripheral blood samples were collected at the time of evaluation for suspected LOS from 31 preterm infants (<30 weeks gestational age). Plasma cytokine concentrations were determined by 12-plex immunoassay.ResultsIL-10, IFN-γ, IL-12p70, IP-10, IL-6 and CCL2 were elevated in the majority infants with LOS (n = 12) compared to those without LOS (n = 19). There was no difference in TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-17AF, IL-8 and IL-15 concentrations between groups. IL-10/TNF-α ratios were increased, while CCL2/IL-10 and IL-12p70/IL-10 ratios were decreased in infants with LOS compared to those without.ConclusionVery preterm infants have a marked innate inflammatory response at the time of LOS. The increase in IL-10/TNF-α ratio may indicate early immune hypo-responsiveness. Longitudinal studies with a larger number of participants are required to understand immune responses and clinical outcomes following LOS in preterm infants. ]]> <![CDATA[Association between boarding in the emergency department and in-hospital mortality: A systematic review]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N48ef4c13-827b-4694-911d-7d7581473712

Importance

Boarding in the emergency department (ED) is a critical indicator of quality of care for hospitals. It is defined as the time between the admission decision and departure from the ED. As a result of boarding, patients stay in the ED until inpatient beds are available; moreover, boarding is associated with various adverse events.

Study objective

The objective of our systematic review was to determine whether ED boarding (EDB) time is associated with in-hospital mortality (IHM).

Methods

A systematic search was conducted in academic databases to identify relevant studies. Medline, PubMed, Scopus, Embase, Cochrane, Web of Science, Cochrane, CINAHL and PsychInfo were searched. We included all peer-reviewed published studies from all previous years until November 2018. Studies performed in the ED and focused on the association between EDB and IHM as the primary objective were included. Extracted data included study characteristics, prognostic factors, outcomes, and IHM. A search update in PubMed was performed in May 2019 to ensure the inclusion of recent studies before publishing.

Results

From the initial 4,321 references found through the systematic search, the manual screening of reference lists and the updated search in PubMed, a total of 12 studies were identified as eligible for a descriptive analysis. Overall, six studies found an association between EDB and IHM, while five studies showed no association. The last remaining study included both ICU and non-ICU subgroups and showed conflicting results, with a positive association for non-ICU patients but no association for ICU patients. Overall, a tendency toward an association between EDB and IHM using the pool random effect was observed.

Conclusion

Our systematic review did not find a strong evidence for the association between ED boarding and IHM but there is a tendency toward this association. Further well-controlled, international multicenter studies are needed to demonstrate whether this association exists and whether there is a specific EDB time cut-off that results in increased IHM.

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<![CDATA[Detection of microbial cell-free DNA in maternal and umbilical cord plasma in patients with chorioamnionitis using next generation sequencing]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N85cfbb28-a074-423a-88cd-d5e05af52830

Background

Chorioamnionitis has been linked to spontaneous preterm labor and complications such as neonatal sepsis. We hypothesized that microbial cell-free (cf) DNA would be detectable in maternal plasma in patients with chorioamnionitis and could be the basis for a non-invasive method to detect fetal exposure to microorganisms.

Objective

The purpose of this study was to determine whether next generation sequencing could detect microbial cfDNA in maternal plasma in patients with chorioamnionitis.

Study design

Maternal plasma (n = 94) and umbilical cord plasma (n = 120) were collected during delivery at gestational age 28–41 weeks. cfDNA was extracted and sequenced. Umbilical cord plasma samples with evidence of contamination were excluded. The prevalence of microorganisms previously implicated in choriomanionitis, neonatal sepsis and intra-amniotic infections, as described in the literature, were examined to determine if there was enrichment of these microorganisms in this cohort. Specific microbial cfDNA associated with chorioamnionitis was first detected in umbilical cord plasma and confirmed in the matched maternal plasma samples (n = 77 matched pairs) among 14 cases of histologically confirmed chorioamnionitis and one case of clinical chorioamnionitis; 63 paired samples were used as controls. A correlation of rank of a given microorganism across maternal plasma and matched umbilical cord plasma was used to assess whether signals found in umbilical cord plasma were also present in maternal plasma.

Results

Microbial DNA sequences associated with clinical and/or histological chorioamnionitis were enriched in maternal plasma in cases with suspected chorioamnionitis when compared to controls (12/14 microorganisms, p = 0.02). Analysis of the microbial cfDNA in umbilical cord plasma among the 1,251 microorganisms detectable with this assay identified Streptococcus mitis, Ureaplasma spp., and Mycoplasma spp. in cases of suspected chorioamnionitis. This assay also detected cfDNA from Lactobacillus spp. in controls. Comparison between maternal plasma and umbilical cord plasma confirmed these signatures were also present in maternal plasma. Unbiased analysis of microorganisms with significantly correlated signal between matched maternal plasma and umbilical cord plasma identified the above listed 3 microorganisms, all of which have previously been implicated in patients with chorioamnionitis (Mycoplasma hominis p = 0.0001; Ureaplasma parvum p = 0.002; Streptococcus mitis p = 0.007). These data show that the pathogen signal relevant for chorioamnionitis can be identified in both maternal and umbilical cord plasma.

Conclusion

This is the first report showing the detection of relevant microbial cell-free cfDNA in maternal plasma and umbilical cord plasma in patients with clinical and/or histological chorioamnionitis. These results may lead to the development of a specific assay to detect perinatal infections for targeted therapy to reduce early neonatal sepsis complications.

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<![CDATA[Neonatal sepsis in Iran: A systematic review and meta-analysis on national prevalence and causative pathogens]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nc80eb6d8-6c1e-4acb-a5fa-a329abafdd28

Background

Neonatal sepsis is accounted for 30–50% of annual neonatal deaths in developing countries. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis study to evaluate the national prevalence and identification of the etiological pathogens of neonatal sepsis in Iran.

Methods

A comprehensive literature search was done on the national and international databases for studies published between 2000 and 2019. The DerSimonian and Laird random-effects model was used to calculate pooled prevalence estimates, with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Subgroup analyses and meta-regressions regarding the gender, type of sepsis and time during were also performed. Data were extracted, analyzed, and presented according to PRISMA guideline.

Results

Of 944 publications identified, 22 studies containing 14,683 neonates met the eligibility criteria. The pooled national prevalence of sepsis in Iran was 15.98% (95%CI, 11.96–20.46%; 1,367/14,683). Prevalence rate in boys (20.42%; 95%CI, 9.03–34.8%) was slightly higher than girls (18.5%; 95%CI, 7.4–32.8). A decreasing trend in prevalence of neonatal sepsis was found in recent years, although not statistically significant (c = -0.005; P value = 0.4). The most prevalent causative bacterial pathogens were Enterobacter spp. (23.04%), followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (17.54%), coagulase-negative Staphylococci (14.06%), Escherichia coli (13.92%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (12.67%), and Staphylococcus aureus (11.48%).

Conclusion

Our findings showed a high prevalence of neonatal sepsis in suspected neonates, suggesting the need to implement preventive measures, routine assessment, and close monitoring of neonates. Also, Enterobacter spp. and Klebsiella pneumoniae were identified as the principal bacterial pathogens responsible for neonatal septicemia in Iran.

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<![CDATA[Association between sublingual microcirculation, tissue perfusion and organ failure in major trauma: A subgroup analysis of a prospective observational study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c8823c2d5eed0c484638f67

Introduction

Previous studies described impaired microvascular perfusion and tissue oxygenation as reliable predictors of Multiple Organ Failure in major trauma. However, this relationship has been incompletely investigated. The objective of this analysis is to further evaluate the association between organ dysfunction and microcirculation after trauma.

Materials and methods

This is a retrospective subgroup analysis on 28 trauma patients enrolled for the Microcirculation DAIly MONitoring in critically ill patients study (NCT 02649088). Patients were divided in two groups according with their Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score at day 4. At admission and every 24 hours, the sublingual microcirculation was evaluated with Sidestream Darkfield Imaging (SDF) and peripheral tissue perfusion was assessed with Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) and Vascular Occlusion Test (VOT). Simultaneously, hemodynamic, clinical/laboratory parameters and main organ supports were collected.

Results

Median SOFA score at Day 4 was 6.5. Accordingly, patients were divided in two groups: D4-SOFA ≤6.5 and D4-SOFA >6.5. The Length of Stay in Intensive Care was significantly higher in patients with D4-SOFA>6.5 compared to D4-SOFA≤6.5 (p = 0.013). Total Vessel Density of small vessels was significantly lower in patients with high D4-SOFA score at Day 1 (p = 0.002) and Day 2 (p = 0.006) after admission; the Perfused Vessel Density was lower in patients with high D4-SOFA score at Day 1 (p = 0.007) and Day 2 (p = 0.033). At Day 1, NIRS monitoring with VOT showed significantly faster tissue oxygen saturation downslope (p = 0.018) and slower upslope (p = 0.04) in patients with high D4-SOFA.

Discussion

In our cohort of major traumas, sublingual microcirculation and peripheral microvascular reactivity were significantly more impaired early after trauma in those patients who developed more severe organ dysfunctions. Our data would support the hypothesis that restoration of macrocirculation can be dissociated from restoration of peripheral and tissue perfusion, and that microvascular alterations can be associated with organ failure.

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<![CDATA[An attention based deep learning model of clinical events in the intensive care unit]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6dca08d5eed0c48452a6e2

This study trained long short-term memory (LSTM) recurrent neural networks (RNNs) incorporating an attention mechanism to predict daily sepsis, myocardial infarction (MI), and vancomycin antibiotic administration over two week patient ICU courses in the MIMIC-III dataset. These models achieved next-day predictive AUC of 0.876 for sepsis, 0.823 for MI, and 0.833 for vancomycin administration. Attention maps built from these models highlighted those times when input variables most influenced predictions and could provide a degree of interpretability to clinicians. These models appeared to attend to variables that were proxies for clinician decision-making, demonstrating a challenge of using flexible deep learning approaches trained with EHR data to build clinical decision support. While continued development and refinement is needed, we believe that such models could one day prove useful in reducing information overload for ICU physicians by providing needed clinical decision support for a variety of clinically important tasks.

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<![CDATA[The impact of dementia on hospital outcomes for elderly patients with sepsis: A population-based study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c75abe0d5eed0c484d07df2

Background

Prior studies have suggested that dementia adversely influences clinical outcomes and increases resource utilization in patients hospitalized for acute diseases. However, there is limited population-data information on the impact of dementia among elderly hospitalized patients with sepsis.

Methods

From the 2009–2011 National Hospital Discharge Database we identified hospitalizations in adults aged ≥65 years. Using ICD9-CM codes, we selected sepsis cases, divided them into two cohorts (with and without dementia) and compared both groups with respect to organ dysfunction, in-hospital mortality and the use of hospital resources. We estimated the impact of dementia on these primary endpoints through multivariate regression models.

Results

Of the 148 293 episodes of sepsis identified, 16 829 (11.3%) had diagnoses of dementia. Compared to their dementia-free counterparts, they were more predominantly female and older, had a lower burden of comorbidities and were more frequently admitted due to a principal diagnosis of sepsis. The dementia cohort showed a lower risk of organ dysfunction (adjusted OR: 0.84, 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 0.81, 0.87) but higher in-hospital mortality (adjusted OR: 1.32, 95% [CI]: 1.27, 1.37). The impact of dementia on mortality was higher in the cases of younger age, without comorbidities and without organ dysfunction. The cases with dementia also had a lower length of stay (-3.87 days, 95% [CI]: -4.21, -3.54) and lower mean hospital costs (-3040€, 95% [CI]: -3279, -2800).

Conclusions

This nationwide population-based study shows that dementia is present in a substantial proportion of adults ≥65s hospitalized with sepsis, and while the condition does seem to come with a lower risk of organ dysfunction, it exerts a negative influence on in-hospital mortality and acts as an independent mortality predictor. Furthermore, it is significantly associated with shorter length of stay and lower hospital costs.

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<![CDATA[Outcomes and challenges of a kidney transplant programme at Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town: A South African perspective]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c57e6afd5eed0c484ef3b68

Introduction

Access to dialysis and transplantation in the developing world remains limited. Therefore, optimising renal allograft survival is essential. This study aimed to evaluate clinical outcomes and identify poor prognostic factors in the renal transplant programme at Groote Schuur Hospital [GSH], Cape Town.     

Method

Data were collected on all patients who underwent a kidney transplant at GSH from 1st July 2010 to the 30 June 2015. Analyses were performed to assess baseline characteristics, graft and patient survival, as well as predictors of poor outcome.    

Results

198 patients were transplanted. The mean age was 38 +/- 10.5 years, 127 (64.1%) were male, and 86 (43.4%) were of African ethnicity. Deceased donor organs were used for 130 (66.7%) patients and living donors for 65 (33.3%). There were > 5 HLA mismatches in 58.9% of transplants. Sepsis was the commonest cause of death and delayed graft function [DGF] occurred in 41 (21.4%) recipients. Patient survival was 90.4% at 1 year and 83.1% at 5 years. Graft survival was 89.4% at 1 year and 80.0% at 5 years. DGF (HR 2.83 (1.12–7.19), p value = 0.028) and recipient age > 40 years (HR 3.12 (1.26–7.77), p value = 0.014) were predictors of death.

Conclusion

Despite the high infectious burden, stratified immunosuppression and limited tissue typing this study reports encouraging results from a resource constrained transplant programme in South Africa. Renal transplantation is critical to improve access to treatment of end stage kidney disease where access to dialysis is limited.

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<![CDATA[Determining predictors of sepsis at triage among children under 5 years of age in resource-limited settings: A modified Delphi process]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c58d642d5eed0c4840319de

Sepsis is a life-threatening dysfunction of the immune system leading to multiorgan failure that is precipitated by infectious diseases and is a leading cause of death in children under 5 years of age. It is necessary to be able to identify a sick child at risk of developing sepsis at the earliest point of presentation to a healthcare facility so that appropriate care can be provided as soon as possible. Our study objective was to generate a list of consensus-driven predictor variables for the derivation of a prediction model that will be incorporated into a mobile device and operated by low-skilled healthcare workers at triage. By conducting a systematic literature review and examination of global guideline documents, a list of 72 initial candidate predictor variables was generated. A two-round modified Delphi process involving 26 experts from both resource-rich and resource-limited settings, who were also encouraged to suggest new variables, yielded a final list of 45 predictor variables after evaluating each variable based on three domains: predictive potential, measurement reliability, and level of training and resources required. The final list of predictor variables will be used to collect data and contribute to the derivation of a prediction model.

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<![CDATA[The roles of activated protein C in experimental trauma models]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c686382d5eed0c48402382a

Trauma-induced coagulopathy is classified into primary and secondary coagulopathy, with the former elicited by trauma and traumatic shock itself and the latter being acquired coagulopathy induced by anemia, hypothermia, acidosis, and dilution. Primary coagulopathy consists of disseminated intravascular coagulation and acute coagulopathy of trauma shock (ACOTS). The pathophysiology of ACOTS is the suppression of thrombin generation and neutralization of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 mediated by activated protein C that leads to hypocoagulation and hyperfibrinolysis in the circulation. This review tried to clarify the validity of activated protein C hypothesis that constitutes the main pathophysiology of the ACOTS in experimental trauma models.

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<![CDATA[Differential protein expression in patients with urosepsis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c686378d5eed0c4840237c1

Purpose

Urosepsis in adults comprises approximately 25% of all sepsis cases, and is due to complicated urinary tract infections in most cases. However, its mechanism is not fully clarified. Urosepsis is a very complicated disease with no effective strategy for early diagnosis and treatment. This study aimed to identify possible target-related proteins involved in urosepsis using proteomics and establish possible networks using bioinformatics.

Methods

Fifty patients admitted to the Urology Unit of Lanzhou General PLA (Lanzhou, China), from October 2012 to October 2015, were enrolled in this study. The patients were further divided into shock and matched-pair non-shock groups. 2-DE technique, mass spectrometry and database search were used to detect differentially expressed proteins in serum from the two groups.

Results

Six proteins were found at higher levels in the shock group compared with non-shock individuals, including serum amyloid A-1 protein (SAA1), apolipoprotein L1 (APOL1), ceruloplasmin (CP), haptoglobin (HP), antithrombin-III (SERPINC1) and prothrombin (F2), while three proteins showed lower levels, including serotransferrin (TF), transthyretin (TTR) and alpha-2-macroglobulin (A2M).

Conclusion

Nine proteins were differentially expressed between uroseptic patients (non-shock groups) and severe uroseptic patients (shock groups), compared with non-shock groups, serum SAA1, APOL1,CP, HP, SERPINC1and F2 at higher levels, while TF, TTR and A2M at lower levels in shock groups.these proteins were mainly involved in platelet activation, signaling and aggregation, acute phase protein pathway, lipid homeostasis, and iron ion transport, deserve further research as potential candidates for early diagnosis and treatment. (The conclusion seems too simple and vague, please re-write it. You may focus at what proteins have been expressed and introduce more detail about its significance.)

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<![CDATA[Computational translation of genomic responses from experimental model systems to humans]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c40f785d5eed0c4843862d5

The high failure rate of therapeutics showing promise in mouse models to translate to patients is a pressing challenge in biomedical science. Though retrospective studies have examined the fidelity of mouse models to their respective human conditions, approaches for prospective translation of insights from mouse models to patients remain relatively unexplored. Here, we develop a semi-supervised learning approach for inference of disease-associated human differentially expressed genes and pathways from mouse model experiments. We examined 36 transcriptomic case studies where comparable phenotypes were available for mouse and human inflammatory diseases and assessed multiple computational approaches for inferring human biology from mouse datasets. We found that semi-supervised training of a neural network identified significantly more true human biological associations than interpreting mouse experiments directly. Evaluating the experimental design of mouse experiments where our model was most successful revealed principles of experimental design that may improve translational performance. Our study shows that when prospectively evaluating biological associations in mouse studies, semi-supervised learning approaches, combining mouse and human data for biological inference, provide the most accurate assessment of human in vivo disease processes. Finally, we proffer a delineation of four categories of model system-to-human “Translation Problems” defined by the resolution and coverage of the datasets available for molecular insight translation and suggest that the task of translating insights from model systems to human disease contexts may be better accomplished by a combination of translation-minded experimental design and computational approaches.

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<![CDATA[Improving peak concentrations of a single dose regime of gentamicin in patients with sepsis in the emergency department]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c50c447d5eed0c4845e8434

Objective

To achieve an optimal effect in patients with sepsis at the emergency department (ED), the gentamicin peak-concentration should be sufficiently high (i.e. peak-concentration/MIC ≥8–10). ICU patients with sepsis often need higher gentamicin doses to achieve sufficiently high peak-concentrations. The aim of this study is to investigate which dose is needed to reach adequate peak-concentrations in patients presenting with sepsis at the ED.

Methods

Patients with sepsis at the ED were included from August 2015 until February 2017. Peak-concentrations were measured in blood 30 minutes after the first gentamicin dose. The study consisted of three phases. In the first phase, peak-concentrations were measured after a standard dose of 5mg/kg. In the second phase, a simulation ((peak-concentration/actual dose) × simulated dose) was performed to determine which dose was needed to reach adequate gentamicin peak-concentrations of ≥16mg/L. In the third phase, peak-concentrations were measured for the best simulated dose.

Results

In phase one, of 86 patients who received a dose of 5mg/kg, 34 (39.5%) patients did not reach the target peak-concentration of ≥16mg/L, and 73 (84.9%) did not reach ≥20mg/L. In phase two, the simulation showed that with a dose of 7mg/kg 83 (96.5%) patients would reach peak-concentrations ≥16mg/L, and 67 (77.9%) of ≥20mg/L. In phase three, 53 patients received a dose of 7mg/kg, of whom 45 (84.9%) reached peak-concentrations of ≥16mg/L, and 31 (58.5%) of ≥20mg/L.

Conclusion

Patients with sepsis at the ED need higher doses of gentamicin. A dose of 7mg/kg is needed to achieve adequate peak-concentrations in the majority of patients.

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<![CDATA[Macrophage expression of E3 ubiquitin ligase Grail protects mice from lipopolysaccharide-induced hyperinflammation and organ injury]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c33d20cd5eed0c4845dd4de

Multiple organ dysfunction caused by hyperinflammation remains the major cause of mortality during sepsis. Excessive M1-macrophage activation leads to systemic inflammatory responses. Gene related to anergy in lymphocytes (Grail) is regarded as an important regulator of T cells that functions by diminishing cytokine production. However, its role in regulating macrophage activation and organ injury during sepsis remains unclear. Our aim was to examine the effects of Grail on macrophage reactivity and organ injury in endotoxemic animals. Wild-type and Grail knockout mice were injected with vehicle or Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide and observed for 24 h. Changes in blood pressure, heart rate, blood glucose, and biochemical variables were then examined. Moreover, levels of neutrophil infiltration, MMP-9, and caspase 3 were analyzed in the lungs of animals. The expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in J774A, RAW264.7, and primary peritoneal macrophages stimulated with LPS were also assessed in the presence or absence of Grail. Results indicated that loss of Grail expression enhances the induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines in J774A, RAW264.7, and primary peritoneal macrophages treated with LPS. Furthermore, LPS-induced macrophage hyperactivation was alleviated by ectopic Grail overexpression. In vivo studies showed that Grail deficiency exacerbates organ damage in endotoxemic animals. Levels of neutrophil infiltration, MMP-9, and caspase 3 were significantly increased in the lungs of Grail-deficient endotoxemic mice. Thus, these results suggest that Grail contributes to the attenuation of hyperinflammation caused by activated macrophages and prevents organ damage in endotoxemic mice. We suggest that Grail signaling could be a therapeutic target for endotoxemia.

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<![CDATA[Clinical utility of FDG uptake within reticuloendothelial system on F-18 FDG PET/CT for prediction of tumor recurrence in breast cancer]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c141e80d5eed0c484d26e70

Background

The aim of this study was to investigate the metabolism of the spleen, bone marrow (BM), and liver from preoperative F-18 FDG PET/CT scans for the prediction of recurrence in breast cancer.

Methods

We retrospectively included 153 patients diagnosed with invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) of the breast who underwent preoperative F-18 FDG PET/CT scan and a curative operation. The mean standardized uptake value (SUVmean) of the spleen, liver, and BM and maximum SUV (SUVmax) of primary tumors were measured. The relationships between spleen, BM, and liver metabolism and clinicopathologic parameters were evaluated, and possible prognostic parameters predicting recurrence were assessed using disease-free survival (DFS).

Results

Spleen SUVmean was significantly correlated with primary tumor SUVmax, pathologic T (pT) stage, and histologic grade of primary tumor. BM SUVmean also showed a positive correlation with primary tumor SUVmax. Spleen SUVmean were significantly associated with recurrence from binary logistic regression analysis (P = 0.004). Spleen, BM, liver, and primary tumor SUVs were all significant prognostic factors for DFS in univariate Cox regression analysis (all P<0.024). Among all PET parameters analyzed, spleen SUVmean ≥ 2.21 (P = 0.032) was in the multivariable analysis the powerful poor prognostic factor predicting DFS that was independent of other clinicopathological features like T stage (pT >2; P = 0.009) and estrogen receptor (ER) status (ER negativity; P = 0.001).

Conclusion

Splenic metabolism together with pT stage and ER status was an independent prognostic factor for predicting recurrence in breast cancer. Metabolic activity of reticuloendothelial system such as spleen, liver or BM on preoperative F-18 FDG PET/CT can be a meritorious imaging factor for discriminating patients with IDC that require adjunctive therapy to prevent recurrence.

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<![CDATA[Feature selection for the accurate prediction of septic and cardiogenic shock ICU mortality in the acute phase]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5bfdb39fd5eed0c4845caf1f

Circulatory shock is a life-threatening disease that accounts for around one-third of all admissions to intensive care units (ICU). It requires immediate treatment, which is why the development of tools for planning therapeutic interventions is required to deal with shock in the critical care environment. In this study, the ShockOmics European project original database is used to extract attributes capable of predicting mortality due to shock in the ICU. Missing data imputation techniques and machine learning models were used, followed by feature selection from different data subsets. Selected features were later used to build Bayesian Networks, revealing causal relationships between features and ICU outcome. The main result is a subset of predictive features that includes well-known indicators such as the SOFA and APACHE II scores, but also less commonly considered ones related to cardiovascular function assessed through echocardiograpy or shock treatment with pressors. Importantly, certain selected features are shown to be most predictive at certain time-steps. This means that, as shock progresses, different attributes could be prioritized. Clinical traits obtained at 24h. from ICU admission are shown to accurately predict cardiogenic and septic shock mortality, suggesting that relevant life-saving decisions could be made shortly after ICU admission.

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<![CDATA[Development and validation of a modified quick SOFA scale for risk assessment in sepsis syndrome]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5bb530dd40307c24312bb0b5

Sepsis is a severe clinical syndrome owing to its high mortality. Quick Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (qSOFA) score has been proposed for the prediction of fatal outcomes in sepsis syndrome in emergency departments. Due to the low predictive performance of the qSOFA score, we propose a modification to the score by adding age. We conducted a multicenter, retrospective cohort study among regional referral centers from various regions of the country. Participants recruited data of patients admitted to emergency departments and obtained a diagnosis of sepsis syndrome. Crude in-hospital mortality was the primary endpoint. A generalized mixed-effects model with random intercepts produced estimates for adverse outcomes. Model-based recursive partitioning demonstrated the effects and thresholds of significant covariates. Scores were internally validated. The H measure compared performances of scores. A total of 580 patients from 22 centers were included for further analysis. Stages of sepsis, age, time to antibiotics, and administration of carbapenem for empirical treatment were entered the final model. Among these, severe sepsis (OR, 4.40; CIs, 2.35–8.21), septic shock (OR, 8.78; CIs, 4.37–17.66), age (OR, 1.03; CIs, 1.02–1.05) and time to antibiotics (OR, 1.05; CIs, 1.01–1.10) were significantly associated with fatal outcomes. A decision tree demonstrated the thresholds for age. We modified the quick Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (mod-qSOFA) score by adding age (> 50 years old = one point) and compared this to the conventional score. H-measures for qSOFA and mod-qSOFA were found to be 0.11 and 0.14, respectively, whereas AUCs of both scores were 0.64. We propose the use of the modified qSOFA score for early risk assessment among sepsis patients for improved triage and management of this fatal syndrome.

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<![CDATA[Time to Huddle: Initiating the Bedside Sepsis Huddle on an Acute Care Pediatric Unit]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c0e35f5d5eed0c484e1328c

Background:

Rapid recognition and prompt treatment of sepsis within 1 hour may improve sepsis outcomes in children.

Objectives:

To develop and implement a sepsis screening tool and huddle process to improve early recognition and treatment of sepsis on an inpatient pediatric unit.

Methods:

Sepsis huddle implementation entailed house-wide education on early recognition of sepsis, antibiotic administration, and fluid bolus delivery methods. We used rapid Plan Do Study Act (PDSA) cycles to enhance documentation and communication among care providers during sepsis huddles. The team developed pocket cards for all team members to screen patients for sepsis based on Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS) criteria (Goldstein, 2005). A paper huddle form was developed and adapted to ensure all the bundle elements were implemented within the 1 hour goal. We added a sepsis huddle section to the vital sign band of the electronic medical record. Standardized sepsis order sets ensured consistent care between the ED, inpatient units, and PICU.

Results:

Between April 24 and December 1, there were 112 huddles, 28 rapid response activations, and 14 immediate transfers to a higher level of care. The pediatric department met the goal of 70% of first dose STAT antibiotics administered within 1 hour. Our Vizient observed to expected sepsis mortality has dropped from 1.37 (FY 2016) to 0.99 (FY 2017, preliminary data). (Table 1)

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<![CDATA[De-escalation of Care Through Pediatric Intensive Care Unit Liberation Rounds and a Daily Checklist]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c0e35f0d5eed0c484e13204

Introduction:

Pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) Liberation Bundle1 was implemented to standardize weaning of ICU support after clinical stabilization and to prevent iatrogenicity by timely assessment of pain, extubation readiness, sedation, delirium, withdrawal, early mobilization, and family engagement. By implementing a PICU Liberation bedside rounding process and a de-escalation daily rounding checklist, we hypothesized that the PICU Liberation Bundle compliance will improve and the risk for iatrogenic conditions can be minimized.

Methods:

The “old” rounding process used a nursing script organized by organ systems while the “new” process (Fig. 1) focused on PICU Liberation Bundle elements and the addition of a physician-completed checklist (Fig. 2). Independent observers collected data during rounds. All checklists completed over the first 50 days after deployment were analyzed.

Results:

There was an increase in frequency of PICU Liberation Bundle elements discussed during the “new” process with similar rounding time compared with the “old” process (Table 1). The overall compliance with the checklist was 90.4% (322 of 356 total patient-days). The medical plan was modified 62 times in 14.0% (45 of 322) of the checklists completed. The 5 most frequently modified tasks were converting intravenous to per os meds (13), initiating bowel regimen (11), initiating GI prophylaxis (9), consulting physical therapy/occupational therapy/physical medicine and rehabilitation services (9), and initiating sleep enhancement protocol (6) accounting for 77.4% (48/62) of all amendments made.

Conclusions:

PICU Liberation rounding process improved adherence with the PICU Liberation Bundle elements, and the checklist caught numerous missed opportunities, thereby increasing the frequency of timely de-escalation of care and minimizing the risk of iatrogenic conditions without lengthening rounding time.

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<![CDATA[Escalation Huddles: Facilitating Sepsis Activations Using Hospital-wide Escalation Processes]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c0e35f4d5eed0c484e1325d

Background:

Bedside huddles can be valuable parts of hospital sepsis responses. These huddles, however, risk duplication of effort with existing care escalation systems, and they may also be of value in settings other than sepsis. Streamlining care escalation processes may present an opportunity to improve sepsis responses.

Objectives:

To facilitate team-based discussion of patients with suspected sepsis as a step toward reducing time to first antibiotic administration.

Methods:

Existing care escalation frameworks were amended (Figs. 1, 2) and incorporated into rapid cycle process improvement initiatives on non-ICU units. New sepsis response resources were created to facilitate team communication, intravenous (IV) access, and timely antibiotic delivery (Fig. 3).

Results:

An Escalation Huddle system was created to bring local care teams together early during clinical deterioration, including cases of suspected sepsis. Rapid Response Team activation is available but not mandated. An Urgent IV & Blood Draw algorithm was created to facilitate IV access using a protocolized progression through existing hospital resources. An Inpatient Suspected Sepsis order set was created with antibiotic decision support and recommendations for evaluation of organ dysfunction. These processes have been improved through 3 “Plan, Do, Study, Act” cycles.

Conclusions:

Rather than create a separate sepsis response system, we chose to enhance existing hospital-wide escalation processes by formalizing an Escalation Huddle system and developing new tools to enhance sepsis responses within that system. We anticipate this approach will facilitate discussion of suspected sepsis cases and improve sepsis responses while avoiding inefficient or duplicative escalation actions by care team members.

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