ResearchPad - severe-blood-loss https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Predictors of change of health workers’ knowledge and skills after the Helping Mothers Survive Bleeding after Birth (HMS BAB) in-facility training in Tanzania]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_15768 Our study aimed to assess the effect of Helping Mothers Survive Bleeding after Birth on knowledge and skills of health workers and whether such effect varies by health workers characteristics.MethodsNested in a cluster-randomised trial to assess the effect of the training on health outcomes, we assessed changes in knowledge and simulated skills in 61 facilities. The assessments were done i) before, ii) immediately-after training session and iii) at 10-month follow-up for subset of health-workers of implementation facilities as defined by the trial. We used a self-administered questionnaire and Objective Structures Clinical Examinations to assess three skill sets: Active Management of Third Stage of Labour, removal of retained placenta and management of severe postpartum haemorrhage. We computed summary statistics and used the paired t-test to assess change of knowledge and skills immediately post-training and at 10-month follow-up. Linear regression was done to assess association of scores and health worker characteristics.ResultsOf the 636 health workers included, 606 (96.7%) and 591 (91.4%) completed the knowledge and skills assessments, respectively. Majority of the participants (68%) were nurse-midwives. Knowledge scores increased by 15 percentage-points from 77.5% to 93% (95% CI 14.3, 16.3, p-value <0.000), and skills scores by 47 percentage-points (95% CI 46.5, 49.2, p-value <0.000) from 37.5% to 83%. There was a 4.0% decline of skills at 10-month follow-up. The decline was higher in auxiliary staff (-11.8%) and least in nurse-midwives (-2.1%) p-value <0.001. Health workers who assisted less than 5 deliveries in the last month, those who never attended postpartum haemorrhage in-service training and profession experience >8 years were associated with lower mean skill change immediately post-training.ConclusionOur study supports the potential of the Helping Mothers Survive Bleeding after Birth training to increase knowledge and skills of postpartum haemorrhage among all professional groups. Auxiliary staff benefited most from the training but also showed higher skill decline at 10-month. Our study highlights the importance to disaggregate knowledge and skills by health workers characteristics. ]]> <![CDATA[Would you like to participate in this trial? The practice of informed consent in intrapartum research in the last 30 years]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Na45ec8a9-d35b-4ecd-a654-0f10371697fd

Background

Informed consent is the cornerstone of the ethical conduct and protection of the rights and wellbeing of participants in clinical research. Therefore, it is important to identify the most appropriate moments for the participants to be informed and to give consent, so that they are able to make a responsible and autonomous decision. However, the optimal timing of consent in clinical research during the intrapartum period remains controversial, and currently, there is no clear guidance.

Objective

We aimed to describe practices of informed consent in intrapartum care clinical research in the last three decades, as reported in uterotonics for postpartum haemorrhage prevention trials.

Methods

This is a secondary analysis of the studies included in the Cochrane review entitled “Uterotonic agents for preventing postpartum haemorrhage: a network meta-analysis” published in 2018. All the reports included in the Cochrane network meta-analysis were eligible for inclusion in this analysis, except for those reported in languages other than English, French or Spanish. We extracted and synthesized data on the time each of the components of the informed consent process occurred.

Results

We assessed data from 192 studies, out of 196 studies included in the Cochrane review. The majority of studies (59.9%, 115 studies) reported that women were informed about the study, without specifying the timing. When reported, most studies informed women at admission to the facility for childbirth. Most of the studies reported that consent was sought, but only 59.9% reported the timing, which in most of the cases, was at admission for childbirth. Among these, 32 studies obtained consent in the active phase of labour, 17 in the latent phase and in 10 studies the labour status was unknown. Women were consented antenatally in 6 studies and in 8 studies the consent was obtained indistinctly during antenatal care or at admission. Most of the studies did not specified who was the person who sought the informed consent.

Conclusion

Practices of informed consent in trials on use of uterotonics for prevention of postpartum haemorrhage showed variability and substandard reporting. Informed consent sought at admission for childbirth was the most frequent approach implemented in these trials.

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<![CDATA["Not taken seriously"—A qualitative interview study of postpartum Rwandan women who have experienced pregnancy-related complications]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6dc9bdd5eed0c48452a10e

Background

There is limited knowledge on the women’s experiences of pregnancy-related complications in Rwanda. This study aimed to investigate women’s experiences and perceptions of specific complications during pregnancy and delivery and the consequences of these complications on postpartum health and family situation.

Methods

Data were collected through individual in-depth interviews (N = 15). Participants who experienced complications such as postpartum haemorrhage, caesarean section due to prolonged labour/dystocia, pre-eclampsia, or fistula and who were 13–24 months postpartum were invited to participate in the study in July 2015. Interviews were held in Kinyarwanda, digitally recorded, transcribed verbatim, translated into English, and analysed using qualitative content analysis.

Results

Most participants reported that they were previously unaware of the complications they had developed, and they claimed that at discharge they should have been better informed about the potential consequences of these complications. Most participants blamed the health care system as the cause of their problems due to the provision of inadequate care. Participants elaborated different strategies for coping with persistent health problems. Pregnancy-related complications negatively affected participants’ economic situation due to increased health care expenses and lowered income because of impaired working capacity, and participants expressed fear of encountering the same pregnancy-related health problems during future pregnancies.

Conclusions

The findings of this study demonstrate how participants felt that inadequate health care provision during pregnancy, delivery, and the postpartum period was the source of their problems. Participants reported different coping strategies to improve their respective life situation despite persistent health problems. Women’s individual postpartum experiences need to be considered and actions taken at the policy level and also by the local community, in terms of the quality of antenatal and postpartum care services, and in sensitizing the local community about the existence of these complications and preparing the community to support the affected women.

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<![CDATA[Monitoring quality of obstetric care from hospital discharge databases: A Delphi survey to propose a new set of indicators based on maternal health outcomes]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6c7589d5eed0c4843cfe6b

Objectives

Most indicators proposed for assessing quality of care in obstetrics are process indicators and do not directly measure health effects, and cannot always be identified from routinely available databases. Our objective was to propose a set of indicators to assess the quality of hospital obstetric care from maternal morbidity outcomes identifiable in permanent hospital discharge databases.

Methods

Various maternal morbidity outcomes potentially reflecting quality of obstetric care were first selected from a systematic literature review. Then a three-round Delphi consensus survey was conducted online from 11/2016 through 02/2017 among a French panel of 37 expert obstetricians, anesthetists-critical-care specialists, midwives, quality-of-care researchers, and user representatives. For a given maternal outcome, several definitions could be proposed and the indicator (i.e. corresponding rate) could be applied to all women or restricted to specific subgroup(s).

Results

Of the 49 experts invited to participate, 37 agreed. The response rate was 92% in the second round and 97% in the third. Finally, a set of 13 indicators was selected to assess the quality of hospital obstetric care: rates of uterine rupture, postpartum hemorrhage, transfusion incident, severe perineal lacerations, episiotomy, cesarean, cesarean under general anesthesia, post-cesarean site infection, anesthesia-related complications, postpartum pulmonary embolism, maternal readmission and maternal mortality. Six were considered in specific subgroups, with, for example, the postpartum hemorrhage rate assessed among all women and also among women at low risk of PPH.

Implications

This Delphi process enabled us to define consensually a set of indicators to assess the quality of hospital obstetrics care from routine hospital data, based on maternal morbidity outcomes. Considering 6 of them in specific subgroups of women is especially interesting. These indicators, identifiable through codes used in international classifications, will be useful to monitor quality of care over time and across settings.

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<![CDATA[Incidence and risk factors for postpartum hemorrhage among transvaginal deliveries at a tertiary perinatal medical facility in Japan]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c3fa5b5d5eed0c484ca79d7

Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) remains a leading cause of maternal death worldwide, and it is important to understand the relative contributions of different risk factors. We assessed the incidence of these among cases of transvaginal delivery. Between June 2013 and July 2016, a prospective cohort study was conducted at a tertiary perinatal medical facility in Japan. Women were administered a questionnaire to ascertain risk factors for PPH, defined as a blood loss of 1,000 ml or more assessed using a calibrated under-buttocks drape and collection vessel at childbirth. We analyzed 1,068 transvaginal deliveries of singleton pregnancies. The incidence of PPH was 8.7%, and of severe PPH (1,500 ml blood loss or more) was 2.1%. Risk factors for postpartum hemorrhage among the deliveries were: fetal macrosomia (over 4000 g); pregnancy-induced hypertension; pregnancy generated by assisted reproductive technology; severe vaginal or perineal lacerations; and weight gain over 15 kg during pregnancy. Such high weight gain significantly increased the incidence of PPH compared with women showing less than 10 kg weight gain during pregnancy. Monitoring these identified risk factors could enable extra vigilance during labor, and preparedness for managing PPH in all women giving birth.

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<![CDATA[Variation in severe postpartum hemorrhage management: A national vignette-based study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c1c0ac6d5eed0c484426a7b

Objectives

To assess variations in management of severe postpartum hemorrhage: 1) between obstetricians in the same situation 2) by the same obstetrician in different situations.

Study design

A link to a vignette-based survey was emailed to obstetricians of 215 maternity units; the questionnaire asked them to report how they would manage the PPH described in 2 previously validated case-vignettes of different scenarios of severe PPH. Vignette 1 described a typical immediate, severe PPH, and vignette 2 a less typical case of severe but gradual PPH. They were constructed in 3 successive steps and included multiple-choice questions proposing several types of clinical practice options at each step. Variations in PPH were assessed in a descriptive analysis; agreement about management and its timing between vignette 1 and vignette 2 was assessed with the Kappa coefficient.

Results

Analysis of complete responses from 119 (43.4%) obstetricians from 53 (24.6%) maternity units showed delayed or inadequate management in both vignettes. While 82.3% and 83.2% of obstetricians (in vignettes 1 and 2, respectively) would administer oxytocin 15 minutes after PPH diagnosis, only 52.9% and 29.4% would alert other team members. Management by obstetricians of the two vignette situations was inconsistent in terms of choice of treatment and timing of almost all treatments.

Conclusion

Case vignettes demonstrated inadequate management as well as variations in management between obstetricians and in different PPH situations. Protocols or procedures are necessary in all maternity units to reduce the variations in practices that may explain a part of the delay in management that leads to PPH-related maternal mortality and morbidity.

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<![CDATA[Predicting peripartum blood transfusion in women undergoing cesarean delivery: A risk prediction model]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c1d5b51d5eed0c4846eb57d

Objective

There has been an appreciable rise in postpartum hemorrhage requiring blood transfusions in the United States. Our objective is to better define patients at greatest risk for peripartum transfusion at the time of cesarean in order to identify cases for early intervention and monitoring.

Methods

Our study is a secondary analysis of a retrospective cohort study. Cases of intraoperative and immediate postpartum blood transfusion among women undergoing cesarean delivery were identified. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to identify antepartum and intrapartum risk factors that were independently associated with blood transfusion. A risk calculator was then developed to predict the need for transfusion.

Results

Of 56,967 women, 1488 (2.6%) required any blood transfusion. The strongest risk factors for peripartum blood transfusion included anemia (odds ratio [OR] 3.7, 95% CI 3.3–4.3), abruption on presentation (OR 3.3, CI 2.6–4.1), general anesthesia (OR 5.2, CI 4.4–6.1) and abnormal placentation (OR 92.0, CI 57.4–147.6). An antepartum (model 1) and combined antepartum plus intrapartum risk model (model 2) were developed (model 1 AUC = 0.77, model 2 AUC = 0.83) and internally validated.

Conclusions

Among women who required cesarean delivery, we were able to identify risk factors which predispose women to peripartum blood transfusion and developed a prediction model with good discrimination.

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<![CDATA[Peer-assisted learning after onsite, low-dose, high-frequency training and practice on simulators to prevent and treat postpartum hemorrhage and neonatal asphyxia: A pragmatic trial in 12 districts in Uganda]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c21518dd5eed0c4843fabad

An urgent need exists to improve and maintain intrapartum skills of providers in sub-Saharan Africa. Peer-assisted learning may address this need, but few rigorous evaluations have been conducted in real-world settings. A pragmatic, cluster-randomized trial in 12 Ugandan districts provided facility-based, team training for prevention and management of postpartum hemorrhage and birth asphyxia at 125 facilities. Three approaches to facilitating simulation-based, peer assisted learning were compared. The primary outcome was the proportion of births with uterotonic given within one minute of birth. Outcomes were evaluated using observation of birth and supplemented by skills assessments and service delivery data. Individual and composite variables were compared across groups, using generalized linear models. Overall, 107, 195, and 199 providers were observed at three time points during 1,716 births across 44 facilities. Uterotonic coverage within one minute increased from: full group: 8% (CI 4%‒12%) to 50% (CI 42%‒59%); partial group: 19% (CI 9%‒30%) to 42% (CI 31%‒53%); and control group: 11% (5%‒7%) to 51% (40%‒61%). Observed care of mother and newborn improved in all groups. Simulated skills maintenance for postpartum hemorrhage prophylaxis remained high across groups 7 to 8 months after the intervention. Simulated skills for newborn bag-and-mask ventilation remained high only in the full group. For all groups combined, incidence of postpartum hemorrhage and retained placenta declined 17% and 47%, respectively, from during the intervention period compared to the 6‒9 month period after the intervention. Fresh stillbirths and newborn deaths before discharge decreased by 34% and 62%, respectively, from baseline to after completion, and remained reduced 6‒9 months post-implementation. Significant improvements in uterotonic coverage remained across groups 6 months after the intervention. Findings suggest that while short, simulation-based training at the facility improves care and is feasible, more complex clinical skills used infrequently such as newborn resuscitation may require more practice to maintain skills.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03254628.

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<![CDATA[Improved clinical management but not patient outcome in women with postpartum haemorrhage—An observational study of practical obstetric team training]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5bb530e440307c24312bb0b8

Objective

Postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) is the most common obstetric emergency. A well-established postpartum haemorrhage protocol in the labour ward is crucial for effective treatment. The aim of the study was to investigate if practical obstetric team training improves the patient outcome and clinical management of PPH.

Setting

The practical obstetric team training (PROBE) at Linköping University Hospital, Sweden, with approximate 3000 deliveries annually, was studied between the years of 2004–2011. Each team consisted of one or two midwives, one obstetrician or one junior doctor and one nurse assistant. Emergency obstetrics cases were trained in a simulation setting. PROBE was scheduled during work hours at an interval of 1.5 years.

Population

Pre-PROBE women (N = 419 were defined as all women with vaginal birth between the years of 2004–2007 with an estimated blood loss of ≥1000 ml within the first 24 hours of delivery. Post-PROBE women (N = 483) were defined as all women with vaginal birth between the years of 2008–2011 with an estimated blood loss of ≥1000 ml within the first 24 hours of delivery. The two groups were compared regarding blood loss parameters and management variables using retrospective data from medical records.

Results

No difference was observed in estimated blood loss, haemoglobin level, blood transfusions or the incidence of postpartum haemorrhage between the two groups. Post-PROBE women had more often secured venous access (p<0.001), monitoring of vital signs (p<0.001) and received fluid resuscitation (p<0.001) compared to pre-PROBE women. The use of uterine massage was also more common among the post-PROBE women compared with the pre-PROBE women (p<0.001).

Conclusion

PROBE improved clinical management but not patient outcome in women with postpartum haemorrhage in the labour ward. These new findings may have clinical implications since they confirm that training was effective concerning the management of postpartum haemorrhage. However, there is still no clear evidence that simulation training improve patient outcome in women with PPH.

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<![CDATA[Implementing at-scale, community-based distribution of misoprostol tablets to mothers in the third stage of labor for the prevention of postpartum haemorrhage in Sokoto State, Nigeria: Early results and lessons learned]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db4fab0ee8fa60bdbca3

Background

Postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) is a leading cause of maternal death in Sokoto State, Nigeria, where 95% of women give birth outside of a health facility. Although pilot schemes have demonstrated the value of community-based distribution of misoprostol for the prevention of PPH, none have provided practical insight on taking such programs to scale.

Methods

A community-based system for the distribution of misoprostol tablets (in 600ug) and chlorhexidine digluconate gel 7.1% to mother-newborn dyads was introduced by state government officials and community leaders throughout Sokoto State in April 2013, with the potential to reach an estimated 190,467 annual births. A simple outcome form that collected distribution and consumption data was used to assess the percentage of mothers that received misoprostol at labor through December 2014. Mothers’ conditions were tracked through 6 weeks postpartum. Verbal autopsies were conducted on associated maternal deaths.

Results

Misoprostol distribution was successfully introduced and reached mothers in labor in all 244 wards in Sokoto State. Community data collection systems were successfully operational in all 244 wards with reliable capacity to record maternal deaths. 70,982 women or 22% of expected births received misoprostol from April 2013 to December 2014. Between April and December 2013, 33 women (< 1%) reported that heavy bleeding persisted after misoprostol use and were promptly referred. There were a total of 11 deaths in the 2013 cohort which were confirmed as maternal deaths by verbal autopsies. Between January and December of 2014, a total 434 women (1.25%) that ingested misoprostol reported associated side effects.

Conclusion

It is feasible and safe to utilize government guidelines on results-based primary health care to successfully introduce community distribution of life saving misoprostol at scale to reduce PPH and improve maternal outcomes. Lessons from Sokoto State’s at-scale program implementation, to assure every mother’s right to uterotonics, can inform scale-up elsewhere in Nigeria.

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<![CDATA[Determination of Normal Ranges of Shock Index and Other Haemodynamic Variables in the Immediate Postpartum Period: A Cohort Study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da28ab0ee8fa60b8167c

Objective

To determine the normal ranges of vital signs, including blood pressure (BP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR) and shock index (SI) (HR/systolic BP), in the immediate postpartum period to inform the development of robust obstetric early warning scores.

Study Design

We conducted a secondary analysis of a prospective observational cohort study evaluating vital signs collected within one hour following delivery in women with estimated blood loss (EBL) <500ml (316 women) delivering at a UK tertiary centre over a one-year period. Simple and multiple linear regression were used to explore associations of demographic and obstetric factors with SI.

Results

Median (90% reference range) was 120 (100–145) for systolic BP, 75 (58–90) for diastolic BP, 90 (73–108) for MAP, 81 (61–102) for HR, and 0.66 (0.52–0.89) for SI. Third stage Syntometrine® administration was associated with a 0.03 decrease in SI (p = 0.035) and epidural use with a 0.05 increase (p = 0.003). No other demographic or obstetric factors were associated with a change in shock index in this cohort.

Conclusion

This is the first study to determine normal ranges of maternal BP, MAP, HR and SI within one hour of birth, a time of considerable haemodynamic adjustment, with minimal effect of demographic and obstetric factors demonstrated. The lower 90% reference point for systolic BP and upper 90% reference point for HR correspond to triggers used to recognise shock in obstetric practice, as do the upper 90% reference points for systolic and diastolic BP for obstetric hypertensive triggers. The SI upper limit of 0.89 in well postpartum women supports current literature suggesting a threshold of 0.9 as indicating increased risk of adverse outcomes.

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<![CDATA[ET-26 hydrochloride (ET-26 HCl) has similar hemodynamic stability to that of etomidate in normal and uncontrolled hemorrhagic shock (UHS) rats]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5aafc64c463d7e7d7e2e874a

Objective

ET-26 HCl is a promising sedative–hypnotic anesthetic with virtually no effect on adrenocortical steroid synthesis. However, whether or not ET-26 HCl also has a sufficiently wide safety margin and hemodynamic stability similar to that of etomidate and related compounds remains unknown. In this study, the effects of ET-26 HCl, etomidate and propofol on therapeutic index, heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP), maximal rate for left ventricular pressure rise (Dmax/t), and maximal rate for left ventricular pressure decline (Dmin/t) were investigated in healthy rats and a rat model of uncontrolled hemorrhagic shock (UHS).

Methods

50% effective dose (ED50) and 50% lethal dose (LD50) were determined after single bolus doses of propofol, etomidate, or ET-26 HCl using the Bliss method and the up and down method, respectively. All rats were divided into either the normal group and received either etomidate, ET-26 HCl or propofol, (n = 6 per group) or the UHS group and received either etomidate, ET-26 HCl or propofol, (n = 6 per group). In the normal group, after preparation for hemodynamic and heart-function monitoring, rats were administered a dose of one of the test agents twofold-higher than the established ED50, followed by hemodynamic and heart-function monitoring. Rats in the UHS group underwent experimentally induced UHS with a target arterial pressure of 40 mmHg for 1 hour, followed by administration of an ED50 dose of one of the experimental agents. Blood-gas analysis was conducted on samples obtained during equilibration with the experimental setup and at the end of the experiment.

Results

In the normal group, no significant differences in HR, MAP, Dmax/t and Dmin/t (all P > 0.05) were observed at any time point between the etomidate and ET-26 HCl groups, whereas HR, MAP and Dmax/t decreased briefly and Dmin/t increased following propofol administration. In the UHS group, no significant differences in HR, MAP, Dmax/t and Dmin/t were observed before and after administration of etomidate or ET-26 HCl at ED50 doses (all P > 0.05). Administration of propofol resulted in brief, statistically significant reductions in HR and Dmax/t, with a brief increase in Dmin/t (P ˂ 0.05), while no significant differences in MAP were observed among the three groups. The blood-lactate concentrations of rats in the ET-26 HCl group were significantly lower than those in etomidate and propofol groups (P ˂ 0.05).

Conclusions

ET-26 HCl provides a similar level of hemodynamic stability to that obtained with etomidate in both healthy rats, and rat models of UHS. ET-26 HCl has the potential to be a novel induction anesthetic for use in critically ill patients.

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<![CDATA[Maternal outcome after abdominal packing for uncontrolled postpartum hemorrhage despite peripartum hysterectomy]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db5cab0ee8fa60be01e6

Background

Intra-abdominal packing is a possible option for persistent bleeding following hysterectomy for postpartum hemorrhage. However, to date, only very limited data about maternal outcome after intra-abdominal packing for surgically uncontrolled hemorrhage following hysterectomy are available. The objective of the current study was to estimate maternal outcome after intra-abdominal packing following unsuccessful peripartum hysterectomy for postpartum hemorrhage.

Methods

A questionnaire was mailed to all maternity units performing more than 850 deliveries per year. Inclusion criteria were: all cases of abdominal packing performed following unsuccessful peripartum hysterectomy for postpartum hemorrhage between 2003 and 2013. The primary outcome was success of intra-abdominal packing, defined as the arrest of hemorrhage with no need of additional procedure.

Results

The total number of deliveries during the study period that occurred in the 51 participating centers was 1,430,142. The centers reported a total of 718 (1 per 2000 deliveries) peripartum hysterectomies for PPH and 53 abdominal packings performed after unsuccessful peripartum hysterectomy (about 1 per 14 hysterectomies). A median of 5 [IQR 3–7] pads were used for packing. Abdominal packing was removed after a median of 39.5 hours [IQR 24–48]. The success rate of abdominal packing was 62% (33/53). Among the 20 (38%) women in whom bleeding did not stop following the use of abdominal packing, 6 required a second surgical intervention, 6 a pelvic artery embolization and the 8 other women had “only” further intensive resuscitation and pharmacological treatments. Finally, mortality rate was 24% (13/53).

Conclusion

Our results suggest that abdominal packing, used for duration of 24 to 48 hours, seems to be an option as an ultimate procedure to control persistent life-threatening postpartum hemorrhage following peripartum hysterectomy.

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<![CDATA[Fluoroscopy-free Resuscitative Endovascular Balloon Occlusion of the Aorta (REBOA) for controlling life threatening postpartum hemorrhage]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db52ab0ee8fa60bdc89f

Background

Severe postpartum hemorrhage occurs in 1/1000 women giving birth. This condition is often dramatic and may be life threatening. Resuscitative Endovascular Balloon Occlusion of the Aorta (REBOA) has in recent years been introduced as a novel treatment for hemorrhagic shock. We present a series of fluoroscopy-free REBOA for controlling life threatening postpartum hemorrhage.

Methods

In 2008 an ‘aortic occlusion kit’ was assembled and used in three Norwegian university hospitals. The on-call interventional radiologist (IR) was to be contacted with a response time < 30 minutes in case of life threatening PPH. Demographics and characteristics were noted from the medical records.

Results

This retrospective study includes 36 patients treated with fluoroscopy-free REBOA for controlling severe postpartum hemorrhage in the years 2008–2015. The REBOA success rate was 100% and no patients died from REBOA related complications. Uterine artery embolization was performed in 17 (47%) patients and a hysterectomy in 16 (44%) patients. A short (11cm) introducer length was strongly associated with iliac artery thrombus formation (ρ = 0.50, P = 0.002). In addition, there was a strong negative correlation between uterine artery embolization and hysterectomy (ρ = -0.50, P = 0.002).

Conclusions

Our Norwegian experience indicates the clinical safety and feasibility of REBOA in life threatening PPH. Also, REBOA can be used in an emergency situation without the use of fluoroscopy with a high degree of technical success. It is important that safety implementation of REBOA is established, especially through limited aortic balloon occlusion time and a thorough balloon deflation regime.

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<![CDATA[The Incidence of Postpartum Hemorrhage in Pregnant Women with Placenta Previa: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db54ab0ee8fa60bdcf62

Background

The global burden of postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) in women with placenta previa is a major public health concern. Although there are different reports on the incidence of PPH in different countries, to date, no research has reviewed them.

Objective

The aim of this study was to calculate the average point incidence of PPH in women with placenta previa.

Methods

A systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies estimating PPH in women with placenta previa was conducted through literature searches in four databases in Jul 2016. This study was totally conducted according to the MOOSE guidelines and in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses standard.

Results

From 1148 obtained studies, 11 included in the meta-analysis, which involved 5146 unique pregnant women with placenta previa. The overall pooled incidence of PPH was 22.3% (95% CI 15.8–28.7%). In the subgroup, the prevalence was 27.4% in placenta previas, and was 14.5% in low-lying placenta previa; the highest prevalence was estimated in Northern America (26.3%, 95%CI 11.0–41.6%), followed by the Asia (20.7%, 95%CI 12.8–28.6%), Australia (19.2%, 95% CI 17.2–21.1%) and Europe (17.8%, 95% CI, 11.5%-24.0%).

Conclusions

The summary estimate of the incidence of PPH among women with placenta previa was considerable in this systematic review. The results will be crucial in prevention, treatment, and identification of PPH among pregnant women with placenta previa and will be contributed to the planning and implantation of relevant public health strategies.

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<![CDATA[Duration of labor and the risk of severe postpartum hemorrhage: A case-control study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db52ab0ee8fa60bdc54e

Objective

Our main objective was to investigate the association between duration of active labor and severe postpartum hemorrhage. We examined the effect of the total duration of active labor, the effect of each stage of active labor, and the gradient effect of duration of labor on severe postpartum hemorrhage.

Methods

A case-control study was generated from a source population of all women admitted for delivery at Oslo University Hospital and Drammen Hospital in Buskerud municipality during the time period January 1, 2008 to December 31, 2011. The study population included all cases of severe postpartum hemorrhage (n = 859) and a random sample of controls (n = 1755). Severe postpartum hemorrhage was defined as postpartum blood loss ≥1500 mL or need for blood transfusion. Prolonged labor was defined as duration of active labor >12 hours according to the definition of the World Health Organization. We used logistic multivariable regression in the analysis.

Results

We observed a significantly longer mean duration of labor in women who experienced severe postpartum hemorrhage compared to controls (5.4 versus 3.8 hours, p<0.001). Women with severe postpartum hemorrhage also had a longer duration of all stages of active labor compared to controls. The association between the duration of active labor and severe postpartum changed from a linear dose-response association to a threshold association after adjusting for augmentation with oxytocin, induction of labor, primiparity, and fever during labor. Compared to controls, women with severe postpartum hemorrhage were more likely to have a prolonged labor >12 hours (adjusted odds ratio = 2.44, 95% confidence interval: 1.69–3.53, p< 0.001).

Conclusion

Prolonged active labor (duration >12 hours) was associated with severe postpartum hemorrhage. Increased vigilance seems required when the labor is prolonged to reduce the risk of severe postpartum hemorrhage.

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