ResearchPad - shear-stresses https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Mechanical characterization of PVA hydrogels’ rate-dependent response using multi-axial loading]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13820 The time-dependent properties of rubber-like synthesized and biological materials are crucial for their applications. Currently, this behavior is mainly measured using axial tensile test, compression test, or indentation. Limited studies performed on using multi-axial loading measurements of time-dependent material behavior exist in the literature. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the viscoelastic response of rubber-like materials under multi-axial loading using cavity expansion and relaxation tests. The tests were performed on PVA hydrogel specimens. Three hyperelasitc models and one term Prony series were used to characterize the viscoelastic response of the hydrogels. Finite element (FE) simulations were performed to verify the validity of the calibrated material coefficients by reproducing the experimental results. The excellent agreement between the experimental, analytical and numerical data proves the capability of the cavity expansion technique to measure the time-dependent behavior of viscoelastic materials.

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<![CDATA[Analytical characterization and reference interval of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for active von Willebrand factor]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6dc9d4d5eed0c48452a285

Background

Interaction of von Willebrand factor (VWF) with platelets requires a conformational change that exposes an epitope within the VWF A1 domain, enabling platelet glycoprotein Ibα binding. Quantification of this ‘‘active” conformation of VWF has been shown to provide pathophysiological insight into conditions characterized by excessive VWF-platelet interaction.

Methods

We developed an immunosorbent assay based on a variable heavy chain antibody fragment against the VWF A1 domain as a capture antibody. Assay performance in terms of specificity (binding to active R1306W- and sheared VWF), precision, accuracy, linearity, limits of detection and stability were determined. Active VWF, VWF antigen, VWF ristocetin cofactor activity, VWF:GP1bM and VWF propeptide were measured in citrated plasma and platelet-VWF binding in whole blood from 120 healthy individuals to establish a reference interval for active VWF and to assess associations with other VWF parameters.

Results

Intra- and inter-assay CVs were between 2.4–7.2% and 4.1–9.4%, depending on the level. Mean recovery of spiked recombinant R1306W VWF was 103±3%. The assay was linear in the range of 90.1–424.5% and had a limit of quantification of 101%. The reference interval for active VWF was 91.6–154.8% of NPP. Significant, positive correlations between active VWF and all other VWF parameters were found, with the strongest correlation with VWF:GP1bM binding.

Conclusions

We developed and validated an immunosorbent assay for the accurate detection of active VWF levels in plasma. The assay fulfilled all analytical criteria in this study and a reference interval was established, allowing its use to quantify active VWF in pathological conditions for future research.

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<![CDATA[Aquatic macroinvertebrates stabilize gravel bed sediment: A test using silk net-spinning caddisflies in semi-natural river channels]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c3667f4d5eed0c4841a6abc

Organisms can have large effects on the physical properties of the habitats where they live. For example, measurements in laboratory stream microcosms have shown that the presence of silk net-spinning insect larvae (Trichoptera: Hydropsychidae) can increase the shear force required to initiate movement of riverbed sediments. Few studies, however, have moved beyond laboratory settings to quantify the engineering impacts of aquatic insects under more complex field conditions. To bridge the gap between small-scale laboratory experiments and natural stream ecosystems, we conducted experiments in large (50 m2) outdoor river channels where net-spinning aquatic insects were manipulated in sediment patches that were 5 to 25 times larger than in previous studies. We tested whether larvae of two caddisfly species (Arctopsyche californica and Ceratopsyche oslari) influenced the stability of gravel during simulated floods when alone in monoculture and together in polyculture. On average, populations of caddisflies increased the critical shear stress required to initiate sediment movement by 20% compared to treatments without caddisflies. Per capita effects of caddisflies on sediment stability were similar between previous laboratory studies and this field experiment, and Arctopsyche had a larger per capita effect than Ceratopsyche, perhaps because of its larger size and stronger silk. Contrary to prior laboratory flume results, the effects of the two species on critical shear stress when together were similar to the additive expectation of both species when alone, but effects of the two species together were higher than the additive expectation when we accounted for density. Comparisons of total population and per capita effects suggest that caddisfly density, identity, and coexisting species likely have effects on the magnitude of caddisfly impacts on critical shear stress. Our findings imply that consideration of both the abundances and traits of ecosystem engineers is needed to describe and model their effects on sediment mobility.

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<![CDATA[Morphological and Hemodynamic Discriminators for Rupture Status in Posterior Communicating Artery Aneurysms]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db3aab0ee8fa60bd4ab7

Background and Purpose

The conflicting findings of previous morphological and hemodynamic studies on intracranial aneurysm rupture may be caused by the relatively small sample sizes and the variation in location of the patient-specific aneurysm models. We aimed to determine the discriminators for aneurysm rupture status by focusing on only posterior communicating artery (PCoA) aneurysms.

Materials and Methods

In 129 PCoA aneurysms (85 ruptured, 44 unruptured), clinical, morphological and hemodynamic characteristics were compared between the ruptured and unruptured cases. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the discriminators for rupture status of PCoA aneurysms.

Results

While univariate analyses showed that the size of aneurysm dome, aspect ratio (AR), size ratio (SR), dome-to-neck ratio (DN), inflow angle (IA), normalized wall shear stress (NWSS) and percentage of low wall shear stress area (LSA) were significantly associated with PCoA aneurysm rupture status. With multivariate analyses, significance was only retained for higher IA (OR = 1.539, p < 0.001) and LSA (OR = 1.393, p = 0.041).

Conclusions

Hemodynamics and morphology were related to rupture status of intracranial aneurysms. Higher IA and LSA were identified as discriminators for rupture status of PCoA aneurysms.

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<![CDATA[Seagrass blue carbon spatial patterns at the meadow-scale]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db59ab0ee8fa60bdf1cf

Most information on seagrass carbon burial derives from point measurements, which are sometimes scaled by meadow area to estimate carbon stocks; however, sediment organic carbon (Corg) concentrations may vary with distance from the meadow edge, resulting in spatial gradients that affect the accuracy of stock estimates. We mapped sediment Corg concentrations throughout a large (6 km2) restored seagrass meadow to determine whether Corg distribution patterns exist at different spatial scales. The meadow originated from ≤1-acre plots seeded between 2001 and 2004, so we expected Corg to vary spatially according to the known meadow age at sample sites and with proximity to the meadow edge. Applying spatial autoregressive models allowed us to control for spatial autocorrelation and quantify the relative effects of edge proximity and age on Corg concentrations. We found that edge proximity, not age, significantly predicted the meadow-scale Corg distribution. We also evaluated relationships between Corg and a variety of specific explanatory variables, including site relative exposure, shoot density, sediment grain size, and bathymetry. Factors known to affect carbon burial at the plot-scale, such as meadow age and shoot density, were not significant controls on the meadow-scale Corg distribution. Strong correlations between Corg, grain size, and edge proximity suggest that current attenuation increases fine-sediment deposition and, therefore, carbon burial with distance into the meadow. By mapping the sediment Corg pool, we provide the first accurate quantification of an enhanced carbon stock attributable to seagrass restoration. The top 12 cm of the bed contain 3660 t Corg, approximately 1200 t more Corg than an equal area of bare sediment. Most of that net increase is concentrated in a meadow area with low tidal current velocities. Managers should account for the effects of meadow configuration and current velocity when estimating seagrass blue carbon stocks. Our results suggest that a large, contiguous meadow should store more blue carbon than an equal area of small meadow patches.

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<![CDATA[The Effect of Spatial and Temporal Resolution of Cine Phase Contrast MRI on Wall Shear Stress and Oscillatory Shear Index Assessment]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da4fab0ee8fa60b8d8df

Introduction

Wall shear stress (WSS) and oscillatory shear index (OSI) are associated with atherosclerotic disease. Both parameters are derived from blood velocities, which can be measured with phase-contrast MRI (PC-MRI). Limitations in spatiotemporal resolution of PC-MRI are known to affect these measurements. Our aim was to investigate the effect of spatiotemporal resolution using a carotid artery phantom.

Methods

A carotid artery phantom was connected to a flow set-up supplying pulsatile flow. MRI measurement planes were placed at the common carotid artery (CCA) and internal carotid artery (ICA). Two-dimensional PC-MRI measurements were performed with thirty different spatiotemporal resolution settings. The MRI flow measurement was validated with ultrasound probe measurements. Mean flow, peak flow, flow waveform, WSS and OSI were compared for these spatiotemporal resolutions using regression analysis. The slopes of the regression lines were reported in %/mm and %/100ms. The distribution of low and high WSS and OSI was compared between different spatiotemporal resolutions.

Results

The mean PC-MRI CCA flow (2.5±0.2mL/s) agreed with the ultrasound probe measurements (2.7±0.02mL/s). Mean flow (mL/s) depended only on spatial resolution (CCA:-13%/mm, ICA:-49%/mm). Peak flow (mL/s) depended on both spatial (CCA:-13%/mm, ICA:-17%/mm) and temporal resolution (CCA:-19%/100ms, ICA:-24%/100ms). Mean WSS (Pa) was in inverse relationship only with spatial resolution (CCA:-19%/mm, ICA:-33%/mm). OSI was dependent on spatial resolution for CCA (-26%/mm) and temporal resolution for ICA (-16%/100ms). The regions of low and high WSS and OSI matched for most of the spatiotemporal resolutions (CCA:30/30, ICA:28/30 cases for WSS; CCA:23/30, ICA:29/30 cases for OSI).

Conclusion

We show that both mean flow and mean WSS are independent of temporal resolution. Peak flow and OSI are dependent on both spatial and temporal resolution. However, the magnitude of mean and peak flow, WSS and OSI, and the spatial distribution of OSI and WSS did not exhibit a strong dependency on spatiotemporal resolution.

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<![CDATA[Increased Inlet Blood Flow Velocity Predicts Low Wall Shear Stress in the Cephalic Arch of Patients with Brachiocephalic Fistula Access]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dacbab0ee8fa60bb43fd

Background

An autogenous arteriovenous fistula is the optimal vascular access for hemodialysis. In the case of brachiocephalic fistula, cephalic arch stenosis commonly develops leading to access failure. We have hypothesized that a contribution to fistula failure is low wall shear stress resulting from post-fistula creation hemodynamic changes that occur in the cephalic arch.

Methods

Twenty-two subjects with advanced renal failure had brachiocephalic fistulae placed. The following procedures were performed at mapping (pre-operative) and at fistula maturation (8–32 weeks post-operative): venogram, Doppler to measure venous blood flow velocity, and whole blood viscosity. Geometric and computational modeling was performed to determine wall shear stress and other geometric parameters. The relationship between hemodynamic parameters and clinical findings was examined using univariate analysis and linear regression.

Results

The percent low wall shear stress was linearly related to the increase in blood flow velocity (p < 0.01). This relationship was more significant in non-diabetic patients (p < 0.01) than diabetic patients. The change in global measures of arch curvature and asymmetry also evolve with time to maturation (p < 0.05).

Conclusions

The curvature and hemodynamic changes during fistula maturation increase the percentage of low wall shear stress regions within the cephalic arch. Low wall shear stress may contribute to subsequent neointimal hyperplasia and resultant cephalic arch stenosis. If this hypothesis remains tenable with further studies, ways of protecting the arch through control of blood flow velocity may need to be developed.

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<![CDATA[Microfluidic Biopsy Trapping Device for the Real-Time Monitoring of Tumor Microenvironment]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dae2ab0ee8fa60bbc301

The tumor microenvironment is composed of cellular and stromal components such as tumor cells, mesenchymal cells, immune cells, cancer associated fibroblasts and the supporting extracellular matrix. The tumor microenvironment provides crucial support for growth and progression of tumor cells and affects tumor response to therapeutic interventions. To better understand tumor biology and to develop effective cancer therapeutic agents it is important to develop preclinical platforms that can faithfully recapitulate the tumor microenvironment and the complex interaction between the tumor and its surrounding stromal elements. Drug studies performed in vitro with conventional two-dimensional cancer cell line models do not optimally represent clinical drug response as they lack true tumor heterogeneity and are often performed in static culture conditions lacking stromal tumor components that significantly influence the metabolic activity and proliferation of cells. Recent microfluidic approaches aim to overcome such obstacles with the use of cell lines derived in artificial three-dimensional supportive gels or micro-chambers. However, absence of a true tumor microenvironment and full interstitial flow, leads to less than optimal evaluation of tumor response to drug treatment. Here we report a continuous perfusion microfluidic device coupled with microscopy and image analysis for the assessment of drug effects on intact fresh tumor tissue. We have demonstrated that fine needle aspirate biopsies obtained from patient-derived xenograft models of adenocarcinoma of the lung can successfully be analyzed for their response to ex vivo drug treatment within this biopsy trapping microfluidic device, wherein a protein kinase C inhibitor, staurosporine, was used to assess tumor cell death as a proof of principle. This approach has the potential to study tumor tissue within its intact microenvironment to better understand tumor response to drug treatments and eventually to choose the most effective drug and drug combination for individual patients in a cost effective and timely manner.

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<![CDATA[Bacterial biofilm under flow: First a physical struggle to stay, then a matter of breathing]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db52ab0ee8fa60bdc62d

Bacterial communities attached to surfaces under fluid flow represent a widespread lifestyle of the microbial world. Through shear stress generation and molecular transport regulation, hydrodynamics conveys effects that are very different by nature but strongly coupled. To decipher the influence of these levers on bacterial biofilms immersed in moving fluids, we quantitatively and simultaneously investigated physicochemical and biological properties of the biofilm. We designed a millifluidic setup allowing to control hydrodynamic conditions and to monitor biofilm development in real time using microscope imaging. We also conducted a transcriptomic analysis to detect a potential physiological response to hydrodynamics. We discovered that a threshold value of shear stress determined biofilm settlement, with sub-piconewton forces sufficient to prevent biofilm initiation. As a consequence, distinct hydrodynamic conditions, which set spatial distribution of shear stress, promoted distinct colonization patterns with consequences on the growth mode. However, no direct impact of mechanical forces on biofilm growth rate was observed. Consistently, no mechanosensing gene emerged from our differential transcriptomic analysis comparing distinct hydrodynamic conditions. Instead, we found that hydrodynamic molecular transport crucially impacts biofilm growth by controlling oxygen availability. Our results shed light on biofilm response to hydrodynamics and open new avenues to achieve informed design of fluidic setups for investigating, engineering or fighting adherent communities.

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<![CDATA[A Robust Actin Filaments Image Analysis Framework]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dadfab0ee8fa60bbb316

The cytoskeleton is a highly dynamical protein network that plays a central role in numerous cellular physiological processes, and is traditionally divided into three components according to its chemical composition, i.e. actin, tubulin and intermediate filament cytoskeletons. Understanding the cytoskeleton dynamics is of prime importance to unveil mechanisms involved in cell adaptation to any stress type. Fluorescence imaging of cytoskeleton structures allows analyzing the impact of mechanical stimulation in the cytoskeleton, but it also imposes additional challenges in the image processing stage, such as the presence of imaging-related artifacts and heavy blurring introduced by (high-throughput) automated scans. However, although there exists a considerable number of image-based analytical tools to address the image processing and analysis, most of them are unfit to cope with the aforementioned challenges. Filamentous structures in images can be considered as a piecewise composition of quasi-straight segments (at least in some finer or coarser scale). Based on this observation, we propose a three-steps actin filaments extraction methodology: (i) first the input image is decomposed into a ‘cartoon’ part corresponding to the filament structures in the image, and a noise/texture part, (ii) on the ‘cartoon’ image, we apply a multi-scale line detector coupled with a (iii) quasi-straight filaments merging algorithm for fiber extraction. The proposed robust actin filaments image analysis framework allows extracting individual filaments in the presence of noise, artifacts and heavy blurring. Moreover, it provides numerous parameters such as filaments orientation, position and length, useful for further analysis. Cell image decomposition is relatively under-exploited in biological images processing, and our study shows the benefits it provides when addressing such tasks. Experimental validation was conducted using publicly available datasets, and in osteoblasts grown in two different conditions: static (control) and fluid shear stress. The proposed methodology exhibited higher sensitivity values and similar accuracy compared to state-of-the-art methods.

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<![CDATA[A unified approach for determining the ultimate strength of RC members subjected to combined axial force, bending, shear and torsion]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db52ab0ee8fa60bdc81d

This paper uses experimental investigation and theoretical derivation to study the unified failure mechanism and ultimate capacity model of reinforced concrete (RC) members under combined axial, bending, shear and torsion loading. Fifteen RC members are tested under different combinations of compressive axial force, bending, shear and torsion using experimental equipment designed by the authors. The failure mechanism and ultimate strength data for the four groups of tested RC members under different combined loading conditions are investigated and discussed in detail. The experimental research seeks to determine how the ultimate strength of RC members changes with changing combined loads. According to the experimental research, a unified theoretical model is established by determining the shape of the warped failure surface, assuming an appropriate stress distribution on the failure surface, and considering the equilibrium conditions. This unified failure model can be reasonably and systematically changed into well-known failure theories of concrete members under single or combined loading. The unified calculation model could be easily used in design applications with some assumptions and simplifications. Finally, the accuracy of this theoretical unified model is verified by comparisons with experimental results.

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<![CDATA[Ivabradine Prevents Low Shear Stress Induced Endothelial Inflammation and Oxidative Stress via mTOR/eNOS Pathway]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989daa3ab0ee8fa60ba6ab5

Ivabradine not only reduces heart rate but has other cardiac and vascular protective effects including anti-inflammation and anti-oxidation. Since endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) is a crucial enzyme in maintaining endothelial activity, we aimed to investigate the impact of ivabradine in low shear stress (LSS) induced inflammation and endothelial injury and the role of eNOS played in it. Endothelial cells (ECs) were subjected to LSS at 2dyne/cm2, with 1 hour of ivabradine (0.04μM) or LY294002 (10μM) pre-treatment. The mRNA expression of IL-6, VCAM-1 along with eNOS were measured by QPCR. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) was detected by dihydroethidium (DHE) and DCF, and protein phosphorylation was detected by western blot. It demonstrated that ivabradine decreased LSS induced inflammation and oxidative stress in endothelial cells. Western blot showed reduced rictor and Akt-Ser473 as well as increased eNOS-Thr495 phosphorylation. However, mTORC1 pathway was only increased when LSS applied within 30 minutes. These effects were reversed by ivabradine. It would appear that ivabradine diminish ROS generation by provoking mTORC2/Akt phosphorylation and repressing mTORC1 induced eNOS-Thr495 activation. These results together suggest that LSS induced endothelial inflammation and oxidative stress are suppressed by ivabradine via mTORC2/Akt activation and mTORC1/eNOS reduction.

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<![CDATA[HbS Binding to GP1bα Activates Platelets in Sickle Cell Disease]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da1bab0ee8fa60b7d0a6

Intravascular hemolysis increases the risk of thrombosis in hemolytic disorders. Our previous study showed that the binding of adult hemoglobin (HbA) to glycoprotein (GP) 1bα induced the activation of platelets. The elevated plasma Hb or platelet surface bound Hb positively correlated with platelet activation in patients with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH). Furthermore, this study shows that the sickle Hb [HbS, occurs due to single nucleotide polymorphism at A>T of β-globin gene of Hb and causes sickle cell disease (SCD)] also bound to GP1bα and activated platelets in a concentration-dependent manner. The HbS bound to glycocalicin (extramembranous part of GP1bα) with KD ~ 10.46 ± 3 μM. HbS induced phosphorylation of signaling adapter proteins, such as Lyn, PI3K, Akt and ERK in platelets, and also increased the surface expression of platelet activation markers such as P-selectin (10.7 fold) and PAC1 binding (10.4 fold) in platelet surface in a concentration-dependent manner. HbS also increased the platelet microparticle-generation (4.7 fold) and thrombus-formation (4.3 fold) in a concentration-dependent manner. An elevated level of extracellular Hb in plasma correlated directly with platelet activation markers such as P-selectin (r = 0.7947), PAC1 binding (r = 0.5914) on platelet surface and plasma levels of platelet-derived microparticles (r = 0.7834) in patients with SCD. Our study therefore suggests that the HbS-induced platelet activation may play a crucial role in intravascular clot formation observed in SCD patients characterized by high propensity to vascular occlusion and hypercoagulable states.

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<![CDATA[Dynamic biochemical tissue analysis detects functional L-selectin ligands on colon cancer tissues]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db50ab0ee8fa60bdbeca

A growing body of evidence suggests that L-selectin ligands presented on circulating tumor cells facilitate metastasis by binding L-selectin presented on leukocytes. Commonly used methods for detecting L-selectin ligands on tissues, e.g., immunostaining, are performed under static, no-flow conditions. However, such analysis does not assay for functional L-selectin ligands, specifically those ligands that promote adhesion under shear flow conditions. Recently our lab developed a method, termed dynamic biochemical tissue analysis (DBTA), to detect functional selectin ligands in situ by probing tissues with L-selectin-coated microspheres under hemodynamic flow conditions. In this investigation, DBTA was used to probe human colon tissues for L-selectin ligand activity. The detection of L-selectin ligands using DBTA was highly specific. Furthermore, DBTA reproducibly detected functional L-selectin ligands on diseased, e.g., cancerous or inflamed, tissues but not on noncancerous tissues. In addition, DBTA revealed a heterogeneous distribution of functional L-selectin ligands on colon cancer tissues. Most notably, detection of L-selectin ligands by immunostaining using HECA-452 antibody only partially correlated with functional L-selectin ligands detected by DBTA. In summation, the results of this study demonstrate that DBTA detects functional selectin ligands to provide a unique characterization of pathological tissue.

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<![CDATA[Computational Fluid Dynamic Simulations of Maternal Circulation: Wall Shear Stress in the Human Placenta and Its Biological Implications]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da91ab0ee8fa60b9ff41

Introduction

In the human placenta the maternal blood circulates in the intervillous space (IVS). The syncytiotrophoblast (STB) is in direct contact with maternal blood. The wall shear stress (WSS) exerted by the maternal blood flow on the STB has not been evaluated. Our objective was to determine the physiological WSS exerted on the surface of the STB during the third trimester of pregnancy.

Material and Methods

To gain insight into the shear stress levels that the STB is expected to experience in vivo, we have formulated three different computational models of varying levels of complexity that reflect different physical representations of the IVS. Computations of the flow fields in all models were performed using the CFD module of the finite element code COMSOL Multiphysics 4.4. The mean velocity of maternal blood in the IVS during the third trimester was measured in vivo with dynamic MRI (0.94±0.14 mm.s-1). To investigate if the in silico results are consistent with physiological observations, we studied the cytoadhesion of human parasitized (Plasmodium falciparum) erythrocytes to primary human STB cultures, in flow conditions with different WSS values.

Results

The WSS applied to the STB is highly heterogeneous in the IVS. The estimated average values are relatively low (0.5±0.2 to 2.3±1.1 dyn.cm-2). The increase of WSS from 0.15 to 5 dyn.cm-2 was associated with a significant decrease of infected erythrocyte cytoadhesion. No cytoadhesion of infected erythrocytes was observed above 5 dyn.cm-2 applied for one hour.

Conclusion

Our study provides for the first time a WSS estimation in the maternal placental circulation. In spite of high maternal blood flow rates, the average WSS applied at the surface of the chorionic villi is low (<5 dyn.cm-2). These results provide the basis for future physiologically-relevant in vitro studies of the biological effects of WSS on the STB.

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<![CDATA[A Bayesian approach to modelling the impact of hydrodynamic shear stress on biofilm deformation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5bfed868d5eed0c4849db135

We investigate the feasibility of using a surrogate-based method to emulate the deformation and detachment behaviour of a biofilm in response to hydrodynamic shear stress. The influence of shear force, growth rate and viscoelastic parameters on the patterns of growth, structure and resulting shape of microbial biofilms was examined. We develop a statistical modelling approach to this problem, using combination of Bayesian Poisson regression and dynamic linear models for the emulation. We observe that the hydrodynamic shear force affects biofilm deformation in line with some literature. Sensitivity results also showed that the expected number of shear events, shear flow, yield coefficient for heterotrophic bacteria and extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) stiffness per unit EPS mass are the four principal mechanisms governing the bacteria detachment in this study. The sensitivity of the model parameters is temporally dynamic, emphasising the significance of conducting the sensitivity analysis across multiple time points. The surrogate models are shown to perform well, and produced ≈ 480 fold increase in computational efficiency. We conclude that a surrogate-based approach is effective, and resulting biofilm structure is determined primarily by a balance between bacteria growth, viscoelastic parameters and applied shear stress.

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<![CDATA[Engineering an Endothelialized Vascular Graft: A Rational Approach to Study Design in a Non-Human Primate Model]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da49ab0ee8fa60b8c674

After many years of research, small diameter, synthetic vascular grafts still lack the necessary biologic integration to perform ideally in clinical settings. Endothelialization of vascular grafts has the potential to improve synthetic graft function, and endothelial outgrowth cells (EOCs) are a promising autologous cell source. Yet no work has established the link between endothelial cell functions and outcomes of implanted endothelialized grafts. This work utilized steady flow, oscillatory flow, and tumor necrosis factor stimulation to alter EOC phenotype and enable the formulation of a model to predict endothelialized graft performance. To accomplish this, EOC in vitro expression of coagulation and inflammatory markers was quantified. In parallel, in non-human primate (baboon) models, the platelet and fibrinogen accumulation on endothelialized grafts were quantified in an ex vivo shunt, or the tissue ingrowth on implanted grafts were characterized after 1mth. Oscillatory flow stimulation of EOCs increased in vitro coagulation markers and ex vivo platelet accumulation. Steady flow preconditioning did not affect platelet accumulation or intimal hyperplasia relative to static samples. To determine whether in vitro markers predict implant performance, a linear regression model of the in vitro data was fit to platelet accumulation data—correlating the markers with the thromboprotective performance of the EOCs. The model was tested against implant intimal hyperplasia data and found to correlate strongly with the parallel in vitro analyses. This research defines the effects of flow preconditioning on EOC regulation of coagulation in clinical vascular grafts through parallel in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo analyses, and contributes to the translatability of in vitro tests to in vivo clinical graft performance.

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<![CDATA[Functional Properties of Glutinous Rice Flour by Dry-Heat Treatment]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dadaab0ee8fa60bb98d4

Glutinous rice flour (GRF) and glutinous rice starch (GRS) were modified by dry-heat treatment and their rheological, thermal properties and freeze-thaw stability were evaluated. Compared with the native GRF and GRS, the water-holding ability of modified GRF and GRS were enhanced. Both the onset and peak temperatures of the modified samples increased while the endothermic enthalpy change decreased significantly (p < 0.05). Meanwhile, dry heating remarkably increased the apparent viscosities of both GRF and GRS. Importantly, compared with GRS samples, the storage modulus (G') and loss modulus (G") values of modified GRF increased more greatly and the tanδ values decreased more remarkably, indicating that the dry-heat treatment showed more impact on the GRF and a higher viscoelasticity compared with GRS. Our results suggest the dry-heat treatment of GRF is a more effective method than that of GRS, which omits the complex and tedious process for purifying GRS, and thereby has more practical applications in the food industry.

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<![CDATA[Fluid Dynamics Appearing during Simulated Microgravity Using Random Positioning Machines]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db4fab0ee8fa60bdb88d

Random Positioning Machines (RPMs) are widely used as tools to simulate microgravity on ground. They consist of two gimbal mounted frames, which constantly rotate biological samples around two perpendicular axes and thus distribute the Earth’s gravity vector in all directions over time. In recent years, the RPM is increasingly becoming appreciated as a laboratory instrument also in non-space-related research. For instance, it can be applied for the formation of scaffold-free spheroid cell clusters. The kinematic rotation of the RPM, however, does not only distribute the gravity vector in such a way that it averages to zero, but it also introduces local forces to the cell culture. These forces can be described by rigid body analysis. Although RPMs are commonly used in laboratories, the fluid motion in the cell culture flasks on the RPM and the possible effects of such on cells have not been examined until today; thus, such aspects have been widely neglected. In this study, we used a numerical approach to describe the fluid dynamic characteristic occurring inside a cell culture flask turning on an operating RPM. The simulations showed that the fluid motion within the cell culture flask never reached a steady state or neared a steady state condition. The fluid velocity depends on the rotational velocity of the RPM and is in the order of a few centimeters per second. The highest shear stresses are found along the flask walls; depending of the rotational velocity, they can reach up to a few 100 mPa. The shear stresses in the “bulk volume,” however, are always smaller, and their magnitude is in the order of 10 mPa. In conclusion, RPMs are highly appreciated as reliable tools in microgravity research. They have even started to become useful instruments in new research fields of mechanobiology. Depending on the experiment, the fluid dynamic on the RPM cannot be neglected and needs to be taken into consideration. The results presented in this study elucidate the fluid motion and provide insight into the convection and shear stresses that occur inside a cell culture flask during RPM experiments.

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<![CDATA[Impact of Cattaneo-Christov Heat Flux in Jeffrey Fluid Flow with Homogeneous-Heterogeneous Reactions]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da77ab0ee8fa60b97240

Two-dimensional stretched flow of Jeffrey fluid in view of Cattaneo-Christov heat flux is addressed. Effects of homogeneous-heterogeneous reactions are also considered. Suitable transformations are used to form ordinary differential equations. Convergent series solutions are computed. Impact of significant parameters on the velocity, temperature, concentration and skin friction coefficient is addressed. Analysis of thermal relaxation is made. The obtained results show that ratio of relaxation to retardation times and Deborah number have inverse relation for velocity profile. Temperature distribution has decreasing behavior for Prandtl number and thermal relaxation time. Also concentration decreases for larger values of strength of homogeneous reaction parameter while it increases for strength of heterogeneous reaction parameter.

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