ResearchPad - short-note https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[<i>Toxocara</i> infection: seroprevalence and associated risk factors among primary school children in central China]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N80d7f7ff-4f10-4a79-82a9-1a52bb27166e Toxocariasis is a zoonotic disease that poses a threat to public health worldwide. In the present study, we investigated the seroprevalence of Toxocara infection among primary school children in Henan province, central China, which was previously unknown. Sera from 2451 primary school children were collected from September 2015 to October 2018, and evaluated for anti-Toxocara antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The overall seroprevalence of Toxocara infection was 5.14% (126/2451). The main risk factors related to Toxocara infection identified in this study were the age of children, residence area of children, contact with cats or dogs, and exposure to soil. Hand washing before eating was considered to be a protective factor. These findings demonstrate that Toxocara infection is relatively common among primary school children in Henan province.

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<![CDATA[Oral migration of Dirofilaria repens after creeping dermatitis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N5e2b7901-a777-4f84-8870-0059c26ca72a

We report an autochthonous case of oral dirofilariasis in a 46-year-old female patient exposed in South-Eastern France. The patient first presented eyelid creeping dermatitis of one-week duration, then a sub-mucosal nodule appeared in the cheek. The entire nodule was removed surgically. Histologically, the nodule appeared as inflammatory tissue in which a worm was seen. The molecular analysis, based on cox1 and 12S sequences, identified Dirofilaria repens. Ivermectin treatment was given prior to diagnosis, while taking into consideration the most common causes of creeping dermatitis, but treatment was ineffective. The oral form of dirofilariasis is uncommon and could lead to diagnostic wandering.

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<![CDATA[Toxoplasma gondii in women of childbearing age and during pregnancy: seroprevalence study in Central and Southern Italy from 2013 to 2017]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N6cb442f3-6900-402f-901d-1278fe08f3fe

Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide health problem. Infection in pregnant women can result in severe fetal morbidity or in subclinical neonatal infection; most subclinical cases develop ocular and neurological sequelae. The purpose of this serological study was to assess the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in two populations of women of childbearing age in Siena (Tuscany, Central Italy) and Bari (Apulia, Southern Italy) between 2013 and 2017 and in a group of pregnant women in Bari in 2016–2017. Serum samples were tested for the presence of specific anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgG antibodies by a commercially available ELISA test. The percentage of seropositive subjects in Bari was significantly higher than in Siena (22.4% vs. 12.4%) and an age-related trend was observed. A low prevalence of T. gondii infection (13.8%) was observed among the pregnant women tested. In addition to showing a significant difference between Central and Southern Italy, this study provides updated data on T. gondii seroprevalence in women during childbearing age and pregnancy. The results confirm a trend toward a decrease, especially in younger people and pregnant women.

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<![CDATA[Bolaamphiphiles Derived from Alkenyl L-Rhamnosides and Alkenyl D-Xylosides: Importance of the Hydrophilic Head]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c1d8554d5eed0c484768806

The two step synthesis of a new bolaamphiphile derived from alkenyl L-rhamnosides was described. The general synthetic strategy of bolaamphiphiles derived from L-rhamnose was based on a previous work describing the synthesis of bolaamphiphiles derived from D-xylose. The conformational properties of this new compound were investigated by FTIR spectroscopy in an aqueous film in order to obtain a reference for further studies about the membrane-interacting properties. Moreover, the surface activity of this new bolaamphiphile was analyzed by Langmuir balance technology and was compared with that of the analogous bolaamphiphile derived from alkenyl D-xylosides. The findings indicate that the rhamnoside-based bolaform has an increased surface activity and a better ability to form aggregates than xyloside-based one.

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<![CDATA[Isolation and Characterization of 13 New Polymorphic Microsatellite Markers in the Phaseolus vulgaris L. (Common Bean) Genome]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5ac6836d463d7e38389f58f4

In this study, 13 polymorphic microsatellite markers were isolated from the Phaseolus vulgaris L. (common bean) by using the Fast Isolation by AFLP of Sequence COntaining Repeats (FIASCO) protocol. These markers revealed two to seven alleles, with an average of 3.64 alleles per locus. The polymorphic information content (PIC) values ranged from 0.055 to 0.721 over 13 loci, with a mean value of 0.492, and 7 loci having PIC greater than 0.5. The expected heterozygosity (HE) and observed heterozygosity (HO) levels ranged from 0.057 to 0.814 and from 0.026 to 0.531, respectively. Cross-species amplification of the 13 prime pairs was performed in its related specie of Vigna unguiculata L. Seven out of all these markers showed cross-species transferability. These markers will be useful for future genetic diversity and population genetics studies for this agricultural specie and its related species.

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<![CDATA[A GIS-Aided Assessment of the Health Hazards of Cadmium in Farm Soils in Central Taiwan]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5abd4f83463d7e6a0b4c1d36

A geostatistical method was developed to examine the correlation, or lack of it, between the levels of cadmium (Cd) detected in farm soils and those detected in the human specimens collected from residents around the contaminated areas in Changhua County where cadmium contamination of staple rice has been documented. We used the Taiwan EPA environment data in 2002 and human data which were generated by the National Health Research Institutes during 2003–2005. Kriging interpolation methods were used to determine soil Cd concentrations. A Zonal statistical function was performed to assess the individual exposure. Soil Cd levels and tissue Cd levels in residents were analyzed for contamination hotspots and other areas to determine correlation between the two variables. Three Cd contamination hotspots were identified, in which no correlation was found between soil Cd levels and tissue Cd levels in residents. Our results demonstrate how GIS spatial modeling technique can be used to estimate distribution of pollutants in an area using a limited number of data points. Results indicated no association between the soil contamination and the exposure of residents to Cd, suggesting that both the soils and the residents are receptors of Cd as a pollutant from as yet unidentified sources.

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<![CDATA[Probing a Coral Genome for Components of the Photoprotective Scytonemin Biosynthetic Pathway and the 2-Aminoethylphosphonate Pathway ]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5acb8ee1463d7e0f0f1d2635

Genome sequences of the reef-building coral, Acropora digitifera, have been decoded. Acropora inhabits an environment with intense ultraviolet exposure and hosts the photosynthetic endosymbiont, Symbiodinium. Acropora homologs of all four genes necessary for biosynthesis of the photoprotective cyanobacterial compound, shinorine, are present. Among metazoans, these genes are found only in anthozoans. To gain further evolutionary insights into biosynthesis of photoprotective compounds and associated coral proteins, we surveyed the Acropora genome for 18 clustered genes involved in cyanobacterial synthesis of the anti-UV compound, scytonemin, even though it had not previously been detected in corals. We identified candidates for only 6 of the 18 genes, including tyrP, scyA, and scyB. Therefore, it does not appear that Acropora digitifera can synthesize scytonemin independently. On the other hand, molecular phylogenetic analysis showed that one tyrosinase gene is an ortholog of vertebrate tyrosinase genes and that the coral homologs, scyA and scyB, are similar to bacterial metabolic genes, phosphonopyruvate (ppyr) decarboxylase and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), respectively. Further genomic searches for ppyr gene-related biosynthetic components indicate that the coral possesses a metabolic pathway similar to the bacterial 2-aminoethylphosphonate (AEP) biosynthetic pathway. The results suggest that de novo synthesis of carbon-phosphorus compounds is performed in corals.

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<![CDATA[First case of amebic liver abscess 22 years after the first occurrence]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5bc1ca8c40307c6a0be2fe3b

A 72-year-old man consulted in November 2012 for abdominal pain in the right upper quadrant. The patient had a history of suspected hepatic amebiasis treated in Senegal in 1985 and has not traveled to endemic areas since 1990. Abdominal CT scan revealed a liver abscess. At first, no parasitological tests were performed and the patient was treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics. Only after failure of this therapy, serology and PCR performed after liver abscess puncture established the diagnosis of hepatic amebiasis. The patient was treated with metronidazole and tiliquinol-tilbroquinol. Amebic liver abscess is the most frequent extra-intestinal manifestation. Hepatic amebiasis 22 years after the last visit to an endemic area is exceptional and raises questions on the mechanisms of latency and recurrence of these intestinal protozoan parasites.

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<![CDATA[Isolation and Characterization of 11 New Microsatellite Loci in Erigeron breviscapus (Asteraceae), an Important Chinese Traditional Herb]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5abd9a09463d7e72a51e9e22

Erigeron breviscapus (Vant.) Hand.-Mazz. (Asteraceae) is a species endemic to southwestern China and an important traditional Chinese herb for cardiovascular and cerebral vessel diseases. Applying a modified biotin-streptavidin capture method, 11 microsatellite loci were discovered. Polymorphism of each locus was assessed in 24 individuals collected from five wild populations. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 7, with an average of 4.273. The observed (HO) and expected (HE) heterozygosities varied from 0.250 to 0.958 and from 0.337 to 0.786, respectively. Over half of these loci were successfully amplified in two congeneric species. The developed microsatellite markers will be useful for future population genetics and conservation studies, as well as accurate identification of different varieties.

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