ResearchPad - siv https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Maximizing viral detection with SIV droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) assays]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14590 Highly sensitive detection of HIV-1 nucleic acids is of critical importance for evaluating treatment interventions superimposed on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in HIV-1 infected individuals. SIV infection of rhesus macaques models many key aspects of human HIV-1 infection and plays a key role in evaluation of approaches for prevention, treatment and attempted eradication of HIV infection. Here we describe two droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) assays, a ddPCR DNA assay and an RT-ddPCR RNA assay for detecting simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) on the RainDance platform. We demonstrate that RainDance ddPCR can tolerate significantly higher cell DNA input without inhibition on a per reaction basis (compared to both qPCR and Bio-Rad ddPCR), thus allowing a large quantity of sample to be analyzed in each reaction. In addition, the combination of a high processivity RT enzyme and RainDance ddPCR could overcome inhibition in severely inhibited (99.99% inhibition in qPCR quantification) viral RNA samples. These assays offer valuable tools for assessing low level viral production/replication and strategies for targeting residual virus in the setting of cART suppression of viral replication. The methodologies presented here can be adapted for a broad range of applications where highly sensitive nucleic acid detection is required.

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<![CDATA[Health profile of adult special immigrant visa holders arriving from Iraq and Afghanistan to the United States, 2009–2017: A cross-sectional analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13850 Between 2,000 and 19,000 Special Immigrant Visa holders (SIVH) from Iraq and Afghanistan have resettled in the United States annually since 2008.Per the Immigration and Nationality Act, SIVH, like other immigrants and refugees, must be examined by a physician before arriving in the US. Results of these overseas examinations are transmitted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to US state and local health departments via CDC’s Electronic Disease Notification system (EDN).Increasing provider knowledge about the health conditions most commonly encountered in SIVH as well as any differences in health conditions between SIVH from Iraq and Afghanistan may facilitate diagnostic screening, examination, and referrals to additional healthcare providers in the US.Information about the health of SIV populations is limited and would be beneficial for US clinicians who see SIVH in their clinics.What did the researchers do and find?In this cross-sectional analysis, we analyzed overseas medical exam data in CDC’s EDN for 19,167 SIV Iraqi and Afghan adults who resettled to the United States from April 2009 through December 2017.Among all SIVH, 56.5% were overweight or had obesity, 2.4% reported hypertension, 1.1% reported diabetes, and 19.4% reported current or previous tobacco use.In general, Iraqi SIVH were more likely to have obesity, diabetes, and be current or former smokers than Afghan SIVH.What do these findings mean?State public health agencies and clinicians screening SIVH should consider screening for diabetes among those with risk factors and prompt referral and management of obesity, hypertension, and smoking.Behavioral risk factor counseling and referral to culturally appropriate chronic disease prevention programs can be initiated at screening visits and subsequently reemphasized with primary care providers and other healthcare professionals.Limitations include the inability to obtain all SIVH records, self-reported medical history of NCDs, and underdiagnosis of NCDs such as hypertension and diabetes because formal laboratory testing for NCDs is not used during overseas medical exams. ]]> <![CDATA[Gammaherpesvirus infection and malignant disease in rhesus macaques experimentally infected with SIV or SHIV]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b5ff792463d7e28ade495c5

Human gammaherpesviruses are associated with malignancies in HIV infected individuals; in macaques used in non-human primate models of HIV infection, gammaherpesvirus infections also occur. Limited data on prevalence and tumorigenicity of macaque gammaherpesviruses, mostly cross-sectional analyses of small series, are available. We comprehensively examine all three-rhesus macaque gammaherpesviruses -Rhesus rhadinovirus (RRV), Rhesus Lymphocryptovirus (RLCV) and Retroperitoneal Fibromatosis Herpesvirus (RFHV) in macaques experimentally infected with Simian Immunodeficiency Virus or Simian Human Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV/SHIV) in studies spanning 15 years at the AIDS and Cancer Virus Program of the Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research. We evaluated 18 animals with malignancies (16 lymphomas, one fibrosarcoma and one carcinoma) and 32 controls. We developed real time quantitative PCR assays for each gammaherpesvirus DNA viral load (VL) in malignant and non-tumor tissues; we also characterized the tumors using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. Furthermore, we retrospectively quantified gammaherpesvirus DNA VL and SIV/SHIV RNA VL in longitudinally-collected PBMCs and plasma, respectively. One or more gammaherpesviruses were detected in 17 tumors; generally, one was predominant, and the relevant DNA VL in the tumor was very high compared to surrounding tissues. RLCV was predominant in tumors resembling diffuse large B cell lymphomas; in a Burkitt-like lymphoma, RRV was predominant; and in the fibrosarcoma, RFHV was predominant. Median RRV and RLCV PBMC DNA VL were significantly higher in cases than controls; SIV/SHIV VL and RLCV VL were independently associated with cancer. Local regressions showed that longitudinal VL patterns in cases and controls, from SIV infection to necropsy, differed for each gammaherpesvirus: while RFHV VL increased only slightly in all animals, RLCV and RRV VL increased significantly and continued to increase steeply in cases; in controls, VL flattened. In conclusion, the data suggest that gammaherpesviruses may play a significant role in tumorogenesis in macaques infected with immunodeficiency viruses.

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<![CDATA[Tracking KLRC2 (NKG2C)+ memory-like NK cells in SIV+ and rhCMV+ rhesus macaques]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b28b394463d7e126303d2a9

Natural killer (NK) cells classically typify the nonspecific effector arm of the innate immune system, but have recently been shown to possess memory-like properties against multiple viral infections, most notably CMV. Expression of the activating receptor NKG2C is elevated on human NK cells in response to infection with CMV as well as HIV, and may delineate cells with memory and memory-like functions. A better understanding of how NKG2C+ NK cells specifically respond to these pathogens could be significantly advanced using nonhuman primate (NHP) models but, to date, it has not been possible to distinguish NKG2C from its inhibitory counterpart, NKG2A, in NHP because of unfaithful antibody cross-reactivity. Using novel RNA-based flow cytometry, we identify for the first time true memory NKG2C+ NK cells in NHP by gene expression (KLRC2), and show that these cells have elevated frequencies and diversify their functional repertoire specifically in response to rhCMV and SIV infections.

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<![CDATA[An information-based network approach for protein classification]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db50ab0ee8fa60bdc1bf

Protein classification is one of the critical problems in bioinformatics. Early studies used geometric distances and polygenetic-tree to classify proteins. These methods use binary trees to present protein classification. In this paper, we propose a new protein classification method, whereby theories of information and networks are used to classify the multivariate relationships of proteins. In this study, protein universe is modeled as an undirected network, where proteins are classified according to their connections. Our method is unsupervised, multivariate, and alignment-free. It can be applied to the classification of both protein sequences and structures. Nine examples are used to demonstrate the efficiency of our new method.

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<![CDATA[Why Are Nigeria-Cameroon Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes ellioti) Free of SIVcpz Infection?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da01ab0ee8fa60b74207

Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) naturally infects two subspecies of chimpanzee: Pan troglodytes troglodytes from Central Africa (SIVcpzPtt) and P. t. schweinfurtii from East Africa (SIVcpzPts), but is absent in P. t. verus from West Africa and appears to be absent in P. t. ellioti inhabiting Nigeria and western Cameroon. One explanation for this pattern is that P. t. troglodytes and P. t schweinfurthii may have acquired SIVcpz after their divergence from P. t. verus and P. t. ellioti. However, all of the subspecies, except P. t. verus, still occasionally exchange migrants making the absence of SIVcpz in P. t. ellioti puzzling. Sampling of P. t. ellioti has been minimal to date, particularly along the banks of the Sanaga River, where its range abuts that of P. t. troglodytes. This study had three objectives. First, we extended the sampling of SIVcpz across the range of chimpanzees north of the Sanaga River to address whether under-sampling might account for the absence of evidence for SIVcpz infection in P. t. ellioti. Second, we investigated how environmental variation is associated with the spread and prevalence of SIVcpz in the two chimpanzee subspecies inhabiting Cameroon since environmental variation has been shown to contribute to their divergence from one another. Finally, we compared the prevalence and distribution of SIVcpz with that of Simian Foamy Virus (SFV) to examine the role of ecology and behavior in shaping the distribution of diseases in wild host populations. The dataset includes previously published results on SIVcpz infection and SFVcpz as well as newly collected data, and represents over 1000 chimpanzee fecal samples from 41 locations across Cameroon. Results revealed that none of the 181 P. t. ellioti fecal samples collected across the range of P. t. ellioti tested positive for SIVcpz. In addition, species distribution models suggest that environmental variation contributes to differences in the distribution and prevalence of SIVcpz and SFVcpz. The ecological niches of these two viruses are largely non-overlapping, although stronger statistical support for this conclusion will require more sampling. Overall this study demonstrates that SIVcpz infection is absent or very rare in P. t. ellioti, despite multiple opportunities for transmission. The reasons for its absence remain unclear, but might be explained by one or more factors, including environmental variation, viral competition, and/or local adaptation—all of which should be explored in greater detail through continued surveillance of this region.

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<![CDATA[In Situ Staining and Laser Capture Microdissection of Lymph Node Residing SIV Gag-Specific CD8+ T cells—A Tool to Interrogate a Functional Immune Response Ex Vivo]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db48ab0ee8fa60bd9349

While a plethora of data describes the essential role of systemic CD8+ T cells in the control of SIV replication little is known about the local in situ CD8+ T cell immune responses against SIV at the intact tissue level, due to technical limitations. In situ staining, using GagCM9 Qdot 655 multimers, were here combined with laser capture microdissection to detect and collect SIV Gag CM9 specific CD8+ T cells in lymph node tissue from SIV infected rhesus macaques. CD8+ T cells from SIV infected and uninfected rhesus macaques were also collected and compared to the SIV GagCM9 specific CD8+ T cells. Illumina bead array and transcriptional analyses were used to assess the transcriptional profiles and the three different CD8+ T cell populations displayed unique transcriptional patterns. This pilot study demonstrates that rapid and specific immunostaining combined with laser capture microdissection in concert with transcriptional profiling may be used to elucidate phenotypic differences between CD8+ T cells in SIV infection. Such technologies may be useful to determine differences in functional activities of HIV/SIV specific T cells.

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<![CDATA[Nonpathogenic SIV and Pathogenic HIV Infections Associate with Disparate Innate Cytokine Signatures in Response to Mycobacterium bovis BCG]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da32ab0ee8fa60b84d56

Infections with mycobacteria, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) and Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) BCG, are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality for HIV-infected persons. In contrast to HIV, nonpathogenic SIV infections of sooty mangabeys are characterized by a lack of clinical disease including an absence of opportunistic infections. The goal of this study was to identify innate immune responses to M. bovis BCG maintained during nonpathogenic lentiviral infections through a comparison of functional responses during pathogenic HIV or nonpathogenic SIV infections. Monocytes were evaluated for their ability to express key anti-mycobacterial cytokines TNF-α and IL-12 following a six-hour ex vivo BCG exposure. While HIV-infection was associated with a decreased percentage of IL-12-producing monocytes, nonpathogenic SIV-infection was associated with an increased percentage of monocytes producing both cytokines. Gene expression analysis of PBMC following ex vivo BCG exposure identified differential expression of NK cell-related genes and several cytokines, including IFN-γ and IL-23, between HIV-infected and control subjects. In contrast, SIV-infected and uninfected-control mangabeys exhibited no significant differences in gene expression after BCG exposure. Finally, differential gene expression patterns were identified between species, with mangabeys exhibiting lower IL-6 and higher IL-17 in response to BCG when compared to humans. Overall, this comparison of immune responses to M. bovis BCG identified unique immune signatures (involving cytokines IL-12, TNF-α, IL-23, IL-17, and IL-6) that are altered during HIV, but maintained or increased during nonpathogenic SIV infections. These unique cytokine and transcriptome signatures provide insight into the differential immune responses to Mycobacteria during pathogenic HIV-infection that may be associated with an increased incidence of mycobacterial co-infections.

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<![CDATA[Proteolysis of mature HIV-1 p6 Gag protein by the insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE) regulates virus replication in an Env-dependent manner]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db53ab0ee8fa60bdca73

There is a significantly higher risk for type II diabetes in HIV-1 carriers, albeit the molecular mechanism for this HIV-related pathology remains enigmatic. The 52 amino acid HIV-1 p6 Gag protein is synthesized as the C-terminal part of the Gag polyprotein Pr55. In this context, p6 promotes virus release by its two late (L-) domains, and facilitates the incorporation of the viral accessory protein Vpr. However, the function of p6 in its mature form, after proteolytic release from Gag, has not been investigated yet. We found that the mature p6 represents the first known viral substrate of the ubiquitously expressed cytosolic metalloendopeptidase insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE). IDE is sufficient and required for degradation of p6, and p6 is approximately 100-fold more efficiently degraded by IDE than its eponymous substrate insulin. This observation appears to be specific for HIV-1, as p6 proteins from HIV-2 and simian immunodeficiency virus, as well as the 51 amino acid p9 from equine infectious anaemia virus were insensitive to IDE degradation. The amount of virus-associated p6, as well as the efficiency of release and maturation of progeny viruses does not depend on the presence of IDE in the host cells, as it was shown by CRISPR/Cas9 edited IDE KO cells. However, HIV-1 mutants harboring IDE-insensitive p6 variants exhibit reduced virus replication capacity, a phenomenon that seems to depend on the presence of an X4-tropic Env. Furthermore, competing for IDE by exogenous insulin or inhibiting IDE by the highly specific inhibitor 6bK, also reduced virus replication. This effect could be specifically attributed to IDE since replication of HIV-1 variants coding for an IDE-insensitive p6 were inert towards IDE-inhibition. Our cumulative data support a model in which removal of p6 during viral entry is important for virus replication, at least in the case of X4 tropic HIV-1.

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<![CDATA[Follicular Regulatory CD8 T Cells Impair the Germinal Center Response in SIV and Ex Vivo HIV Infection]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989daabab0ee8fa60ba93fb

During chronic HIV infection, viral replication is concentrated in secondary lymphoid follicles. Cytotoxic CD8 T cells control HIV replication in extrafollicular regions, but not in the follicle. Here, we show CXCR5hiCD44hiCD8 T cells are a regulatory subset differing from conventional CD8 T cells, and constitute the majority of CD8 T cells in the follicle. This subset, CD8 follicular regulatory T cells (CD8 TFR), expand in chronic SIV infection, exhibit enhanced expression of Tim-3 and IL-10, and express less perforin compared to conventional CD8 T cells. CD8 TFR modestly limit HIV replication in follicular helper T cells (TFH), impair TFH IL-21 production via Tim-3, and inhibit IgG production by B cells during ex vivo HIV infection. CD8 TFR induce TFH apoptosis through HLA-E, but induce less apoptosis than conventional CD8 T cells. These data demonstrate that a unique regulatory CD8 population exists in follicles that impairs GC function in HIV infection.

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<![CDATA[Predicted Enhanced Human Propensity of Current Avian-Like H1N1 Swine Influenza Virus from China]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989daaaab0ee8fa60ba8d30

Influenza A virus (IAV) subtypes against which little or no pre-existing immunity exists in humans represent a serious threat to global public health. Monitoring of IAV in animal hosts is essential for early and rapid detection of potential pandemic IAV strains to prevent their spread. Recently, the increased pandemic potential of the avian-like swine H1N1 IAV A/swine/Guangdong/104/2013 has been suggested. The virus is infectious in humans and the general population seems to lack neutralizing antibodies against this virus. Here we present an in silico analysis that shows a strong human propensity of this swine virus further confirming its pandemic potential. We suggest mutations which would further enhance its human propensity. We also propose conserved antigenic determinants which could serve as a component of a prepandemic vaccine. The bioinformatics tool, which can be used to further monitor the evolution of swine influenza viruses towards a pandemic virus, are described here and are made publically available (http://www.vin.bg.ac.rs/180/tools/iav_mon.php; http://www.biomedprotection.com/iav_mon.php).

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<![CDATA[PolyICLC Exerts Pro- and Anti-HIV Effects on the DC-T Cell Milieu In Vitro and In Vivo]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db22ab0ee8fa60bcf794

Myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs) contribute to both HIV pathogenesis and elicitation of antiviral immunity. Understanding how mDC responses to stimuli shape HIV infection outcomes will inform HIV prevention and treatment strategies. The long double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) viral mimic, polyinosinic polycytidylic acid (polyIC, PIC) potently stimulates DCs to focus Th1 responses, triggers direct antiviral activity in vitro, and boosts anti-HIV responses in vivo. Stabilized polyICLC (PICLC) is being developed for vaccine adjuvant applications in humans, making it critical to understand how mDC sensing of PICLC influences HIV infection. Using the monocyte-derived DC (moDC) model, we sought to describe how PICLC (vs. other dsRNAs) impacts HIV infection within DCs and DC-T cell mixtures. We extended this work to in vivo macaque rectal transmission studies by administering PICLC with or before rectal SIVmac239 (SIVwt) or SIVmac239ΔNef (SIVΔNef) challenge. Like PIC, PICLC activated DCs and T cells, increased expression of α4β7 and CD169, and induced type I IFN responses in vitro. The type of dsRNA and timing of dsRNA exposure differentially impacted in vitro DC-driven HIV infection. Rectal PICLC treatment similarly induced DC and T cell activation and pro- and anti-HIV factors locally and systemically. Importantly, this did not enhance SIV transmission in vivo. Instead, SIV acquisition was marginally reduced after a single high dose challenge. Interestingly, in the PICLC-treated, SIVΔNef-infected animals, SIVΔNef viremia was higher, in line with the importance of DC and T cell activation in SIVΔNef replication. In the right combination anti-HIV strategy, PICLC has the potential to limit HIV infection and boost HIV immunity.

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<![CDATA[Targeted Isolation of Antibodies Directed against Major Sites of SIV Env Vulnerability]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da8eab0ee8fa60b9f394

The simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) challenge model of lentiviral infection is often used as a model to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) for studying vaccine mediated and immune correlates of protection. However, knowledge of the structure of the SIV envelope (Env) glycoprotein is limited, as is knowledge of binding specificity, function and potential efficacy of SIV antibody responses. In this study we describe the use of a competitive probe binding sort strategy as well as scaffolded probes for targeted isolation of SIV Env-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). We isolated nearly 70 SIV-specific mAbs directed against major sites of SIV Env vulnerability analogous to broadly neutralizing antibody (bnAb) targets of HIV-1, namely, the CD4 binding site (CD4bs), CD4-induced (CD4i)-site, peptide epitopes in variable loops 1, 2 and 3 (V1, V2, V3) and potentially glycan targets of SIV Env. The range of SIV mAbs isolated includes those exhibiting varying degrees of neutralization breadth and potency as well as others that demonstrated binding but not neutralization. Several SIV mAbs displayed broad and potent neutralization of a diverse panel of 20 SIV viral isolates with some also neutralizing HIV-27312A. This extensive panel of SIV mAbs will facilitate more effective use of the SIV non-human primate (NHP) model for understanding the variables in development of a HIV vaccine or immunotherapy.

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<![CDATA[Collapse of Cytolytic Potential in SIV-Specific CD8+ T Cells Following Acute SIV Infection in Rhesus Macaques]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da31ab0ee8fa60b84a2e

Poor maintenance of cytotoxic factor expression among HIV-specific CD8+ T cells, in part caused by dysregulated expression of the transcription factor T-bet, is associated with HIV disease progression. However, the precise evolution and context in which CD8+ T cell cytotoxic functions become dysregulated in HIV infection remain unclear. Using the rhesus macaque (RM) SIV infection model, we evaluated the kinetics of SIV-specific CD8+ T cell cytolytic factor expression in peripheral blood, lymph node, spleen, and gut mucosa from early acute infection through chronic infection. We identified rapid acquisition of perforin and granzyme B expression in SIV-specific CD8+ T cells in blood, secondary lymphoid tissues and gut mucosa that collapsed rapidly during the transition to chronic infection. The evolution of this expression profile was linked to low expression of T-bet and occurred independent of epitope specificity, viral escape patterns and tissue origin. Importantly, during acute infection SIV-specific CD8+ T cells that maintained T-bet expression retained the ability to express granzyme B after stimulation, but this relationship was lost in chronic infection. Together, these data demonstrate the loss of cytolytic machinery in SIV-specific CD8+ T cells in blood and at tissue sites of viral reservoir and active replication during the transition from acute to chronic infection. This phenomenon occurs despite persistent high levels of viremia suggesting that an inability to maintain properly regulated cytotoxic T cell responses in all tissue sites enables HIV/SIV to avoid immune clearance, establish persistent viral reservoirs in lymphoid tissues and gut mucosa, and lead ultimately to immunopathogenesis and death.

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<![CDATA[Nonhuman Primate IFITM Proteins Are Potent Inhibitors of HIV and SIV]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db38ab0ee8fa60bd3b25

Interferon-induced transmembrane (IFITM) proteins are potent antiviral factors shown to restrict the infection of many enveloped viruses, including HIV. Here we report cloning and characterization of a panel of nonhuman primate IFITMs. We show that, similar to human IFITM, nonhuman primate IFITM proteins inhibit HIV and other primate lentiviruses. While some nonhuman primate IFITM proteins are more potent than human counterparts to inhibit HIV-1, they are generally not effective against HIV-2 similar to that of human IFITMs. Notably, depending on SIV strains and also IFITM species tested, nonhuman primate IFITM proteins exhibit distinct activities against SIVs; no correlation was found to support the notion that IFITM proteins are most active in non-natural primate hosts. Consistent with our recent findings for human IFITMs, nonhuman primate IFITM proteins interact with HIV-1 Env and strongly act in viral producer cells to impair viral infectivity and block cell-to-cell transmission. Accordingly, knockdown of primate IFITM3 increases HIV-1 replication in nohuman primate cells. Interestingly, analysis of DNA sequences of human and nonhuman primate IFITMs suggest that IFITM proteins have been undergoing purifying selection, rather than positive selection typical for cellular restriction factors. Overall, our study reveals some new and unexpected features of IFITMs in restricting primate lentiviruses, which enhances our understanding of virus-host interaction and AIDS pathogenesis.

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<![CDATA[Microbial Translocation and Inflammation Occur in Hyperacute Immunodeficiency Virus Infection and Compromise Host Control of Virus Replication]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da81ab0ee8fa60b9aaf5

Within the first three weeks of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, virus replication peaks in peripheral blood. Despite the critical, causal role of virus replication in determining transmissibility and kinetics of progression to acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), there is limited understanding of the conditions required to transform the small localized transmitted founder virus population into a large and heterogeneous systemic infection. Here we show that during the hyperacute “pre-peak” phase of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection in macaques, high levels of microbial DNA transiently translocate into peripheral blood. This, heretofore unappreciated, hyperacute-phase microbial translocation was accompanied by sustained reduction of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-specific antibody titer, intestinal permeability, increased abundance of CD4+CCR5+ T cell targets of virus replication, and T cell activation. To test whether increasing gastrointestinal permeability to cause microbial translocation would amplify viremia, we treated two SIV-infected macaque ‘elite controllers’ with a short-course of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)–stimulating a transient increase in microbial translocation and a prolonged recrudescent viremia. Altogether, our data implicates translocating microbes as amplifiers of immunodeficiency virus replication that effectively undermine the host’s capacity to contain infection.

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<![CDATA[Analysis of the In Vivo Turnover of CD4+ T-Cell Subsets in Chronically SIV-Infected Sooty Mangabeys]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db39ab0ee8fa60bd4388

Aberrant turnover of memory CD4+ T-cells is central to Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) progression. Understanding the relationship between the turnover of CD4+ subsets and immunological homeostasis during simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection in natural hosts may provide insight into mechanisms of immune regulation that may serve as models for therapeutic intervention in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-infected persons. Sooty mangabeys (SMs) have naturally evolved with SIV to avoid AIDS progression while maintaining healthy peripheral CD4+ T-cell counts and thus represent a model by which therapeutic interventions for AIDS progression might be elucidated. To assess the relationship between the turnover of CD4+ subsets and immunological homeostasis during SIV infection in non-progressive hosts, we treated 6 SIV-uninfected and 9 SIV-infected SMs with 2’-bromo-5’-deoxyuridine (BrdU) for 14 days and longitudinally assessed CD4+ T-cell subset turnover by polychromatic flow cytometry. We observed that, in SIV-infected SMs, turnover of CD4+ T-cell naïve and central, transitional, and effector memory subsets is comparable to that in uninfected animals. Comparable turnover of CD4+ T-cell subsets irrespective of SIV-infection status likely contributes to the lack of aberrant immune activation and disease progression observed after infection in non-progressive hosts.

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<![CDATA[Evolutionary Paradigms from Ancient and Ongoing Conflicts between the Lentiviral Vif Protein and Mammalian APOBEC3 Enzymes]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9e2ab0ee8fa60b69f38 ]]> <![CDATA[Persistent Low-Level Replication of SIVΔnef Drives Maturation of Antibody and CD8 T Cell Responses to Induce Protective Immunity against Vaginal SIV Infection]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9ebab0ee8fa60b6c8d0

Defining the correlates of immune protection conferred by SIVΔnef, the most effective vaccine against SIV challenge, could enable the design of a protective vaccine against HIV infection. Here we provide a comprehensive assessment of immune responses that protect against SIV infection through detailed analyses of cellular and humoral immune responses in the blood and tissues of rhesus macaques vaccinated with SIVΔnef and then vaginally challenged with wild-type SIV. Despite the presence of robust cellular immune responses, animals at 5 weeks after vaccination displayed only transient viral suppression of challenge virus, whereas all macaques challenged at weeks 20 and 40 post-SIVΔnef vaccination were protected, as defined by either apparent sterile protection or significant suppression of viremia in infected animals. Multiple parameters of CD8 T cell function temporally correlated with maturation of protection, including polyfunctionality, phenotypic differentiation, and redistribution to gut and lymphoid tissues. Importantly, we also demonstrate the induction of a tissue-resident memory population of SIV-specific CD8 T cells in the vaginal mucosa, which was dependent on ongoing low-level antigenic stimulation. Moreover, we show that vaginal and serum antibody titers inversely correlated with post-challenge peak viral load, and we correlate the accumulation and affinity maturation of the antibody response to the duration of the vaccination period as well as to the SIVΔnef antigenic load. In conclusion, maturation of SIVΔnef-induced CD8 T cell and antibody responses, both propelled by viral persistence in the gut mucosa and secondary lymphoid tissues, results in protective immune responses that are able to interrupt viral transmission at mucosal portals of entry as well as potential sites of viral dissemination.

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<![CDATA[Adapting SHIVs In Vivo Selects for Envelope-Mediated Interferon-α Resistance]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dad7ab0ee8fa60bb84b7

Lentiviruses are able to establish persistent infection in their respective hosts despite a potent type-I interferon (IFN-I) response following transmission. A number of IFN-I-induced host factors that are able to inhibit lentiviral replication in vitro have been identified, and these studies suggest a role for IFN-induced factors as barriers to cross-species transmission. However, the ability of these factors to inhibit viral replication in vivo has not been well characterized, nor have the viral determinants that contribute to evasion or antagonism of the host IFN-I response. In this study, we hypothesized that the host IFN-I response serves as a strong selective pressure in the context of SIV/HIV chimeric virus (SHIV) infection of macaques and sought to identify the viral determinants that contribute to IFN-I resistance. We assessed the ability of SHIVs encoding HIV-1 sequences adapted by serial passage in macaques versus SHIVs encoding HIV sequences isolated directly from infected individuals to replicate in the presence of IFNα in macaque lymphocytes. We demonstrate that passage in macaques selects for IFNα resistant viruses that have higher replication kinetics and increased envelope content. SHIVs that encode HIV-1 sequences derived directly from infected humans were sensitive to IFNα –induced inhibition whereas SHIVs obtained after passage in macaques were not. This evolutionary process was directly observed in viruses that were serially passaged during the first few months of infection–a time when the IFNα response is high. Differences in IFNα sensitivity mapped to HIV-1 envelope and were associated with increased envelope levels despite similar mRNA expression, suggesting a post-transcriptional mechanism. These studies highlight critical differences in IFNα sensitivity between HIV-1 sequences in infected people and those used in SHIV models.

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