ResearchPad - skeletal-joints https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Special footwear designed for pregnant women and its effect on kinematic gait parameters during pregnancy and postpartum period]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13821 During pregnancy, an array of changes occurs in women body to enable the growth and development of the future baby and the consequent delivery. These changes are reflected in the range of motion of trunk, pelvis, lower limbs and other body segments, affect the locomotion and some of these changes may persist to the postpartum period. The aim of this study was to describe the changes affecting the gait during pregnancy and to determine the effect of tested footwear on kinematic gait characteristics during pregnancy as previous studies indicate that special orthopaedic insoles and footwear might be useful in prevention of the common musculoskeletal pain and discomfort related to pregnancy. Participants from the control group (n = 18), without any intervention, and the experimental group (n = 23), which was wearing the tested shoes, were measured at their 14, 28 and 37 gestational weeks and 28 weeks postpartum to capture the complete pregnancy-related changes in gait. The gait 3D kinematic data were obtained using Simi Motion System. The differences between the control and experimental group at the first data collection session in most of the analysed variables, as well as relatively high standard deviations of analysed variables indicate large individual differences in the gait pattern. The effect of tested footwear on kinematic gait pattern changes may be explained by its preventive effect against the foot arches falling. In the control group, changes associated previously with the foot arches falling and hindfoot hyperpronation were observed during advanced phases of pregnancy and postpartum, e.g. increase in knee flexion or increase in spinal curvature. For the comprehensive evaluation of the tested footwear on pregnancy gait pattern, future studies combining the kinematic and dynamic plantographic methods are needed.

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<![CDATA[Adaptation to unstable coordination patterns in individual and joint actions]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7665 Previous research on interlimb coordination has shown that some coordination patterns are more stable than others, and function as attractors in the space of possible phase relations between different rhythmic movements. The canonical coordination patterns, i.e. the two most stable phase relations, are in-phase (0 degree) and anti-phase (180 degrees). Yet, musicians are able to perform other coordination patterns in intrapersonal as well as in interpersonal coordination with remarkable precision. This raises the question of how music experts manage to produce these unstable patterns of movement coordination. In the current study, we invited participants with at least five years of training on a musical instrument. We used an adaptation paradigm to address two factors that may facilitate producing unstable coordination patterns. First, we investigated adaptation in different coordination settings, to test the hypothesis that the lower coupling strength between individuals during joint performance makes it easier to achieve stability outside of the canonical patterns than the stronger coupling during individual bimanual performance. Second, we investigated whether adding to the structure of action effects may support achieving unstable coordination patterns, both intra- and inter-individually. The structure of action effects was strengthened by adding a melodic contour to the action effects, a measure that has been shown to improve the acquisition of bimanual coordination skills. Adaptation performance was measured both in terms of asynchrony and variability thereof. As predicted, we found that producing unstable patterns benefitted from the weaker coupling during joint performance. Surprisingly, the structure of action effects did not help with achieving unstable coordination patterns.

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<![CDATA[Reduction of osteoarthritis severity in the temporomandibular joint of rabbits treated with chondroitin sulfate and glucosamine]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N10336f10-2066-4958-9182-9e228dac929f

Osteoarthritis is a degenerative disease that causes substantial changes in joint tissues, such as cartilage degeneration and subchondral bone sclerosis. Chondroitin sulfate and glucosamine are commonly used products for the symptomatic treatment of osteoarthritis. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of these products when used as structure-modifying drugs on the progression of osteoarthritis in the rabbit temporomandibular joint. Thirty-six New Zealand rabbits were divided into 3 groups (n = 12/group): control (no disease); osteoarthritis (disease induction); and treatment (disease induction and administration of chondroitin sulfate and glucosamine). Osteoarthritis was induced by intra-articular injection of monosodium iodoacetate. Animals were killed at 30 and 90 days after initiation of therapy. The treatment was effective in reducing disease severity, with late effects and changes in the concentration of glycosaminoglycans in the articular disc. The results indicate that chondroitin sulfate and glucosamine may have a structure-modifying effect on the tissues of rabbit temporomandibular joints altered by osteoarthritis.

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<![CDATA[Effects of realistic sheep elbow kinematics in inverse dynamic simulation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c8823cbd5eed0c48463901b

Looking for new opportunities in mechanical design, we are interested in studying the kinematic behaviour of biological joints. The real kinematic behaviour of the elbow of quadruped animals (which is submitted to high mechanical stresses in comparison with bipeds) remains unexplored. The sheep elbow joint was chosen because of its similarity with a revolute joint. The main objective of this study is to estimate the effects of elbow simplifications on the prediction of joint reaction forces in inverse dynamic simulations. Rigid motions between humerus and radius-ulna were registered during full flexion-extension gestures on five cadaveric specimens. The experiments were initially conducted with fresh specimens with ligaments and repeated after removal of all soft tissue, including cartilage. A digital image correlation system was used for tracking optical markers fixed on the bones. The geometry of the specimens was digitized using a 3D optical scanner. Then, the instantaneous helical axis of the joint was computed for each acquisition time. Finally, an OpenSim musculoskeletal model of the sheep forelimb was used to quantify effects of elbow joint approximations on the prediction of joint reaction forces. The motion analysis showed that only the medial-lateral translation is sufficiently large regarding the measuring uncertainty of the experiments. This translation assimilates the sheep elbow to a screw joint instead of a revolute joint. In comparison with fresh specimens, the experiments conducted with dry bone specimens (bones without soft tissue) provided different kinematic behaviour. From the results of our inverse dynamic simulations, it was noticed that the inclusion of the medial-lateral translation to the model made up with the mean flexion axis does not affect the predicted joint reaction forces. A geometrical difference between the axis of the best fitting cylinder and the mean flexion axis (derived from the motion analysis) of fresh specimens was highlighted. This geometrical difference impacts slightly the prediction of joint reactions.

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<![CDATA[Comparing the diagnostic performance of radiation dose-equivalent radiography, multi-detector computed tomography and cone beam computed tomography for finger fractures – A phantom study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c8823e0d5eed0c4846391da

Purpose

To compare the diagnostic performance and raters´confidence of radiography, radiography equivalent dose multi-detector computed tomography (RED-MDCT) and radiography equivalent dose cone beam computed tomography (RED-CBCT) for finger fractures.

Methods

Fractures were inflicted artificially and randomly to 10 cadaveric hands of body donors. Radiography as well as RED-MDCT and RED-CBCT imaging were performed at dose settings equivalent to radiography. Images were de-identified and analyzed by three radiologists regarding finger fractures, joint involvement and confidence with their findings. Reference standard was consensus reading by two radiologists of the fracturing protocol and high-dose multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) images. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated and compared with Cochrane´s Q and post hoc analysis. Rater´s confidence was calculated with Friedman Test and post hoc Nemenyi Test.

Results

Rater´s confidence, inter-rater correlation, specificity for fractures and joint involvement were higher in RED-MDCT and RED-CBCT compared to radiography. No differences between the modalities were found regarding sensitivity.

Conclusion

In this phantom study, radiography equivalent dose computed tomography (RED-CT) demonstrates a partly higher diagnostic accuracy than radiography. Implementing RED-CT in the diagnostic work-up of finger fractures could improve diagnostics, support correct classification and adequate treatment. Clinical studies should be performed to confirm these preliminary results.

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<![CDATA[Postural control of a musculoskeletal model against multidirectional support surface translations]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c897754d5eed0c4847d2a0a

The human body is a complex system driven by hundreds of muscles, and its control mechanisms are not sufficiently understood. To understand the mechanisms of human postural control, neural controller models have been proposed by different research groups, including our feed-forward and feedback control model. However, these models have been evaluated under forward and backward perturbations, at most. Because a human body experiences perturbations from many different directions in daily life, neural controller models should be evaluated in response to multidirectional perturbations, including in the forward/backward, lateral, and diagonal directions. The objective of this study was to investigate the validity of an NC model with FF and FB control under multidirectional perturbations. We developed a musculoskeletal model with 70 muscles and 15 degrees of freedom of joints, positioned it in a standing posture by using the neural controller model, and translated its support surface in multiple directions as perturbations. We successfully determined the parameters of the neural controller model required to maintain the stance of the musculoskeletal model for each perturbation direction. The trends in muscle response magnitudes and the magnitude of passive ankle stiffness were consistent with the results of experimental studies. We conclude that the neural controller model can adapt to multidirectional perturbations by generating suitable muscle activations. We anticipate that the neural controller model could be applied to the study of the control mechanisms of patients with torso tilt and diagnosis of the change in control mechanisms from patients’ behaviors.

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<![CDATA[A computational scheme for internal models not requiring precise system parameters]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c803c6ed5eed0c484ad895a

Utilization by humans of a precise and adaptable internal model of the dynamics of the body in generating movements is a well-supported concept. The prevailing opinion is that such an internal model ceaselessly develops through long-term repetition and accumulation in the central nervous system (CNS). However, a long-term learning process would not be absolutely necessary for the formation of internal models. It is possible to estimate the dynamics of the system by using a motor command and its resulting output, instead of constructing a model of the dynamics with precise parameters. In this study, a computational model is proposed that uses a motor command and its corresponding output to estimate the dynamics of the system and it is examined whether the proposed model is capable of describing a series of empirical movements. The proposed model was found to be capable of describing humans’ fast movements which require compensation for system dynamics as well as sensory delays. In addition, the proposed model shows equifinality under inertial perturbations as seen in several experimental studies. This satisfactory reproducibility of the proposed computation raises the possibility that humans make a movement by estimating the system dynamics with a copy of motor command and sensory output on a momentary basis, without the need to identify precise system parameters.

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<![CDATA[Affordable gait analysis using augmented reality markers]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6f1519d5eed0c48467adab

A typical optical based gait analysis laboratory uses expensive stereophotogrammetric motion capture systems. The study aims to propose and validate an affordable gait analysis method using augmented reality (AR) markers with a single action camera. Image processing software calculates the position and orientation of the AR markers. Anatomical landmark calibration is applied on the subject to calibrate each of the anatomical points with respect to their corresponding AR markers. This way, anatomical points are tracked through AR markers using homogeneous coordinate transformations, and the further processing of gait analysis is identical with conventional solutions. The proposed system was validated on nine participants of varying age using a conventional motion capture system on simultaneously measured treadmill gait trials on 2, 3 and 4.5 km/h walking speeds. Coordinates of the virtual anatomical points were compared using the Bland-Altman analysis. Spatial-temporal gait parameters (step length, stride length, walking base, cadence, pelvis range of motion) and angular gait parameters (range of motion of knee, hip and pelvis angles) were compared between measurement systems by RMS error and Bland-Altman analysis. The proposed method shows some differences in the raw coordinates of virtually tracked anatomical landmarks and gait parameters compared to the reference system. RMS errors of spatial parameters were below 23 mm, while the angular range of motion RMS errors varies from 2.55° to 6.73°. Some of these differences (e.g. knee angle range of motion) is comparable to previously reported differences between commercial motion capture systems and gait variability. The proposed method can be a very cheap gait analysis solution, but precision is not guaranteed for every aspect of gait analysis using the currently exemplified implementation of the AR marker tracking approach.

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<![CDATA[Minimal force transmission between human thumb and index finger muscles under passive conditions]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c706784d5eed0c4847c7163

It has been hypothesized that force can be transmitted between adjacent muscles. Intermuscle force transmission violates the assumption that muscles act in mechanical isolation, and implies that predictions from biomechanical models are in error due to mechanical interactions between muscles, but the functional relevance of intermuscle force transmission is unclear. To investigate intermuscle force transmission between human flexor pollicis longus and the index finger part of flexor digitorum profundus, we compared finger flexion force produced by passive thumb flexion after one of three conditioning protocols: passive thumb flexion-extension cycling, thumb flexion maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), and thumb extension stretch. Finger flexion force increased after all three conditions. Compared to passive thumb flexion-extension cycling, change in finger flexion force was less after thumb extension stretch (mean difference 0.028 N, 95% CI 0.005 to 0.051 N), but not after thumb flexion MVC (0.007 N, 95% CI -0.020 to 0.033 N). As muscle conditioning changed finger flexion force produced by passive thumb flexion, the change in force is likely due to intermuscle force transmission. Thus, intermuscle force transmission resulting from passive stretch of an adjacent muscle is probably small enough to be ignored.

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<![CDATA[Dynamic stability and stepping strategies of young healthy adults walking on an oscillating treadmill]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6dc9dad5eed0c48452a314

Understanding how people modify their stepping to maintain gait stability may provide information on fall risk and help to understand strategies used to reduce loss of balance. The purpose of this study was to identify the stepping strategies healthy young individuals select to maintain balance while walking on a destabilizing surface in various directions. A treadmill mounted on top of a 6 degree-of-freedom motion base was used to generate support surface oscillations in different degrees of freedom and amplitudes. Fifteen healthy young adults (21.3 ± 1.4 years) walked at self-selected speeds while continuous sinusoidal oscillations were imposed to the support surface in a one degree of freedom: rotation or translation in the mediolateral (ML) direction and rotation or translation in the anteroposterior (AP) direction, with each condition repeated at three different amplitudes. We compared step width, length, and frequency and the mean and variability of margin of stability (MoS) during each experimental walking condition with a control condition, in which the support surface was stationary. Subjects chose a common strategy of increasing step width (p < 0.001) and decreasing step length (p = 0.008) while increasing mediolateral MoS (p < 0.001), particularly during oscillations that challenged frontal plane control, with rotations of the walking surface producing the greatest changes to stepping.

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<![CDATA[The use of arthrocentesis in patients with temporomandibular joint disc displacement without reduction]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6dca17d5eed0c48452a778

The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the use of the arthrocentesis in patients with disc displacement without reduction (DDWOR). Two hundred and thirty-four (234) patients with DDWOR were evaluated and the following data collected: gender; affected side; age (years); duration of the pain (months); patient's perception of pain (measured by Visual Analogue Scale [VAS 0–10]); maximal interincisal distance (MID) (mm); and joint disc position, determined by magnetic resonance imaging. Data were obtained in two different moments: before the arthrocentesis (M1) and three or four months later (M2). Paired t-Student Test, Scores Test and Wilcoxon Test showed a statistical significant difference (p<0.0001) between the M1 and M2 for the variables VAS and MID. There was an alteration in the joint disc position in 93.88% of the cases after arthrocentesis. There was no association between the general characteristics of the patients on the M1 and the results of the arthrocentesis (p>0.05). It can be concluded that the arthrocentesis is efficient in reducing the pain, in increasing interincisal distance, and altering the joint disc position in patients with DDWOR regardless gender, age side and pain duration.

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<![CDATA[Patterns of muscle coordination during dynamic glenohumeral joint elevation: An EMG study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6730d6d5eed0c484f381e4

The shoulder relies heavily on coordinated muscle activity for normal function owing to its limited osseous constraint. However, previous studies have failed to examine the sophisticated interrelationship between all muscles. It is essential for these normal relationships to be defined as a basis for understanding pathology. Therefore, the primary aim of the study was to investigate shoulder inter-muscular coordination during different planes of shoulder elevation. Twenty healthy subjects were included. Electromyography was recorded from 14 shoulder girdle muscles as subjects performed shoulder flexion, scapula plane elevation, abduction and extension. Cross-correlation was used to examine the coordination between different muscles and muscle groups. Significantly higher coordination existed between the rotator cuff and deltoid muscle groups during the initial (Pearson Correlation Coefficient (PCC) = 0.79) and final (PCC = 0.74) stages of shoulder elevation compared to the mid-range (PCC = 0.34) (p = 0.020–0.035). Coordination between the deltoid and a functional adducting group comprising the latissimus dorsi and teres major was particularly high (PCC = 0.89) during early shoulder elevation. The destabilising force of the deltoid, during the initial stage of shoulder elevation, is balanced by the coordinated activity of the rotator cuff, latissimus dorsi and teres major. Stability requirements are lower during the mid-range of elevation. At the end-range of movement the demand for muscular stability again increases and higher coordination is seen between the deltoid and rotator cuff muscle groups. It is proposed that by appreciating the sophistication of normal shoulder function targeted evidence-based rehabilitation strategies for conditions such as subacromial impingement syndrome or shoulder instability can be developed.

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<![CDATA[Minimal medical imaging can accurately reconstruct geometric bone models for musculoskeletal models]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6b26b8d5eed0c484289f10

Accurate representation of subject-specific bone anatomy in lower-limb musculoskeletal models is important for human movement analyses and simulations. Mathematical methods can reconstruct geometric bone models using incomplete imaging of bone by morphing bone model templates, but the validity of these methods has not been fully explored. The purpose of this study was to determine the minimal imaging requirements for accurate reconstruction of geometric bone models. Complete geometric pelvis and femur models of 14 healthy adults were reconstructed from magnetic resonance imaging through segmentation. From each complete bone segmentation, three sets of incomplete segmentations (set 1 being the most incomplete) were created to test the effect of imaging incompleteness on reconstruction accuracy. Geometric bone models were reconstructed from complete sets, three incomplete sets, and two motion capture-based methods. Reconstructions from (in)complete sets were generated using statistical shape modelling, followed by host-mesh and local-mesh fitting through the Musculoskeletal Atlas Project Client. Reconstructions from motion capture-based methods used positional data from skin surface markers placed atop anatomic landmarks and estimated joint centre locations as target points for statistical shape modelling and linear scaling. Accuracy was evaluated with distance error (mm) and overlapping volume similarity (%) between complete bone segmentation and reconstructed bone models, and statistically compared using a repeated measure analysis of variance (p<0.05). Motion capture-based methods produced significantly higher distance error than reconstructions from (in)complete sets. Pelvis volume similarity reduced significantly with the level of incompleteness: complete set (92.70±1.92%), set 3 (85.41±1.99%), set 2 (81.22±3.03%), set 1 (62.30±6.17%), motion capture-based statistical shape modelling (41.18±9.54%), and motion capture-based linear scaling (26.80±7.19%). A similar trend was observed for femur volume similarity. Results indicate that imaging two relevant bone regions produces overlapping volume similarity >80% compared to complete segmented bone models, and improve analyses and simulation over current standard practice of linear scaling musculoskeletal models.

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<![CDATA[Low field magnetic resonance imaging of the equine distal interphalangeal joint: Comparison between weight-bearing and non-weight-bearing conditions]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c58d635d5eed0c4840318c8

This descriptive study aimed to compare the magnetic resonance appearance of the distal interphalangeal joint articular cartilage between standing weight-bearing and non-weight-bearing conditions. Ten forefeet of live horses were scanned in a standing low-field magnetic resonance system (0.27 T). After euthanasia for reasons unrelated to the study, the non-weight-bearing isolated feet were scanned in a vertical positioning reproducing limb orientation in live horses. The same acquisition settings as during the weight-bearing examination were used. Thickness and cross-sectional area of the distal interphalangeal articular cartilage and joint space were measured on tridimensional T1-weighted gradient echo high resolution frontal and sagittal images at predetermined landmarks in both conditions and were compared using a linear mixed-effects model. Frontal images were randomized and submitted to 9 blinded readers with 3 different experience levels for identification of weight-bearing versus non-weight-bearing acquisitions based on cartilage appearance. Weight-bearing limbs had significantly thinner distal interphalangeal cartilage (p = 0.0001) than non-weight-bearing limbs. This change was greater in the distal phalanx cartilage than that of the middle phalanx. Blinded readers correctly identified 83% (range 65 to 95%) of the images as weight-bearing or non-weight-bearing acquisitions, with significantly different results observed among the different readers (p < 0.001) and groups (p < 0.001). These results indicate that distal interphalangeal articular cartilage and particularly cartilage of the distal phalanx thins when weight-bearing compared to the non-weight-bearing standing postmortem conditions and suggest that cartilage abnormalities may be more difficult to identify on weight-bearing standing magnetic resonance imaging.

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<![CDATA[A systematic review and meta-analysis of the prevalence of osteoarticular brucellosis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c4b7f2bd5eed0c484840b19

Background

Infection of bones and joints remains one of the most commonly described complications of brucellosis in humans and is predominantly reported in all ages and sexes in high-risk regions, such as the Middle East, Asia, South and Central America, and Africa. We aimed to systematically review the literature and perform a meta-analysis to estimate the global prevalence of osteoarticular brucellosis (OAB).

Methodology

Major bibliographic databases were searched using keywords and suitable combinations. All studies reporting the incidence and clinical manifestations of osteoarticular brucellosis in humans, and demonstrated by two or more diagnostic methods (bacteriological, molecular, serological, and/or radiographic) were included. Random model was used, and statistical significance was set at 0.05%

Principal findings

A total of 56 studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in the systematic review and meta-analysis. There was an evidence of geographical variation in the prevalence of osteoarticular disease with estimates ranging from 27% in low-risk regions to 36% in high-risk regions. However, the difference was not significant. Thus, brucellosis patients have at least a 27% chance of developing osteoarticular disease.

Conclusions

The prevalence of OAB is not dependent on the endemicity of brucellosis in a particular region. Hence, further research should investigate the potential mechanisms of OAB, as well as the influence of age, gender, and other socioeconomic factor variations in its global prevalence, as this may provide insight into associated exposure risks and management of the disease.

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<![CDATA[Characteristics of trunk and lower limb alignment at maximum reach during the Star Excursion Balance Test in subjects with increased knee valgus during jump landing]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c57e6e7d5eed0c484ef425c

Background

The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is often injured during sport. The Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) has been used to evaluate ankle and knee stability of the supporting leg while reaching in eight different directions with the non-stance leg. We hypothesized that the SEBT might be useful in categorising ACL injury risk. The purpose of this study was to clarify the relationship between knee valgus alignment during single leg drop landing (SDL) and alignment of the trunk and lower limb during the SEBT.

Methods

A three-dimensional motion analysis system was used to measure the trunk, hip and knee angles during SDL and the SEBT. Groupings were allocated based on 5 degrees of knee valgus angle during SDL. Independent t-test’s were used to identify differences in the trunk, hip and knee angles between the two groups.

Results

The knee valgus angles in the knee valgus group were greater than those in the control group in five directions of the SEBT (p < 0.05). In addition, the hip internal rotation angle in the knee valgus group was lower than that in the control group during two directions of the SEBT (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the knee flexion and trunk right rotation angles in the knee valgus group were lower than those in the control group in two directions of the SEBT (p < 0.05).

Conclusion

Decreases in hip internal rotation, knee flexion and trunk rotation to the supporting leg during the SEBT might be considered as risk factors for non-contact ACL injury.

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<![CDATA[The prevalence of osteoarthritis: Higher risk after transfemoral amputation?—A database analysis with 1,569 amputees and matched controls]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c50c47bd5eed0c4845e87f8

Background

Several studies have shown that patients with a unilateral amputation have an increased risk of developing osteoarthritis (OA) in the knee of their sound leg. OBJECTIVE: The first objective was to investigate whether amputees are more frequently affected by gon-, cox- or polyarthritis as well as back pain or spinal disorders. We hypothesized that mobile and active transfemoral amputees more often experience OA and spinal disorders than non-amputees. The second objective was to compare the mean age of the patients with OA.

Patients

Patients with a unilateral transfemoral amputation (n = 1,569) and five abled-body control groups (each n = 1,569) matched in terms of age and gender resulting in total of 9,414 participants.

Methods

Groups were analyzed regarding the prevalence of six selected diagnoses regarding musculoskeletal disorders.

Results

A significantly decreased prevalence of OA and specific disorders of the spine in transfemoral amputees compared to a control group was found. The amputees with OA are significantly younger than patients with OA in the control group.

Conclusion

The results from the presented study contradict previously published literature. Apparently circumstances of life play an important role, like physical work and strenuous activities which are likely to be underrepresented in the amputee group. The results of the study need to be used cautiously due to the major limitation of the study which is the lack of detail in individual patients caused by the methodology.

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<![CDATA[Proprioceptive measurements of perceived hand position using pointing and verbal localisation tasks]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c605a69d5eed0c4847ccf8a

Previous studies revealed that healthy individuals consistently misjudge the size and shape of their hidden hand during a localisation task. Specifically, they overestimate the width of their hand and underestimate the length of their fingers. This would also imply that the same individuals misjudge the actual location of at least some parts of their hand during the task. Therefore, the primary aim of the current study was to determine whether healthy individuals could accurately locate the actual position of their hand when hidden from view, and whether accuracy depends on the type of localisation task used, the orientation of the hidden hand, and whether the left or right hand is tested. Sixteen healthy right-handed participants performed a hand localisation task that involved both pointing to and verbally indicating the perceived position of landmarks on their hidden hand. Hand position was consistently misjudged as closer to the wrist (proximal bias) and, to a lesser extent, away from the thumb (ulnar bias). The magnitude of these biases depended on the localisation task (pointing vs. verbal), the orientation of the hand (straight vs. rotated), and the hand tested (left vs. right). Furthermore, the proximal location bias increased in size as the duration of the experiment increased, while the magnitude of ulnar bias remained stable through the experiment. Finally, the resultant maps of perceived hand location appear to replicate the previously reported overestimation of hand width and underestimation of finger length. Once again, the magnitude of these distortions is dependent on the task, orientation, and hand tested. These findings underscore the need to control and standardise each component of the hand localisation task in future studies.

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<![CDATA[Evaluation of functional methods of joint centre determination for quasi-planar movement]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c605a9ed5eed0c4847cd32a

Functional methods identify joint centres as the centre of rotation (CoR) of two adjacent movements during an ad-hoc movement. The methods have been used for functionally determining hip joint centre in gait analysis and have revealed advantages compared to predictive regression techniques. However, the current implementation of functional methods hinders its application in clinical use when subjects have difficulties performing multi-plane movements over the required range. In this study, we systematically investigated whether functional methods can be used to localise the CoR during a quasi-planar movement. The effects of the following factors were analysed: the algorithms, the range and speed of the movement, marker cluster location, marker cluster size and distance to the joint centre. A mechanical linkage was used in our study to isolate the factors of interest and give insight to variation in implementation of functional methods. Our results showed the algorithms and cluster locations significantly affected the estimate results. For all algorithms, a significantly positive relationship between CoR errors and the distance of proximal cluster coordinate location to the joint centre along the medial-lateral direction was observed while the distal marker clusters were best located as close as possible to the joint centre. By optimising the analytical and experimental factors, the transformation algorithms achieved a root mean square error (RMSE) of 5.3 mm while the sphere fitting methods yielded the best estimation with an RMSE of 2.6 mm. The transformation algorithms performed better in presence of random noise and simulated soft tissue artefacts.

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<![CDATA[Prenatal growth map of the mouse knee joint by means of deformable registration technique]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c37b7b3d5eed0c4844909ca

Joint morphogenesis is the process during which distinct and functional joint shapes emerge during pre- and post-natal joint development. In this study, a repeatable semi-automatic protocol capable of providing a 3D realistic developmental map of the prenatal mouse knee joint was designed by combining Optical Projection Tomography imaging (OPT) and a deformable registration algorithm (Sheffield Image Registration toolkit, ShIRT). Eleven left limbs of healthy murine embryos were scanned with OPT (voxel size: 14.63μm) at two different stages of development: Theiler stage (TS) 23 (approximately 14.5 embryonic days) and 24 (approximately 15.5 embryonic days). One TS23 limb was used to evaluate the precision of the displacement predictions for this specific case. The remaining limbs were then used to estimate Developmental Tibia and Femur Maps. Acceptable uncertainties of the displacement predictions computed from repeated images were found for both epiphyses (between 1.3μm and 1.4μm for the proximal tibia and between 0.7μm and 1.0μm for the femur, along all directions). The protocol was found to be reproducible with maximum Modified Housdorff Distance (MHD) differences equal to 1.9 μm and 1.5 μm for the tibial and femoral epiphyses respectively. The effect of the initial shape of the rudiment affected the developmental maps with MHD of 21.7 μm and 21.9 μm for the tibial and femoral epiphyses respectively, which correspond to 1.4 and 1.5 times the voxel size. To conclude, this study proposes a repeatable semi-automatic protocol capable of providing mean 3D realistic developmental map of a developing rudiment allowing researchers to study how growth and adaptation are directed by biological and mechanobiological factors.

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