ResearchPad - skeletal-muscle https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Effect of somatic maturity on the aerobic and anaerobic adaptations to sprint interval training]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nee9d9b91-1e50-4da1-ad79-8a26873d15df After 4 weeks of sprint interval training, improvements in aerobic and anaerobic exercise performance were observed in youth male athletes. However, prepubertal participants had no changes following training.

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<![CDATA[A pilot study assessing reliability and age‐related differences in corticomuscular and intramuscular coherence in ankle dorsiflexors during walking]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N5b31d416-4d86-4c4f-aac7-f8a26bbd1d40

Abstract

Corticomuscular (CMC) and intramuscular (intraMC) coherence represent measures of corticospinal interaction. Both CMC and intraMC can be assessed during human locomotion tasks, for example, while walking. Corticospinal control of gait can deteriorate during the aging process and CMC and intraMC may represent an important monitoring means. However, it is unclear whether such assessments represent a reliable tool when performed during walking in an ecologically valid scenario and whether age‐related differences may occur. Wireless surface electroencephalography and electromyography were employed in a pilot study with young and old adults during overground walking in two separate sessions. CMC and intraMC analyses were performed in the gathered beta and lower gamma frequencies (i.e., 13–40 Hz). Significant log‐transformed coherence area was tested for intersessions test–retest reliability by determining intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), yielding to low reliability in CMC in both younger and older adults. intraMC exclusively showed low reliability in the older adults, whereas intraMC in the younger adults revealed similar values as previously reported: test–retest reliability [ICC (95% CI): 0.44 (−0.23, 0.87); SEM: 0.46; MDC: 1.28; MDC%: 103; Hedge's g (95% CI): 0.54 (−0.13, 1.57)]. Significant differences between the age groups were observed in intraMC by either comparing the two groups with the first test [Hedge's g (95% CI): 1.55 (0.85, 2.15); p‐value: .006] or with the retest data [Hedge's g (95% CI): 2.24 (0.73, 3.70); p‐value: .005]. Notwithstanding the small sample size investigated, intraMC seems a moderately reliable assessment in younger adults. The further development and use of this measure in practical settings to infer corticospinal interaction in human locomotion in clinical practice is warranted and should help to refine the analysis. This necessitates involving larger sample sizes as well as including a wider number of lower limb muscles. Moreover, further research seems warranted by the observed differences in modulation mechanisms of corticospinal control of gait as ascertained by intraMC between the age groups.

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<![CDATA[PGC‐1α overexpression increases transcription factor EB nuclear localization and lysosome abundance in dystrophin‐deficient skeletal muscle]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Na5c8a369-9529-46cb-b360-29ae9f9c0150

Abstract

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is caused by the absence of functional dystrophin protein and results in progressive muscle wasting. Dystrophin deficiency leads to a host of dysfunctional cellular processes including impaired autophagy. Autophagic dysfunction appears to be due, at least in part, to decreased lysosomal abundance mediated by decreased nuclear localization of transcription factor EB (TFEB), a transcription factor responsible for lysosomal biogenesis. PGC‐1α overexpression decreased disease severity in dystrophin‐deficient skeletal muscle and increased PGC‐1α has been linked to TFEB activation in healthy muscle. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which PGC‐1α overexpression increased nuclear TFEB localization, increased lysosome abundance, and increased autophagosome degradation. We hypothesized that overexpression of PGC‐1α would drive TFEB nuclear translocation, increase lysosome biogenesis, and improve autophagosome degradation. To address this hypothesis, we delivered PGC‐1α via adeno‐associated virus (AAV) vector injected into the right limb of 3‐week‐old mdx mice and the contralateral limbs received a sham injection. At 6 weeks of age, this approach increased PGC‐1α transcript by 60‐fold and increased TFEB nuclear localization in gastrocnemii from PGC‐1α treated limbs by twofold compared to contralateral controls. Furthermore, lamp2, a marker of lysosome abundance, was significantly elevated in muscles from limbs overexpressing PGC‐1α. Lastly, increased LC3II and similar p62 in PGC‐1α overexpressing‐limbs compared to contralateral limbs are supportive of increased degradation of autophagosomes. These data provide mechanistic insight into PGC‐1α‐mediated benefits to dystrophin‐deficient muscle, such that increased TFEB nuclear localization in dystrophin‐deficient muscle leads to increased lysosome biogenesis and autophagy.

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<![CDATA[Contusion spinal cord injury upregulates p53 protein expression in rat soleus muscle at multiple timepoints but not key senescence cytokines]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N67ed2511-161a-47e4-86e9-6d53074259af

Abstract

To determine whether muscle disuse after a spinal cord injury (SCI) produces elevated markers of cellular senescence and induces markers of the senescence‐associated secretory phenotypes (SASPs) in paralyzed skeletal muscle. Four‐month‐old male Sprague‐Dawley rats received a moderate‐severe (250 kiloDyne) T‐9 contusion SCI or Sham surgery and were monitored over 2 weeks, and 1‐, 2‐, or 3 months. Animals were sacrificed via isoflurane overdose and terminal exsanguination and the soleus was carefully excised and snap frozen. Protein expression of senescence markers p53, p27, and p16 was determined from whole soleus lysates using Western immunoblotting and RT‐qPCR was used to determine the soleus gene expression of IL‐1α, IL‐1β, IL‐6, CXCL1, and TNFα. SCI soleus muscle displayed 2‐ to 3‐fold higher total p53 protein expression at 2 weeks, and at 1 and 2 months when compared with Sham. p27 expression was stable across all groups and timepoints. p16 protein expression was lower at 3 months in SCI versus Sham, but not earlier timepoints. Gene expression was relatively stable between groups at 2 weeks. There were Surgery x Time interaction effects for IL‐6 and TNFα mRNA expression but not for IL‐1α, IL‐1β, or CXCL1. There were no main effects for time or surgery for IL‐1α, IL‐1β, or CXCL1, but targeted t tests showed reductions in IL‐1α and CXCL1 in SCI animals compared to Sham at 3 months and IL‐1β was reduced in SCI animals compared to Sham animals at the 2‐month timepoint. The elevation in p53 does not appear consistent with the induction of SASP because mRNA expression of cytokines associated with senescence was not uniformly upregulated and, in some instances, was downregulated in the early chronic phase of SCI.

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<![CDATA[Redundancy in regulation of lipid accumulation in skeletal muscle during prolonged fasting in obese men]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nb142d122-e52c-4876-8fff-723a16365481

Abstract

Fasting in human subjects shifts skeletal muscle metabolism toward lipid utilization and accumulation, including intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) deposition. Growth hormone (GH) secretion amplifies during fasting and promotes lipolysis and lipid oxidation, but it is unknown to which degree lipid deposition and metabolism in skeletal muscle during fasting depends on GH action. To test this, we studied nine obese but otherwise healthy men thrice: (a) in the postabsorptive state (“CTRL”), (b) during 72‐hr fasting (“FAST”), and (c) during 72‐hr fasting and treatment with a GH antagonist (GHA) (“FAST + GHA”). IMCL was assessed by magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and blood samples were drawn for plasma metabolomics assessment while muscle biopsies were obtained for measurements of regulators of substrate metabolism. Prolonged fasting was associated with elevated GH levels and a pronounced GHA‐independent increase in circulating medium‐ and long‐chain fatty acids, glycerol, and ketone bodies indicating increased supply of lipid intermediates to skeletal muscle. Additionally, fasting was associated with a release of short‐, medium‐, and long‐chain acylcarnitines to the circulation from an increased β‐oxidation. This was consistent with a ≈55%–60% decrease in pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDHa) activity. Opposite, IMCL content increased ≈75% with prolonged fasting without an effect of GHA. We suggest that prolonged fasting increases lipid uptake in skeletal muscle and saturates lipid oxidation, both favoring IMCL deposition. This occurs without a detectable effect of GHA on skeletal muscle lipid metabolism.

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<![CDATA[Nandrolone decanoate administration does not attenuate muscle atrophy during a short period of disuse]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c58d610d5eed0c484031507

Background

A few days of bed rest or immobilization following injury, disease, or surgery can lead to considerable loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength. It has been speculated that such short, successive periods of muscle disuse may be largely responsible for the age-related loss of muscle mass throughout the lifespan.

Objective

To assess whether a single intramuscular injection of nandrolone decanoate prior to immobilization can attenuate the loss of muscle mass and strength in vivo in humans.

Design, setting and participants

Thirty healthy (22 ± 1 years) men were subjected to 7 days of one-legged knee immobilization by means of a full leg cast with (NAD, n = 15) or without (CON, n = 15) prior intramuscular nandrolone decanoate injection (200 mg).

Measures

Before and immediately after immobilization, quadriceps muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) (by means of single-slice computed tomography (CT) scans of the upper leg) and one-legged knee extension strength (one-repetition maximum [1-RM]) were assessed for both legs. Furthermore, muscle biopsies from the immobilized leg were taken before and after immobilization to assess type I and type II muscle fiber cross-sectional area.

Results

Quadriceps muscle CSA decreased during immobilization in both CON and NAD (-6 ± 1% and -6 ± 1%, respectively; main effect of time P<0.01), with no differences between the groups (time × treatment interaction, P = 0.59). Leg muscle strength declined following immobilization (-6 ± 2% in CON and -7 ± 3% in NAD; main effect of time, P<0.05), with no differences between groups (time × treatment interaction, P = 0.55).

Conclusions

This is the first study to report that nandrolone decanoate administration does not preserve skeletal muscle mass and strength during a short period of leg immobilization in vivo in humans.

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<![CDATA[Synergistic Structure in the Speed Dependent Modulation of Muscle Activity in Human Walking]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dadeab0ee8fa60bbabe3

Recently, a modular organisation has been proposed to simplify control of the large number of muscles involved in human walking. Although previous research indicates that a single set of modular activation patterns can account for muscle activity at different speeds, these studies only provide indirect evidence for the idea that speed regulation in human walking is under modular control. Here, a more direct approach was taken to assess the synergistic structure that underlies speed regulation, by isolating speed effects through the construction of gain functions that represent the linear relation between speed and amplitude for each point in the time-normalized gait cycle. The activity of 13 muscles in 13 participants was measured at 4 speeds (0.69, 1.00, 1.31, and 1.61 ms-1) during treadmill walking. Gain functions were constructed for each of the muscles, and gain functions and the activity patterns at 1.00 ms-1 were both subjected to dimensionality reduction, to obtain modular gain functions and modular basis functions, respectively. The results showed that 4 components captured most of the variance in the gain functions (74.0% ± 1.3%), suggesting that the neuromuscular regulation of speed is under modular control. Correlations between modular gain functions and modular basis functions (range 0.58–0.89) and the associated synergistic muscle weightings (range 0.6–0.95) were generally high, suggesting substantial overlap in the synergistic control of the basic phasing of muscle activity and its modulation through speed. Finally, the combined set of modular functions and associated weightings were well capable of predicting muscle activity patterns obtained at a speed (1.31 ms-1) that was not involved in the initial dimensionality reduction, confirming the robustness of the presently used approach. Taken together, these findings provide direct evidence of synergistic structure in speed regulation, and may inspire further work on flexibility in the modular control of gait.

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<![CDATA[A One-Step Immunostaining Method to Visualize Rodent Muscle Fiber Type within a Single Specimen]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dafdab0ee8fa60bc5455

In this study, we present a quadruple immunostaining method for rapid muscle fiber typing of mice and rats using antibodies specific to the adult myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoforms MyHC1, 2A, 2X, and 2B, which are common marker proteins of distinct muscle fiber types. We developed rat monoclonal antibodies specific to each MyHC isoform and conjugated these four antibodies to fluorophores with distinct excitation and emission wavelengths. By mixing the four types of conjugated antibodies, MyHC1, 2A, 2X, and 2B could be distinguished within a single specimen allowing for facile delineation of skeletal muscle fiber types. Furthermore, we could observe hybrid fibers expressing MyHC2X and MyHC2B together in single longitudinal muscle sections from mice and rats, that was not attained in previous techniques. This staining method is expected to be applied to study muscle fiber type transition in response to environmental factors, and to ultimately develop techniques to regulate animal muscle fiber types.

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<![CDATA[Fast-to-Slow Transition of Skeletal Muscle Contractile Function and Corresponding Changes in Myosin Heavy and Light Chain Formation in the R6/2 Mouse Model of Huntington’s Disease]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da7bab0ee8fa60b98987

Huntington´s disease (HD) is a hereditary neurodegenerative disease resulting from an expanded polyglutamine sequence (poly-Q) in the protein huntingtin (HTT). Various studies report atrophy and metabolic pathology of skeletal muscle in HD and suggest as part of the process a fast-to-slow fiber type transition that may be caused by the pathological changes in central motor control or/and by mutant HTT in the muscle tissue itself. To investigate muscle pathology in HD, we used R6/2 mice, a common animal model for a rapidly progressing variant of the disease expressing exon 1 of the mutant human gene. We investigated alterations in the extensor digitorum longus (EDL), a typical fast-twitch muscle, and the soleus (SOL), a slow-twitch muscle. We focussed on mechanographic measurements of excised muscles using single and repetitive electrical stimulation and on the expression of the various myosin isoforms (heavy and light chains) using dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) of whole muscle and single fiber preparations. In EDL of R6/2, the functional tests showed a left shift of the force-frequency relation and decrease in specific force. Moreover, the estimated relative contribution of the fastest myosin isoform MyHC IIb decreased, whereas the contribution of the slower MyHC IIx isoform increased. An additional change occurred in the alkali MyLC forms showing a decrease in 3f and an increase in 1f level. In SOL, a shift from fast MyHC IIa to the slow isoform I was detectable in male R6/2 mice only, and there was no evidence of isoform interconversion in the MyLC pattern. These alterations point to a partial remodeling of the contractile apparatus of R6/2 mice towards a slower contractile phenotype, predominantly in fast glycolytic fibers.

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<![CDATA[Decreased Peak Expiratory Flow Associated with Muscle Fiber-Type Switching in Spinal and Bulbar Muscular Atrophy]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dafbab0ee8fa60bc4a67

The aim of this study was to characterize the respiratory function profile of subjects with spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA), and to explore the underlying pathological mechanism by comparing the clinical and biochemical indices of this disease with those of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We enrolled male subjects with SBMA (n = 40) and ALS (n = 25) along with 15 healthy control subjects, and assessed their respiratory function, motor function, and muscle strength. Predicted values of peak expiratory flow (%PEF) and forced vital capacity were decreased in subjects with SBMA compared with controls. In SBMA, both values were strongly correlated with the trunk subscores of the motor function tests and showed deterioration relative to disease duration. Compared with activities of daily living (ADL)-matched ALS subjects, %PEF, tongue pressure, and grip power were substantially decreased in subjects with SBMA. Both immunofluorescence and RT-PCR demonstrated a selective decrease in the expression levels of the genes encoding the myosin heavy chains specific to fast-twitch fibers in SBMA subjects. The mRNA levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta were up-regulated in SBMA compared with ALS and controls. In conclusion, %PEF is a disease-specific respiratory marker for the severity and progression of SBMA. Explosive muscle strength, including %PEF, was selectively affected in subjects with SBMA and was associated with activation of the mitochondrial biogenesis-related molecular pathway in skeletal muscles.

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<![CDATA[Nur77 deletion impairs muscle growth during developmental myogenesis and muscle regeneration in mice]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db4fab0ee8fa60bdb93f

Muscle atrophy is a prevalent condition in illness and aging. Identifying novel pathways that control muscle mass may lead to therapeutic advancement. We previously identified Nur77 as a transcriptional regulator of glycolysis in skeletal muscle. More recently, we showed that Nur77 expression also controls myofiber size in mice. It was unknown, however, whether Nur77’s regulation of muscle size begins during developmental myogenesis or only in adulthood. To determine the importance of Nur77 throughout muscle growth, we examined myofiber size at E18.5, 3 weeks postnatal age, and in young adult mice. Using the global Nur77-/- mice, we showed that Nur77 deficiency reduced myofiber size as early as E18.5. The reduction in myofiber size became more pronounced by 3 weeks of age. We observed comparable reduction in myofiber size in young myofiber-specific Nur77-knockout mice. These findings suggest that Nur77’s effect on muscle growth is intrinsic to its expression in differentiating myofibers, and not dependent on its expression in myogenic stem cells. To determine the importance of Nur77 expression in muscle accretion in mature mice, we generated an inducible-, muscle-specific, Nur77-deficient mouse model. We demonstrated that tamoxifen-induced deletion of Nur77 in 3-month-old mice reduced myofiber size. This change was accompanied by increased activity of Smad2 and FoxO3, two negative regulators of muscle mass. The role of Nur77 in muscle growth was further elaborated in the cardiotoxin-induced muscle regeneration model. Compared to wildtype mice, regenerated myofibers were smaller in Nur77-/- mice. However, when normalized to saline-injected muscle, the recovery of sarcoplasmic area was comparable between Nur77-/- and wildtype mice. These findings suggest that Nur77 deficiency compromises myofiber growth, but not the regenerative capacity of myogenic progenitor cells. Collectively, the findings presented here demonstrate Nur77 as an important regulator of muscle growth both during prenatal and postnatal myogenesis.

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<![CDATA[The SWI/SNF Subunit/Tumor Suppressor BAF47/INI1 Is Essential in Cell Cycle Arrest upon Skeletal Muscle Terminal Differentiation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dadbab0ee8fa60bb9c4f

Myogenic terminal differentiation is a well-orchestrated process starting with permanent cell cycle exit followed by muscle-specific genetic program activation. Individual SWI/SNF components have been involved in muscle differentiation. Here, we show that the master myogenic differentiation factor MyoD interacts with more than one SWI/SNF subunit, including the catalytic subunit BRG1, BAF53a and the tumor suppressor BAF47/INI1. Downregulation of each of these SWI/SNF subunits inhibits skeletal muscle terminal differentiation but, interestingly, at different differentiation steps and extents. BAF53a downregulation inhibits myotube formation but not the expression of early muscle-specific genes. BRG1 or BAF47 downregulation disrupt both proliferation and differentiation genetic programs expression. Interestingly, BRG1 and BAF47 are part of the SWI/SNF remodeling complex as well as the N-CoR-1 repressor complex in proliferating myoblasts. However, our data show that, upon myogenic differentiation, BAF47 shifts in favor of N-CoR-1 complex. Finally, BRG1 and BAF47 are well-known tumor suppressors but, strikingly, only BAF47 seems essential in the myoblasts irreversible cell cycle exit. Together, our data unravel differential roles for SWI/SNF subunits in muscle differentiation, with BAF47 playing a dual role both in the permanent cell cycle exit and in the regulation of muscle-specific genes.

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<![CDATA[Oxidative Stress (Glutathionylation) and Na,K-ATPase Activity in Rat Skeletal Muscle]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db11ab0ee8fa60bcc27b

Background

Changes in ion distribution across skeletal muscle membranes during muscle activity affect excitability and may impair force development. These changes are counteracted by the Na,K-ATPase. Regulation of the Na,K-ATPase is therefore important for skeletal muscle function. The present study investigated the presence of oxidative stress (glutathionylation) on the Na,K-ATPase in rat skeletal muscle membranes.

Results

Immunoprecipitation with an anti-glutathione antibody and subsequent immunodetection of Na,K-ATPase protein subunits demonstrated 9.0±1.3% and 4.1±1.0% glutathionylation of the α isoforms in oxidative and glycolytic skeletal muscle, respectively. In oxidative muscle, 20.0±6.1% of the β1 units were glutathionylated, whereas 14.8±2.8% of the β2-subunits appear to be glutathionylated in glycolytic muscle. Treatment with the reducing agent dithiothreitol (DTT, 1 mM) increased the in vitro maximal Na,K-ATPase activity by 19% (P<0.05) in membranes from glycolytic muscle. Oxidized glutathione (GSSG, 0–10 mM) increased the in vitro glutathionylation level detected with antibodies, and decreased the in vitro maximal Na,K-ATPase activity in a dose-dependent manner, and with a larger effect in oxidative compared to glycolytic skeletal muscle.

Conclusion

This study demonstrates the existence of basal glutathionylation of both the α and the β units of rat skeletal muscle Na,K-ATPase. In addition, the study suggests a negative correlation between glutathionylation levels and maximal Na,K-ATPase activity.

Perspective

Glutathionylation likely contributes to the complex regulation of Na,K-ATPase function in skeletal muscle. Especially, glutathionylation induced by oxidative stress may have a role in Na,K-ATPase regulation during prolonged muscle activity.

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<![CDATA[Narciclasine attenuates diet-induced obesity by promoting oxidative metabolism in skeletal muscle]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db54ab0ee8fa60bdd08a

Obesity develops when caloric intake exceeds metabolic needs. Promoting energy expenditure represents an attractive approach in the prevention of this fast-spreading epidemic. Here, we report a novel pharmacological strategy in which a natural compound, narciclasine (ncls), attenuates diet-induced obesity (DIO) in mice by promoting energy expenditure. Moreover, ncls promotes fat clearance from peripheral metabolic tissues, improves blood metabolic parameters in DIO mice, and protects these mice from the loss of voluntary physical activity. Further investigation suggested that ncls achieves these beneficial effects by promoting a shift from glycolytic to oxidative muscle fibers in the DIO mice thereby enhancing mitochondrial respiration and fatty acid oxidation (FAO) in the skeletal muscle. Moreover, ncls strongly activates AMPK signaling specifically in the skeletal muscle. The beneficial effects of ncls treatment in fat clearance and AMPK activation were faithfully reproduced in vitro in cultured murine and human primary myotubes. Mechanistically, ncls increases cellular cAMP concentration and ADP/ATP ratio, which further lead to the activation of AMPK signaling. Blocking AMPK signaling through a specific inhibitor significantly reduces FAO in myotubes. Finally, ncls also enhances mitochondrial membrane potential and reduces the formation of reactive oxygen species in cultured myotubes.

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<![CDATA[Time Course Analysis of Skeletal Muscle Pathology of GDE5 Transgenic Mouse]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9f1ab0ee8fa60b6ea10

Glycerophosphodiesterase 5 (GDE5) selectively hydrolyses glycerophosphocholine to choline and is highly expressed in type II fiber-rich skeletal muscles. We have previously generated that a truncated mutant of GDE5 (GDE5dC471) that lacks phosphodiesterase activity and shown that transgenic mice overexpressing GDE5dC471 in skeletal muscles show less skeletal muscle mass than control mice. However, the molecular mechanism and pathophysiological features underlying decreased skeletal muscle mass in GDE5dC471 mice remain unclear. In this study, we characterized the skeletal muscle disorder throughout development and investigated the primary cause of muscle atrophy. While type I fiber-rich soleus muscle mass was not altered in GDE5dC471 mice, type II fiber-rich muscle mass was reduced in 8-week-old GDE5dC471 mice. Type II fiber-rich muscle mass continued to decrease irreversibly in 1-year-old transgenic mice with an increase in apoptotic cell. Adipose tissue weight and blood triglyceride levels in 8-week-old and 1-year-old transgenic mice were higher than those in control mice. This study also demonstrated compensatory mRNA expression of neuromuscular junction (NMJ) components, including nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α1, γ, and ε subunits) and acetylcholinesterase in type II fiber-rich quadriceps muscles in GDE5dC471 mice. However, we did not observe morphological changes in NMJs associated with skeletal muscle atrophy in GDE5dC471 mice. We also found that HSP70 protein levels are significantly increased in the skeletal muscles of 2-week-old GDE5dC471 mice and in mouse myoblastic C2C12 cells overexpressing GDE5dC471. These findings suggest that GDE5dC471 mouse is a novel model of early-onset irreversible type II fiber-rich myopathy associated with cellular stress.

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<![CDATA[Greater V˙O2peak is correlated with greater skeletal muscle deoxygenation amplitude and hemoglobin concentration within individual muscles during ramp‐incremental cycle exercise]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5bd4080ed5eed0c484786841

Abstract

It is axiomatic that greater aerobic fitness (V˙O2peak) derives from enhanced perfusive and diffusive O2 conductances across active muscles. However, it remains unknown how these conductances might be reflected by regional differences in fractional O2 extraction (i.e., deoxy [Hb+Mb] and tissue O2 saturation [StO2]) and diffusive O2 potential (i.e., total[Hb+Mb]) among muscles spatially heterogeneous in blood flow, fiber type, and recruitment (vastus lateralis, VL; rectus femoris, RF). Using quantitative time‐resolved near‐infrared spectroscopy during ramp cycling in 24 young participants (V˙O2peak range: ~37.4–66.4 mL kg−1 min−1), we tested the hypotheses that (1) deoxy[Hb+Mb] and total[Hb+Mb] at V˙O2peak would be positively correlated with V˙O2peak in both VL and RF muscles; (2) the pattern of deoxygenation (the deoxy[Hb+Mb] slopes) during submaximal exercise would not differ among subjects differing in V˙O2peak. Peak deoxy [Hb+Mb] and StO2 correlated with V˙O2peak for both VL (= 0.44 and −0.51) and RF (= 0.49 and −0.49), whereas for total[Hb+Mb] this was true only for RF (= 0.45). Baseline deoxy[Hb+Mb] and StO2 correlated with V˙O2peak only for RF (= −0.50 and 0.54). In addition, the deoxy[Hb+Mb] slopes were not affected by aerobic fitness. In conclusion, while the pattern of deoxygenation (the deoxy[Hb+Mb] slopes) did not differ between fitness groups the capacity to deoxygenate [Hb+Mb] (index of maximal fractional O2 extraction) correlated significantly with V˙O2peak in both RF and VL muscles. However, only in the RF did total[Hb+Mb] (index of diffusive O2 potential) relate to fitness.

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<![CDATA[Muscle contributions to medial tibiofemoral compartment contact loading following ACL reconstruction using semitendinosus and gracilis tendon grafts]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db53ab0ee8fa60bdca5a

Background

The muscle-tendon properties of the semitendinosus (ST) and gracilis (GR) are substantially altered following tendon harvest for the purpose of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). This study adopted a musculoskeletal modelling approach to determine how the changes to the ST and GR muscle-tendon properties alter their contribution to medial compartment contact loading within the tibiofemoral joint in post ACLR patients, and the extent to which other muscles compensate under the same external loading conditions during walking, running and sidestep cutting.

Materials and methods

Motion capture and electromyography (EMG) data from 16 lower extremity muscles were acquired during walking, running and cutting in 25 participants that had undergone an ACLR using a quadruple (ST+GR) hamstring auto-graft. An EMG-driven musculoskeletal model was used to estimate the medial compartment contact loads during the stance phase of each gait task. An adjusted model was then created by altering muscle-tendon properties for the ST and GR to reflect their reported changes following ACLR. Parameters for the other muscles in the model were calibrated to match the experimental joint moments.

Results

The medial compartment contact loads for the standard and adjusted models were similar. The combined contributions of ST and GR to medial compartment contact load in the adjusted model were reduced by 26%, 17% and 17% during walking, running and cutting, respectively. These deficits were balanced by increases in the contribution made by the semimembranosus muscle of 33% and 22% during running and cutting, respectively.

Conclusion

Alterations to the ST and GR muscle-tendon properties in ACLR patients resulted in reduced contribution to medial compartment contact loads during gait tasks, for which the semimembranosus muscle can compensate.

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<![CDATA[Mice Hemizygous for a Pathogenic Mitofusin-2 Allele Exhibit Hind Limb/Foot Gait Deficits and Phenotypic Perturbations in Nerve and Muscle]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da0cab0ee8fa60b781bb

Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2A (CMT2A), the most common axonal form of hereditary sensory motor neuropathy, is caused by mutations of mitofusin-2 (MFN2). Mitofusin-2 is a GTPase required for fusion of mitochondrial outer membranes, repair of damaged mitochondria, efficient mitochondrial energetics, regulation of mitochondrial-endoplasmic reticulum calcium coupling and axonal transport of mitochondria. We knocked T105M MFN2 preceded by a loxP-flanked STOP sequence into the mouse Rosa26 locus to permit cell type-specific expression of this pathogenic allele. Crossing these mice with nestin-Cre transgenic mice elicited T105M MFN2 expression in neuroectoderm, and resulted in diminished numbers of mitochondria in peripheral nerve axons, an alteration in skeletal muscle fiber type distribution, and a gait abnormality.

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<![CDATA[Nandrolone‐induced nuclear accumulation of MyoD protein is mediated by Numb, a Notch inhibitor, in C2C12 myoblasts]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b4be341463d7e7ed7cf61b5

Abstract

Signaling via the androgen receptor (AR) stimulates myogenic progenitor differentiation. In addition, myogenic differentiation factor D (MyoD) and Numb, a Notch inhibitor, play key roles in regulating myogenic differentiation. Nandrolone, an anabolic steroid, upregulates both MyoD and Numb expression in myogenic cells. However, the molecular mechanisms by which MyoD is upregulated by nandrolone are unclear. Moreover, the potential crosstalk between nandrolone, MyoD, and Numb is not well understood. With these considerations in mind, we examined the effects of nandrolone on the expression of MyoD mRNA and protein, and determined the interactions of MyoD and Numb in the presence or absence of nandrolone in differentiating C2C12 myoblasts. Nandrolone increased MyoD mRNA and protein expression and significantly enhanced nuclear translocation of MyoD protein. The later effect of nandrolone was blunted by siRNA against Numb. Immunoprecipitation (IP) studies confirmed that Numb forms complexes with MyoD. Chromatin IP revealed that in the presence of nandrolone, Numb is recruited to a region of the MyH7 promotor containing the E‐box to which MyoD binds. These data indicate that nandrolone‐regulated MyoD activation occurs mainly through a posttranslational mechanism which promotes MyoD nuclear accumulation, and suggest that this effect of nandrolone is, at least in part, mediated by Numb.

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<![CDATA[HMGB1 May Be a Biomarker for Predicting the Outcome in Patients with Polymyositis /Dermatomyositis with Interstitial Lung Disease]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dadfab0ee8fa60bbb417

Objective

To investigate the significance of high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) levels in polymyositis (PM) and dermatomyositis (DM) patients with interstitial lung disease and whether HMGB1 levels could predict disease outcome.

Methods

HMGB1 levels were measured in sera from 34 patients with PM/DM and from 34 healthy controls by ELISA.

Results

Significantly higher serum levels of HMGB1 were found in patients with PM [12.75 ng/ml (4.34–25.07 ng/ml), p < 0.001] and DM [20.75 ng/ml (3.80–124.88 ng/ml), p < 0.001] than in healthy controls [5.64 ng/ml (2.71–8.71 ng/ml)]. Importantly, the average HMGB1 level in PM/DM patients with interstitial lung disease (ILD) was 25.84 ng/ml, which is significantly higher than that in PM/DM patients without ILD [12.68 ng/ml] (p < 0.05). A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis revealed that the serum HMGB1 cutoff value that best discriminated PM/DM patients with ILD from those without ILD was 14.5ng/ml. The area under the curve was 0.87±0.05, and the 95% Confidence interval (CI) was 0.77–0.98. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of this serum HMGB1 cutoff level was 84.6% and 89% respectively. Patients with higher levels of HMGB1 expression had lower overall survival rates and disease-free survival rates, whereas patients with lower levels of HMGB1 expression had higher survival rates.

Conclusion

Multivariate analysis showed that HMGB1 expression is a prognostic indicator for patient survival. These data support the notion that HMGB1 overexpression is involved in PM/DM progression for patients with ILD and is relative to its poor clinical outcomes.

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