ResearchPad - sleep https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[The prevalence of poor sleep quality and associated risk factors among Chinese elderly adults in nursing homes: A cross-sectional study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14729 Sleep problems have become the most common complaints among the elderly. There are a few studies that explored the prevalence of poor sleep quality and its associated factors among the elderly in nursing homes. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the prevalence of poor sleep quality and its associated factors among the Chinese elderly in nursing homes.MethodsA total of 817 elderly residents, from 24 nursing homes, were included in this cross-sectional study. Sleep quality was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and poor sleep quality was defined as PSQI >5. Multiple binary logistic regression was used to estimate the strength of the association between risk factors and poor sleep quality in terms of adjusted odds ratios (AORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs), and interactions of risk factors for poor sleep quality were also examined.ResultsThe prevalence of poor sleep quality was 67.3% (95% CI: 64.0, 70.5%) among the Chinese elderly in nursing homes. Multiple binary logistic regression results showed that participants with the following characteristics had an increased risk of poor sleep quality after adjustments for other confounders: being 70–79 years old (AOR: 1.78, 95% CI: 1.08, 2.92) or 80 years old and above (AOR: 2.67, 95% CI: 1.68, 4.24); having one to two kinds of chronic diseases (AOR: 2.05, 95% CI: 1.39, 3.01) or three or more kinds of chronic diseases (AOR: 2.35, 95% CI: 1.39, 4.00); depression symptoms (AOR: 1.08, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.11), anxiety symptoms (AOR: 1.11, 95% CI: 1.05, 1.18), and social support(AOR: 0.97, 95% CI: 0.95, 0.99). Additive interactions were detected between age and anxiety symptoms (AOR: 8.34, 95% CI: 4.43, 15.69); between chronic disease and anxiety symptoms (AOR: 8.61, 95% CI; 4.28, 17.31); and between social support and anxiety symptoms (AOR: 6.43, 95% CI: 3.22, 12.86).ConclusionsThe prevalence of poor sleep quality among the elderly in nursing homes is relatively high. Besides, anxiety symptoms has additive interactions with age, chronic disease and social support for poor sleep quality. These findings have significant implications for interventions that aim to improve sleep quality among elderly residents in nursing homes. ]]> <![CDATA[Less physical activity and more varied and disrupted sleep is associated with a less favorable metabolic profile in adolescents]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14699 Sleep and physical activity are modifiable behaviors that play an important role in preventing overweight, obesity, and metabolic health problems. Studies of the association between concurrent objective measures of sleep, physical activity, and metabolic risk factors among adolescents are limited.ObjectiveThe aim of the study was to examine the association between metabolic risk factors and objectively measured school day physical activity and sleep duration, quality, onset, and variability in adolescents.Materials and methodsWe measured one school week of free-living sleep and physical activity with wrist actigraphy in 252 adolescents (146 girls), aged 15.8±0.3 years. Metabolic risk factors included body mass index, waist circumference, total body and trunk fat percentage, resting blood pressure, and fasting glucose and insulin levels. Multiple linear regression adjusted for sex, parental education, and day length was used to assess associations between metabolic risk factors and sleep and activity parameters.ResultsOn average, participants went to bed at 00:22±0.88 hours and slept 6.2±0.7 hours/night, with 0.83±0.36 hours of awakenings/night. However, night-to-night variability in sleep duration was considerable (mean ± interquartile range) 0.75±0.55 hours) and bedtime (0.64±0.53 hours) respectively. Neither average sleep duration nor mean bedtime was associated with any metabolic risk factors. However, greater night-to-night variability in sleep duration and bedtime was associated with higher total body and trunk fat percentage, and less physical activity was associated with higher trunk fat percentage and insulin levels.ConclusionGreater nightly variation in sleep duration and in bedtime and less physical activity were associated with a less favorable metabolic profile in adolescents. These findings support the idea that, along with an adequate amount of physical activity, a regular sleep schedule is important for the metabolic health of adolescents. ]]> <![CDATA[Epidemiological characteristics of obstructive sleep apnea in a hospital-based historical cohort in Lebanon]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14697 The objective of our study was to characterize and analyze the associations between OSA (obstructive sleep apnea) and other clinical variables in adult patients referred for sleep evaluation by polysomnography at a referral center in Beirut, Lebanon, in terms of sociodemographic features, symptoms presentation and comorbidities, and evaluate the burden of comorbidities associated with this disease. All individuals with suspected Sleep Apnea referred (January 2010-September 2017) for a one-night polysomnography were included. Demographics, self-reported symptoms and comorbidities were documented. The relationship between OSA severity and the presence of symptoms and comorbidities were evaluated using multivariate logistic regression. Overall, 663 subjects were assessed. Of these, 57.3% were referred from chest physicians, and sleep test results were abnormal in 589 subjects (88.8%) of whom 526 patients (89.3%) fulfilled diagnostic criteria for OSA; 76.3% were men and women were on average older. OSA was severe in 43.2% and more severe in men. Almost all patients were symptomatic with ~2–4 symptoms per patient and women presented with symptoms that are more atypical. Comorbidities were significantly higher in women. In the multivariate analysis, age, male sex, obesity, symptoms of snoring, excessive daytime somnolence and witnessed apneas were associated with OSA severity. Only age and obesity were associated with self-reported diagnosis of hypertension and diabetes. This is the first study in Lebanon to explore the characteristics of patients with polysomnography-diagnosed OSA. High prevalence of severe OSA and low referral rates in the medical community support promoting awareness for an earlier diagnosis and more personalized approach in this country.

]]>
<![CDATA[Results of the ADHERE upper airway stimulation registry and predictors of therapy efficacy]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7106 The ADHERE Registry is a multicenter prospective observational study following outcomes of upper airway stimulation (UAS) therapy in patients who have failed continuous positive airway pressure therapy for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). The aim of this registry and purpose of this article were to examine the outcomes of patients receiving UAS for treatment of OSA.Study DesignCohort Study.MethodsDemographic and sleep study data collection occurred at baseline, implantation visit, post‐titration (6 months), and final visit (12 months). Patient and physician reported outcomes were also collected. Post hoc univariate and multivariate analysis was used to identify predictors of therapy response, defined as ≥50% decrease in Apnea‐Hypopnea Index (AHI) and AHI ≤20 at the 12‐month visit.ResultsThe registry has enrolled 1,017 patients from October 2016 through February 2019. Thus far, 640 patients have completed their 6‐month follow‐up and 382 have completed the 12‐month follow‐up. After 12 months, median AHI was reduced from 32.8 (interquartile range [IQR], 23.6–45.0) to 9.5 (IQR, 4.0–18.5); mean, 35.8 ± 15.4 to 14.2 ± 15.0, P < .0001. Epworth Sleepiness Scale was similarly improved from 11.0 (IQR, 7–16) to 7.0 (IQR, 4–11); mean, 11.4 ± 5.6 to 7.2 ± 4.8, P < .0001. Therapy usage was 5.6 ± 2.1 hours per night after 12 months. In a multivariate model, only female sex and lower baseline body mass index remained as significant predictors of therapy response.ConclusionsAcross a multi‐institutional study, UAS therapy continues to show significant improvement in subjective and objective OSA outcomes. This analysis shows that the therapy effect is durable and adherence is high.Level of Evidence2 Laryngoscope, 130:1333–1338, 2020 ]]> <![CDATA[Trajectories of fatigue among stroke patients from the acute phase to 18 months post-injury: A latent class analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nc2795b82-f9e4-46cc-9fc3-23c3f213e7d4

Introduction

Post-stroke fatigue (PSF) is a common symptom affecting 23–75% of stroke survivors. It is associated with increased risk of institutionalization and death, and it is of many patients considered among the worst symptoms to cope with after stroke. Longitudinal studies focusing on trajectories of fatigue may contribute to understanding patients’ experience of fatigue over time and its associated factors, yet only a few have been conducted to date.

Objectives

To explore whether subgroups of stroke survivors with distinct trajectories of fatigue in the first 18 months post stroke could be identified and whether these subgroups differ regarding sociodemographic, medical and/or symptom-related characteristics.

Materials and methods

115 patients with first-ever stroke admitted to Oslo University Hospital or Buskerud Hospital were recruited and data was collected prospectively during the acute phase and at 6, 12 and 18 months post stroke. Data on fatigue (both pre- and post-stroke), sociodemographic, medical and symptom-related characteristics were collected through structured interviews, standardized questionnaires and from the patients’ medical records.

Growth mixture modeling (GMM) was used to identify latent classes, i.e., subgroups of patients, based on their Fatigue Severity Scales (FSS) scores at the four time points. Differences in sociodemographic, medical, and symptom-related characteristics between the latent classes were evaluated using univariate and multivariable ordinal regression analyses.

Results and their significance

Using GMM, three latent classes of fatigue trajectories over 18 months were identified, characterized by differing levels of fatigue: low, moderate and high. The mean FSS score for each class remained relatively stable across all four time points. In the univariate analyses, age <75, pre-stroke fatigue, multiple comorbidities, current depression, disturbed sleep and some ADL impairment were associated with higher fatigue trajectories. In the multivariable analyses, pre-stroke fatigue (OR 4.92, 95% CI 1.84–13.2), multiple comorbidities (OR 4,52,95% CI 1.85–11.1) and not working (OR 4.61, 95% CI 1.36–15,7) were the strongest predictor of higher fatigue trajectories The findings of this study may be helpful for clinicians in identifying patients at risk of developing chronic fatigue after stroke.

]]>
<![CDATA[Risk and protective factors for post-traumatic stress among New Zealand military personnel: A cross sectional study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N88434cd0-9137-4283-905a-485946610b9a

Background

Post-traumatic stress (PTS) is prevalent among military personnel. Knowledge of the risk and protective factors associated with PTS in this population may assist with identifying personnel who would benefit from increased or targeted support.

Aims

To examine factors associated with PTS among New Zealand military personnel.

Methods

For this cross-sectional study, currently serving and retired military personnel were invited to complete a questionnaire. The questionnaire included a measure of PTS (the Military Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist; PCL-M), where scores ≥30 indicate the experience of significant PTS symptoms and scores ≥45 indicate a presumptive clinical diagnosis of post-traumatic stress. Potential risk and protective factors associated with PTS were examined using logistic regression modelling.

Results

1817 military personnel completed the questionnaire. PCL-M scores were ≥30 for 549 (30%) participants and ≥45 for 179 (10%) participants. Factors associated with higher PCL-M scores were trauma exposure, older age, male sex, and Māori ethnicity. Factors associated with lower PCL-M scores were greater length of service, psychological flexibility, and better quality sleep.

Conclusions

PTS was found to be prevalent among New Zealand military personnel. The experience of trauma was strongly associated with PTS. However, factors such as psychological flexibility (the ability to adapt to changes in circumstances) and good sleep were protective, suggesting that these factors could be key targets for interventions designed to reduce PTS among military personnel in New Zealand.

]]>
<![CDATA[Nocturnal hypercapnia with daytime normocapnia in patients with advanced pulmonary arterial hypertension awaiting lung transplantation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nacc6463a-eb28-4f4a-acf0-c81fc9df01f4

Background

Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is frequently complicated by sleep disordered breathing (SDB), and previous studies have largely focused on hypoxemic SDB. Even though nocturnal hypercapnia was shown to exacerbate pulmonary hypertension, the clinical significance of nocturnal hypercapnia among PAH patients has been scarcely investigated.

Method

Seventeen patients with PAH were identified from 246 consecutive patients referred to Kyoto University Hospital for the evaluation of lung transplant registration from January 2010 to December 2017. Included in this study were 13 patients whose nocturnal transcutaneous carbon dioxide partial pressure (PtcCO2) monitoring data were available. Nocturnal hypercapnia was diagnosed according to the guidelines of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine. Associations of nocturnal PtcCO2 measurements with clinical features, the findings of right heart catheterization and pulmonary function parameters were evaluated.

Results

Nocturnal hypercapnia was diagnosed in six patients (46.2%), while no patient had daytime hypercapnia. Of note, nocturnal hypercapnia was found for 5 out of 6 patients with idiopathic PAH (83.3%). Mean nocturnal PtcCO2 levels correlated negatively with the percentage of predicted total lung capacity (TLC), and positively with cardiac output and cardiac index.

Conclusion

Nocturnal hypercapnia was prevalent among advanced PAH patients who were waiting for lung transplantation, and associated with %TLC. Nocturnal hypercapnia was associated with the increase in cardiac output, which might potentially worsen pulmonary hypertension especially during sleep. Further studies are needed to investigate hemodynamics during sleep and to clarify whether nocturnal hypercapnia can be a therapeutic target for PAH patients.

]]>
<![CDATA[Overnight polysomnography and the recording of sleep and sleep-related respiration in orchestra musicians – possible protective effects of wind instruments on respiration]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N88c23519-1215-408d-ac46-2899835df1cf

Our study is the first to objectively assess sleep and sleep-related respiration in orchestra musicians. We hypothesized low sleep quality due to high work demands and irregular work-sleep schedules, and a better respiration for wind instrument (WI) players than string instrument (SI) players due to habitual upper airway muscles training. We recorded overnight polysomnography with 29 professional orchestra musicians (21 men, 14 WI/ 15 SI). The musicians presented a sleep efficiency of 88% (IQR 82–92%) with WI having a significant higher sleep efficiency than SI (89%, 85–93% vs. 85%, 74–89%; p = 0.029). The group had a total sleep time around 6 hours (377min, 340-421min) with signs of increased NREM 1 (light sleep) and decreased REM (dream sleep). The musicians displayed an apnea-hypopnea-index of 2.1events/hour (0.7–5.5) and an oxygen saturation of 98% (97–100%). While SI player exhibited declining sleep-related respiration with age (breathing events: r = 0.774, p = 0.001, oxygen: r = -0.647, p = 0.009), WI player showed improved respiration with age (breathing events: r = -0.548, p = 0.043; oxygen: r = 0.610, p = 0.020). Our study is the first objective investigation of sleep pattern and respiration during sleep with overnight polysomnography in professional orchestra musicians. While sleep and respiration were unexpectedly good, our results revealed possible signs of sleep deprivation and an interesting age-related pattern on respiration depending on instrument. While sample size was small and results modest, these findings present first objective evidence towards the assumption that habitual playing of a WI–and training of the upper airway muscles–may have a protective effect on respiration.

]]>
<![CDATA[Clinical impact of melatonin on breast cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy; effects on cognition, sleep and depressive symptoms: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nf52b3d22-02a5-4e7e-bb1d-9e73ca6c7e6b

This randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial tested the hypothesis that 20mg of melatonin before and during the first cycle of adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer (ACBC) reduced the side effects associated with cognitive impairment. We evaluated the effects of melatonin on cognition, depressive symptoms and sleep quality, and whether these effects were related to serum levels of Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) and its receptor, tropomyosin kinase B (TrkB). Thirty-six women were randomly assigned to receive melatonin or placebo for 10 days. To evaluate cognitive performance, we used the Trail-Making-Test Parts A and B (A-B), Rey Auditory-Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT), Controlled Oral Word Association Test (COWAT) and an inhibitory task type Go / No-Go. Our results revealed that melatonin improved executive function on TMT scores, enhanced episodic memory (immediate and delayed) and recognition on RAVLT, and increased verbal fluency in the orthographic COWAT. The TMT-A-B(A-B) were negatively correlated with baseline levels of TrkB and BDNF, respectively. At the end of treatment, changes in TrkB and BDNF were inversely associated with depressive symptoms and sleep quality, but not with the TMT scores. These results suggest a neuroprotective effect of melatonin to counteract the adverse effects of ACBC on cognitive function, sleep quality and depressive symptoms.

]]>
<![CDATA[The relationship between sleep quality and road traffic crashes of urban drivers in Hamadan, Iran]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N482e2be5-74a1-4ec5-afdb-1da0d7daf9e7

Abstract:

Background:

Sleep quality is one of the main human factors related to urban road traffic crashes. This study aimed at determining the relationship between sleep quality and road traffic crashes in urban drivers.

Methods:

This correlational study was conducted in Hamadan, a city located in the western part of Iran. The study samples consisted of 309 Hamadan drivers (i.e., 103 with road traffic crashes (RTCs) and 206 without RTCs), who were referred to police centers to change or renew their driving licenses. The data collection tool was a two-part questionnaire including demographic information and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). The questionnaire was filled out in a self-administered manner. Statistical analysis was done using the SPSS-16 software and applying logistic regression, Fisher’s exact test, and Chi-square test.

Results:

The comparison of sleep quality scores between two groups, using the adjusted logistic regression test, showed a statistically significant difference between them (P = 0.019). This means that the sleep quality of drivers without RTCs was 1.8 times better than drivers with RTCS (OR=1.8; 95% CI, 1.1 - 3.07).

Conclusions:

There was a significant association between poor sleep quality and the occurrence of RTCs in urban drivers. As a result, it is recommended paying more attention to the sleep quality of urban drivers to prevent and control RTCs.

]]>
<![CDATA[Sleep duration and mortality – Does weekend sleep matter?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nad4e296d-d544-46c0-b3e2-c686b2d2b735

Summary

Previous studies have found a U‐shaped relationship between mortality and (weekday) sleep duration. We here address the association of both weekday and weekend sleep duration with overall mortality. A cohort of 43,880 subjects was followed for 13 years through record‐linkages. Cox proportional hazards regression models with attained age as time‐scale were fitted to estimate multivariable‐adjusted hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for mortality; stratified analyses on age (<65 years, ≥65 years) were conducted. Among individuals <65 years old, short sleep (≤5 hr) during weekends at baseline was associated with a 52% higher mortality rate (hazard ratios 1.52; 95% confidence intervals 1.15–2.02) compared with the reference group (7 hr), while no association was observed for long (≥9 hr) weekend sleep. When, instead, different combinations of weekday and weekend sleep durations were analysed, we observed a detrimental association with consistently sleeping ≤5 hr (hazard ratios 1.65; 95% confidence intervals 1.22–2.23) or ≥8 hr (hazard ratios 1.25; 95% confidence intervals 1.05–1.50), compared with consistently sleeping 6–7 hr per day (reference). The mortality rate among participants with short sleep during weekdays, but long sleep during weekends, did not differ from the rate of the reference group. Among individuals ≥65 years old, no association between weekend sleep or weekday/weekend sleep durations and mortality was observed. In conclusion, short, but not long, weekend sleep was associated with an increased mortality in subjects <65 years. In the same age group, short sleep (or long sleep) on both weekdays and weekend showed increased mortality. Possibly, long weekend sleep may compensate for short weekday sleep.

]]>
<![CDATA[Sleep Study and Oximetry Parameters for Predicting Postoperative Complications in Patients With OSA]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N7aa68dab-c6e7-4204-885c-4ad35d741c03

In the surgical setting, OSA is associated with an increased risk of postoperative complications. At present, risk stratification using OSA-associated parameters derived from polysomnography (PSG) or overnight oximetry to predict postoperative complications has not been established. The objective of this narrative review is to evaluate the literature to determine the association between parameters extracted from in-laboratory PSG, portable PSG, or overnight oximetry and postoperative adverse events. We obtained pertinent articles from Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, and Embase (2008 to December 2017). The search included studies with adult patients undergoing surgery who had OSA diagnosed with portable PSG, in-laboratory PSG, or overnight oximetry that reported on specific sleep parameters and at least one adverse outcome. The search was restricted to English-language articles. The search yielded 1,810 articles, of which 21 were included in the review. Preoperative apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) and measurements of nocturnal hypoxemia such as oxygen desaturation index (ODI), cumulative sleep time percentage with oxyhemoglobin saturation (Spo2) < 90% (CT90), minimum Spo2, mean Spo2, and longest apnea duration were associated with postoperative complications. OSA is associated with postoperative complications in the population undergoing surgery. Clinically and statistically significant associations between AHI and postoperative adverse events exists. Complications may be more likely to occur in the category of moderate to severe OSA (AHI ≥ 15). Other parameters from PSG or overnight oximetry such as ODI, CT90, mean and minimal Spo2, and longest apnea duration can be associated with postoperative complications and may provide additional value in risk stratification and minimization.

]]>
<![CDATA[Preventing sleep deficit in adolescents: Long‐term effects of a quasi‐experimental school‐based intervention study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N6327c3d3-796d-4eb8-a5eb-2e2d3902e412

Abstract

Adolescents are at risk of sleep deficit, which has serious consequences for their daytime functioning. However, school‐based interventions to improve sleep have shown limited success. This might be due to the content of the programmes (e.g., not targeting central factors such as daytime stress and technology use) or because changes have not been captured due to a lack of long‐term follow‐ups. Hence, the aim of this study was to evaluate the long‐term effects of a school‐based sleep education curriculum including time‐management training. The study used a quasi‐experimental design. Participants were 3,622 adolescents (mean age 13.7, 48% girls); 286 were in the intervention group and 3,336 were followed as a natural control group. Data were collected before the intervention and at a 1‐year follow‐up. We divided participants into three groups according to baseline sleep duration (calculated from self‐reported bed‐ and wake times, minus sleep onset latency): insufficient (<7 hr), borderline (7–8 hr) and adequate (>8 hr). Adolescents in the intervention group were ~2 times less likely to report insufficient sleep at follow‐up as compared to controls. Sleep knowledge improved significantly in the intervention group but there were no changes in emotional sleep hygiene (e.g., bedtime worry) and perceived stress. Surprisingly, technology use increased and behavioural sleep hygiene worsened in the intervention group. Although the mechanisms of change need further investigation, the results of this study point to potential long‐term benefits of school‐based sleep programmes.

]]>
<![CDATA[Propylthiouracil-induced antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis and agranulocytosis in a patient with Graves’ disease]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nc8394a54-eced-44c4-b2fb-979b720a9e0b

Summary

This case is the first to describe a patient who experienced concomitant agranulocytosis and anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis as an adverse effect of propylthiouracil treatment for Graves’ disease. A 42-year-old female with Graves’ disease presented to the emergency department (ED) with a 2-week history of fevers, night sweats, transient lower limb rash, arthralgia, myalgia and fatigue. She had been taking propylthiouracil for 18 months prior to presentation. On admission, agranulocytosis was evident with a neutrophil count of 0.36 × 109/L and immediately propylthiouracil was stopped. There was no evidence of active infection and the patient was treated with broad-spectrum antibodies and one dose of granulocyte colony-stimulation factor, resulting in a satisfactory response. On further investigation, ANCAs were positive with dual positivity for proteinase 3 and myeloperoxidase. There was no evidence of end-organ damage secondary to vasculitis, and the patient’s constitutional symptoms resolved completely on discontinuation of the drug precluding the need for immunosuppressive therapy.

Learning points:

  • Continued vigilance and patient education regarding the risk of antithyroid drug-induced agranulocytosis is vital throughout the course of treatment.

  • ANCA-associated vasculitis is a rare adverse effect of antithyroid drug use.

  • Timely discontinuation of the offending drug is vital in reducing end-organ damage and the need for immunosuppressive therapy in drug-induced ANCA-associated vasculitis.

  • Similarities in the pathogenesis of agranulocytosis and drug-induced ANCA-associated vasculitis may offer insight into an improved understanding of vasculitis and agranulocytosis.

]]>
<![CDATA[Pilot study of an integrated model of sleep support for children: a before and after evaluation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N829a39b7-cd24-49fc-9d50-37d54ee1d3a0

Objective

Despite the success of behavioural sleep support interventions in the third sector, sleep support is not universally available for families in the UK. The aim of the study was to provide evidence of efficacy and to propose a delivery model for integrated sleep support for families of vulnerable children.

Design and setting

A sleep support intervention was carried out in Sheffield Local Authority evaluated using a preintervention and postintervention study design by Sheffield Children’s National Health Service (NHS) Trust.

Participants

Fifty-six children aged 6–16 years with significant sleep problems were recruited; 39 completed the intervention and evaluation.

Interventions

Basic sleep education and an individualised programme was delivered by a sleep practitioner. Follow-on telephone support was provided to empower the parent (and/or young person) to carry out the sleep programme at home. An integrated NHS and Local Authority delivery model was designed and implemented.

Results

Parents’ ratings of their child’s ability to self-settle improved from 1.1/10 to 6.4/10 (p<0.05). Mean Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale scores improved significantly for parents/carers (MD 5.16, 95%CIs 2.62 to 7.69, p<0.05). Children who completed the intervention gained on average an extra 2.4 hours sleep a night. There was reduction in healthcare utilisation, illnesses and medication use.

Conclusions

The behavioural approach to sleep support for these vulnerable groups of children is highly effective. Follow-on individual support to empower parents is key to achieving success. Sleep support can be implemented in NHS and Local Authority services by integration into the existing workforce using a cross-agency model.

]]>
<![CDATA[PSYCHOSOCIAL FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH SLEEP QUALITY AND DURATION AMONG OLDER ADULTS WITH CHRONIC PAIN]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nc6ac2853-be1e-4e34-8845-f39d15428a6d

Abstract

Sleep complaints are common among older adults with pain. Due to the risk of side effects, sleep medications are not recommended. Little is known about the association between psychosocial factors and sleep, but further awareness could support non-drug strategies for poor sleep. Our objective was to determine prevalence of self-reported poor sleep and duration among older adults with pain; and examine associations of positive psychosocial characteristics on sleep. This study analyzed surveys and claims from older adults with AARP® Medicare Supplement plans insured by UnitedHealthcare. Participants were 65+ with diagnosed back pain, osteoarthritis and/or rheumatoid arthritis; 12-months plan enrollment. All participants responded to a survey in May 2018 assessing sleep quality. Prescriptions were determined from claims. Propensity weighting was used to adjust for non-response bias. Results were weighted to generalize to those with pain. Multivariate logistic regression was used to evaluate associations. Short sleep duration was most common (39%), followed by poor quality (22%), and long duration (9%). Higher resilience and diverse social networks were associated with good quality and duration. Strongest associations with bad quality and short duration were stress, depression and sleep medications. Psychosocial factors were strongly associated with sleep quality and duration among older adults with pain. Results underscore the importance of social factors on sleep and need for non-drug sleep strategies.

]]>
<![CDATA[Tracking the brain in myotonic dystrophies: A 5-year longitudinal follow-up study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c8accf4d5eed0c4849903d9

Objectives

The aim of this study was to examine the natural history of brain involvement in adult-onset myotonic dystrophies type 1 and 2 (DM1, DM2).

Methods

We conducted a longitudinal observational study to examine functional and structural cerebral changes in myotonic dystrophies. We enrolled 16 adult-onset DM1 patients, 16 DM2 patients, and 17 controls. At baseline and after 5.5 ± 0.4 years participants underwent neurological, neuropsychological, and 3T-brain MRI examinations using identical study protocols that included voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging. Data were analyzed by (i) group comparisons between patients and controls at baseline and follow-up, and (ii) group comparisons using difference maps (baseline–follow-up in each participant) to focus on disease-related effects over time.

Results

We found minor neuropsychological deficits with mild progression in DM1 more than DM2. Daytime sleepiness was restricted to DM1, whereas fatigue was present in both disease entities and stable over time. Comparing results of cross-sectional neuroimaging analyses at baseline and follow-up revealed an unchanged pattern of pronounced white matter alterations in DM1. There was mild additional gray matter reduction in DM1 at follow-up. In DM2, white matter reduction was of lesser extent, but there were some additional alterations at follow-up. Gray matter seemed unaffected in DM2. Intriguingly, longitudinal analyses using difference maps and comparing them between patients and controls did not reveal any significant differences of cerebral changes over time between patients and controls.

Conclusion

The lack of significant disease-related progression of gray and white matter involvement over a period of five years in our cohort of DM1 and DM2 patients suggests either a rather slowly progressive process or even a stable course of cerebral changes in middle-aged adult-onset patients. Being the first longitudinal neuroimaging trial in DM1 and DM2, this study provides useful additional information regarding the natural history of brain involvement.

]]>
<![CDATA[Psychological factors and premenstrual syndrome: A Spanish case-control study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c89777bd5eed0c4847d2df4

Objective

To assess whether the psychological variables perceived stress, neuroticism and coping strategies, are associated with Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS) and Premenstrual Dysphoric Syndrome (PMDD).

Design

Case-control study with incident cases using the Spanish public healthcare system.

Setting

3 major public hospitals and one family counseling and planning center.

Population

Women consulting for troubles related to menstruation and for other motives such as screening for uterine cancer, contraception counselling or desire for pregnancy.

Methods

Logistic regression.

Main outcome measures

Odds of PMS and PMDD.

Results

285 PMS and 285 age-matched controls, as well as 88 PMDD cases and 176 controls participated in the study. Medium and high levels of perceived stress were associated with an increase in the odds of PMS (Odds Ratio (OR) = 2.49; 95%CI: 1.41–4.39 and OR = 4.90; 95%CI: 2.70–8.89, respectively). For PMDD the results were: OR = 2.61; 95%CI: 1.35–5.05 and OR = 5.79; 95%CI: 2.63–12.76, respectively.

Subjects with medium and high levels of neuroticism were also at higher odds of suffering from PMS (OR = 2.53; 95%CI: 1.06–6.06 and OR = 8.05; 95%CI: 3.07–2.12, respectively). For PMDD, the results were OR = 3.70; 95%CI: 1.27–10.77 and 5.73: 95%CI: 1.96–16.77, respectively.

High levels in the large majority of coping strategies were also associated with increased odds of PMS and PMDD.

Conclusions

Psychological factors including perceived stress, neuroticism and coping strategies are strongly related to PMS/PMDD. This association is unlikely to be due to confounding or misclassification bias. A reverse causation process cannot be ruled out although its likelihood is remote.

]]>
<![CDATA[The Sport Concussion Assessment Tool (SCAT2) for evaluating civilian mild traumatic brain injury. A pilot normative study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c76fe2cd5eed0c484e5b651

Self-report measures, particularly symptom inventories, are critical tools for identifying patients with persistent post-concussion symptoms and their follow-up. Unlike in military or sports-related assessment, in general civilian settings pre-injury levels of concussion-like symptoms are lacking. Normative data are available in adolescent and college populations, but no reference data exist to guide clinical adult explorations. The purpose of this study was to use the second edition of the Sport Concussion Assessment Tool (SCAT2) to profile a cohort of 60 healthy community volunteers who had not sustained a head injury. Participating volunteers underwent MRI scanning and were evaluated with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Participants reported a median of 3 concussion-like symptoms and the 97.5 percentile score was found at 10.5 symptoms, out of a total of 22. The median severity score was 4.9 points, and 28.9 was the upper limit of the reference interval. Only 10 participants (16.7%) did not endorse any symptom. The most frequently endorsed symptom was feeling difficulty in concentrating, with 41.7% of the sample reporting it. Age, sex and general distress, anxiety and depressive symptoms were not associated with concussion-like symptoms. Our data yielded elevated cut-offs scores for both the number of symptoms and the symptom severity. In conclusion, postconcussive-like symptoms are frequent in the general non-concussed adult population and it should be taken into account in any future models developed for screening patients at risk of developing physical, cognitive, and psychological complaints following mild traumatic injury.

]]>
<![CDATA[Association between social jetlag food consumption and meal times in patients with obesity-related chronic diseases]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6c75d4d5eed0c4843d0285

Chronic disruption of the synchronous relationship between endogenous and exogenous circadian timing is associated with the development of obesity and metabolic disease. Social jetlag is a measure of circadian misalignment and has been identified as a risk factor for overweight and related diseases. However, the mechanisms involved in this relationship remain underexplored. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between social jetlag and food consumption at late meal timing in patients with obesity-related chronic diseases. This study included 792 individuals (73% female; age 55.9 ± 12.4 years) in which the prevalence of social jetlag (>1h) was 24.4% (n = 194). Participants with social jetlag reported late meal timing for breakfast, early afternoon snack and dinner. Individuals with social jetlag also reported a higher intake of total calories (kcal), protein, total fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, and servings of meat and eggs and sweets in relation to those without social jetlag. Regarding the consumption during each meal of the day, participants with social jetlag had consumed more calories, saturated fat and cholesterol during dinner; more protein, total fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol during lunch; and more total fat and saturated fat during morning snack. In addition, individuals with social jetlag had a higher risk of inadequate consumption of total fat, saturated fat and cholesterol intake when compared with those without social jetlag. We conclude that social jetlag is associated with a poor diet and later meal times, which should be avoided in individuals with obesity-related chronic diseases. More studies are needed to confirm these findings.

]]>