ResearchPad - smoking-habits https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Estimating the potential impact of behavioral public health interventions nationally while maintaining agreement with global patterns on relative risks]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13880 This paper introduces a novel method to evaluate the local impact of behavioral scenarios on disease prevalence and burden with representative individual level data while ensuring that the model is in agreement with the qualitative patterns of global relative risk (RR) estimates. The method is used to estimate the impact of behavioral scenarios on the burden of disease due to ischemic heart disease (IHD) and diabetes in the Turkish adult population.MethodsDisease specific Hierarchical Bayes (HB) models estimate the individual disease probability as a function of behaviors, demographics, socio-economics and other controls, where constraints are specified based on the global RR estimates. The simulator combines the counterfactual disease probability estimates with disability adjusted life year (DALY)-per-prevalent-case estimates and rolls up to the targeted population level, thus reflecting the local joint distribution of exposures. The Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2016 study meta-analysis results guide the analysis of the Turkish National Health Surveys (2008 to 2016) that contain more than 90 thousand observations.FindingsThe proposed Qualitative Informative HB models do not sacrifice predictive accuracy versus benchmarks (logistic regression and HB models with non-informative and numerical informative priors) while agreeing with the global patterns. In the Turkish adult population, Increasing Physical Activity reduces the DALYs substantially for both IHD by 8.6% (6.4% 11.2%), and Diabetes by 8.1% (5.8% 10.6%), (90% uncertainty intervals). Eliminating Smoking and Second-hand Smoke predominantly decreases the IHD burden 13.1% (10.4% 15.8%) versus Diabetes 2.8% (1.1% 4.6%). Increasing Fruit and Vegetable Consumption, on the other hand, reduces IHD DALYs by 4.1% (2.8% 5.4%) while not improving the Diabetes burden 0.1% (0% 0.1%).ConclusionWhile the national RR estimates are in qualitative agreement with the global patterns, the scenario impact estimates are markedly different than the attributable risk estimates from the GBD analysis and allow evaluation of practical scenarios with multiple behaviors. ]]> <![CDATA[Prevalence, Severity and Mortality associated with COPD and Smoking in patients with COVID-19: A Rapid Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7662 Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an evolving infectious disease that dramatically spread all over the world in the early part of 2020. No studies have yet summarized the potential severity and mortality risks caused by COVID-19 in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and we update information in smokers.MethodsWe systematically searched electronic databases from inception to March 24, 2020. Data were extracted by two independent authors in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Study quality was assessed using a modified version of the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. We synthesized a narrative from eligible studies and conducted a meta-analysis using a random-effects model to calculate pooled prevalence rates and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI).ResultsIn total, 123 abstracts were screened and 61 full-text manuscripts were reviewed. A total of 15 studies met the inclusion criteria, which included a total of 2473 confirmed COVID-19 patients. All studies were included in the meta-analysis. The crude case fatality rate of COVID-19 was 7.4%. The pooled prevalence rates of COPD patients and smokers in COVID-19 cases were 2% (95% CI, 1%–3%) and 9% (95% CI, 4%–14%) respectively. COPD patients were at a higher risk of more severe disease (risk of severity = 63%, (22/35) compared to patients without COPD 33.4% (409/1224) [calculated RR, 1.88 (95% CI, 1.4–2.4)]. This was associated with higher mortality (60%). Our results showed that 22% (31/139) of current smokers and 46% (13/28) of ex-smokers had severe complications. The calculated RR showed that current smokers were 1.45 times more likely [95% CI: 1.03–2.04] to have severe complications compared to former and never smokers. Current smokers also had a higher mortality rate of 38.5%.ConclusionAlthough COPD prevalence in COVID-19 cases was low in current reports, COVID-19 infection was associated with substantial severity and mortality rates in COPD. Compared to former and never smokers, current smokers were at greater risk of severe complications and higher mortality rate. Effective preventive measures are required to reduce COVID-19 risk in COPD patients and current smokers. ]]> <![CDATA[30-year trends in major cardiovascular risk factors in the Czech population, Czech MONICA and Czech post-MONICA, 1985 – 2016/17]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7657 Compared with Western Europe, the decline in cardiovascular (CV) mortality has been delayed in former communist countries in Europe, including the Czech Republic. We have assessed longitudinal trends in major CV risk factors in the Czech Republic from 1985 to 2016/17, covering the transition from the totalitarian regime to democracy.MethodsThere were 7 independent cross-sectional surveys for major CV risk factors conducted in the Czech Republic in the same 6 country districts within the WHO MONICA Project (1985, 1988, 1992) and the Czech post-MONICA study (1997/98, 2000/01, 2007/08 and 2016/2017), including a total of 7,606 males and 8,050 females. The population samples were randomly selected (1%, aged 25–64 years).ResultsOver the period of 31/32 years, there was a significant decrease in the prevalence of smoking in males (from 45.0% to 23.9%; p < 0.001) and no change in females. BMI increased only in males. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure decreased significantly in both genders, while the prevalence of hypertension declined only in females. Awareness of hypertension, the proportion of individuals treated by antihypertensive drugs and consequently hypertension control improved in both genders. A substantial decrease in total cholesterol was seen in both sexes (males: from 6.21 ± 1.29 to 5.30 ± 1.05 mmol/L; p < 0.001; females: from 6.18 ± 1.26 to 5.31 ± 1.00 mmol/L; p < 0.001).ConclusionsThe significant improvement in most CV risk factors between 1985 and 2016/17 substantially contributed to the remarkable decrease in CV mortality in the Czech Republic. ]]> <![CDATA[Association between cigarette smoking and the risk of dysmenorrhea: A meta-analysis of observational studies]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N299c77b6-7bcf-4190-8f14-766ff39e61a2

Background

Emerging studies have found inconsistent results on the potential relationship between cigarette smoking and dysmenorrhea. Therefore, the aim of this study was to quantitatively synthesize the previous findings on the preceding relationship using meta-analysis.

Methods

Previous studies on the association between cigarette smoking and dysmenorrhea, published not later than November 2019, were systematically searched, using MeSH heading and/or relevant terms, in the electronic databases of PubMed, Medline, Web of Science and EMBASE. The I2 statistic was used to assess heterogeneity, whose source was explored using subgroup analysis. A pooled effect size was obtained using random effects model, and sensitivity analysis was performed to assess the consistency of the pooled effect size.

Results

After a rigorous screening process, 24 studies involving 27,091 participants were included in this meta-analysis. The results indicated that smokers were 1.45 times more likely to develop dysmenorrhea than non-smokers (odds ratio (OR) = 1.45, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.30–1.61). In addition, individuals classified as currently smoking were 1.50 times more likely to develop dysmenorrhea than those who were classified as never smoking (OR = 1.50, 95% CI: 1.33–1.70), whereas being a former smoker was 1.31 times more likely to develop dysmenorrhea than being a never smoker (OR = 1.31, 95% CI: 1.18–1.46). Sensitivity analysis showed that exclusion of any single study did not materially alter the overall combined effect.

Conclusion

The evidence from this meta-analysis indicated a significant association between cigarette smoking (both current and former smoking) and dysmenorrhea. The adverse effects of smoking provide further support for prevention of dysmenorrhea and emphasize the need to target women.

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<![CDATA[Dynamics of leukocyte telomere length in pregnant women living with HIV, and HIV-negative pregnant women: A longitudinal observational study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c897779d5eed0c4847d2db4

Background

HIV-mediated inflammation and immune activation can accelerate telomere attrition. In addition, antiretrovirals can inhibit telomerase, possibly shortening telomeres. We examined the longitudinal dynamics of leukocyte telomere length (LTL) during pregnancy in a unique cohort of women living with HIV (WLWH) treated with combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), and HIV-negative control women.

Methods

Blood was collected at three visits during pregnancy, at 13–23, >23–30, and >30–40 weeks of gestation, and for WLWH only, at 6 weeks post-partum. LTL was measured by qPCR and both cross-sectional and longitudinal (MANOVA) models were used to examine possible predictors of LTL among participants who attended all three visits during pregnancy.

Results

Among WLWH (n = 64) and HIV-negative women (n = 41), within participant LTL were correlated throughout pregnancy (p<0.001). LTL was shorter among WLWH at first visit, but this difference waned by the second visit. WLWH who discontinued cART post-partum experienced a decrease in LTL. Longitudinally, LTL was similar in both groups and increased as gestation progressed, a change that was more pronounced among women under 35 years. Among WLWH, both smoking throughout pregnancy (p = 0.04) and receiving a ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor-based regimen (p = 0.03) were independently associated with shorter LTL.

Conclusions

LTL increases as pregnancy progresses; the reasons for this are unknown but may relate to changes in blood volume, hormones, and/or cell subset distribution. While our observations need confirmation in an independent cohort, our data suggest that although some cART regimens may influence LTL, being on cART appears overall protective and that stopping cART post-partum may negatively impact LTL. The effect of smoking on LTL is clearly negative, stressing the importance of smoking cessation.

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<![CDATA[Interest in “organic,” “natural,” and “additive-free” cigarettes after hearing about toxic chemicals in cigarette smoke]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c897764d5eed0c4847d2b91

Introduction

The US Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act requires the government to disseminate information about the toxic chemicals in cigarette smoke. We sought to understand how the descriptors “organic,” “natural,” or “additive-free” affect smokers’ interest in cigarettes in the context of information about chemicals in cigarette smoke.

Methods

Participants were a national probability sample of 1,101 US adult (ages ≥18) smokers recruited in 2014–2015. A between-subjects experiment randomized participants in a telephone survey to 1 of 4 cigarette descriptors: “organic,” “natural,” “additive-free,” or “ultra-light” (control). The outcome was expected interest in cigarettes with the experimentally assigned descriptor, after learning that 2 chemicals (hydrogen cyanide and lead) are in cigarette smoke. Experimental data analysis was conducted in 2016–2017.

Results

Smokers indicated greater expected interest in “organic,” “natural,” and “additive-free” cigarettes than “ultra-light” cigarettes (all p <.001) after learning that hydrogen cyanide and lead were in cigarette smoke. Smokers who intended to quit in the next 6 months expressed greater expected interest in the 4 types of cigarettes (“organic,” “natural,” “additive-free,” and “ultra-light”) compared to smokers not intending to quit (p <.001).

Conclusions

Smokers, especially those intending to quit, may be more inclined towards cigarettes described as “organic,” “natural,” and “additive-free” in the context of chemical information. An accumulating body of evidence shows that the US should fully restrict use of “organic” and “natural” descriptors for tobacco products as it has done for “additive-free” and “light” descriptors.

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<![CDATA[Matrix Metalloproteinases in COPD and atherosclerosis with emphasis on the effects of smoking]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c785018d5eed0c484007c7f

Background

Matrix metalloproteinases (MMP´s) are known biomarkers of atherosclerosis. MMP´s are also involved in the pathophysiological processes underlying chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Cigarette smoking plays an important role in both disease states and is also known to affect the concentration and activity of MMP´s systemically. Unfortunately, the epidemiological data concerning the value of MMP´s as biomarkers of COPD and atherosclerosis with special regards to smoking habits are limited.

Methods

450 middle-aged subjects with records of smoking habits and tobacco consumption were examined with comprehensive spirometry, carotid ultrasound examination and biomarker analysis of MMP-1, -3, -7, -10 and -12. Due to missing data 33 subjects were excluded.

Results

The remaining 417 participants were divided into 4 different groups. Group I (n = 157, no plaque and no COPD), group II (n = 136, plaque but no COPD), group III (n = 43, COPD but no plaque) and group IV (n = 81, plaque and COPD). Serum levels of MMP-1,-7,-10-12 were significantly influenced by smoking, and MMP-1, -3, -7 and-12 were elevated in subjects with COPD and carotid plaque. This remained statistically significant for MMP-1 and-12 after adjusting for traditional risk factors.

Conclusion

COPD and concomitant plaque in the carotid artery were associated with elevated levels of MMP-1 and -MMP-12 even when adjusting for risk factors. Further studies are needed to elucidate if these two MMP´s could be useful as biomarkers in a clinical setting. Smoking was associated with increased serum levels of MMP´s (except for MMP-3) and should be taken into account when interpreting serum MMP results.

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<![CDATA[An African-specific haplotype in MRGPRX4 is associated with menthol cigarette smoking]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c706741d5eed0c4847c6cc6

In the U.S., more than 80% of African-American smokers use mentholated cigarettes, compared to less than 30% of Caucasian smokers. The reasons for these differences are not well understood. To determine if genetic variation contributes to mentholated cigarette smoking, we performed an exome-wide association analysis in a multiethnic population-based sample from Dallas, TX (N = 561). Findings were replicated in an independent cohort of African Americans from Washington, DC (N = 741). We identified a haplotype of MRGPRX4 (composed of rs7102322[G], encoding N245S, and rs61733596[G], T43T), that was associated with a 5-to-8 fold increase in the odds of menthol cigarette smoking. The variants are present solely in persons of African ancestry. Functional studies indicated that the variant G protein-coupled receptor encoded by MRGPRX4 displays reduced agonism in both arrestin-based and G protein-based assays, and alteration of agonism by menthol. These data indicate that genetic variation in MRGPRX4 contributes to inter-individual and inter-ethnic differences in the preference for mentholated cigarettes, and that the existence of genetic factors predisposing vulnerable populations to mentholated cigarette smoking can inform tobacco control and public health policies.

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<![CDATA[Public finances and tobacco taxation with product variety: Theory and application to Senegal and Nigeria]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6f14b2d5eed0c48467a641

This study endeavors to answer two questions: which category of excise taxes is more appropriate for Senegal and Nigeria and which consequences an increase of the tobacco taxes would have on the price, the demand and the tax revenues in each one of the two countries? To answer these questions, we adopt a double approach: first, a theoretical model of taxation with variety; and second, a simulation model to answer the second question. The results of the theoretical model indicate that, in the context of excise taxation, the number of products variety—or that of cigarette brands—directly affects both the degree of market concentration and the marginal effects of specific and ad valorem excise taxes on the price of tobacco. In addition, the comparison of the marginal effects of ad valorem and specific excise taxes depends on the marginal costs of production of different varieties weighted by the tax rates and the number of varieties. Our empirical results first show that the specific excise taxes are more adapted to Senegal while ad valorem excise taxes fit best Nigeria. This result crucially matters for the excise taxes are exclusively of an ad valorem nature in both Senegal and Nigeria. It is perfectly possible to envisage a situation where the two main forms of excise taxes could co-exist. It also appears from our results that tax development does not have the same implications for the two countries. Increasing tobacco taxes in Senegal strongly reduces the demand, but also induces a decrease in the tax revenues, while this will imply a lesser decline in demand in Nigeria accompanied however by a sharp increase of the country’s tax revenues. This difference stems from the fact that the price-elasticity of tobacco demand is very high in Senegal, contrary to Nigeria. Finally, it is important to mention that there is a specific threshold beyond which the tax increases cease to have a positive effect on tax revenues in Nigeria.

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<![CDATA[Age and sex related self-reported symptoms in a general population across 30 years: Patterns of reporting and secular trend]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c61e8cbd5eed0c48496f1a1

Objective

To study age and sex specific prevalence of 30 symptoms in random samples from the general population and to analyze possible secular trends across time.

Study population

The study was based on data from eight on-going Swedish cohort studies, with baseline investigations performed between 1973 and 2003. Samples were drawn from the general population of the cities of Gothenburg and Eskilstuna, and of Uppsala County. Overall, 20,160 subjects were sampled, 14,470 (71.8%) responded, of whom 12.000 were unique subjects, and 2548 were part of more than one sample.

Methods

The Complaint score sub-scale of the Gothenburg Quality of Life instrument, listing 30 general symptoms was used. Responders were asked to indicate which symptoms they had experienced during the last three months.

Results

Women reported on average 7.8 symptoms, and men 5.3 (p<0.0001). Women reported higher prevalence than men for 24 of the 30 symptoms. In multivariate analyses four patterns of prevalence across age were identified in both men and women; increasing prevalence, decreasing, stable and biphasic prevalence. The symptoms in the various pattern groups differed somewhat between men and women. However, symptoms related to strain were prominent among symptoms decreasing with age. Moreover, there were secular trends. Across all symptoms reporting prevalence increased over time in men (p<0.001) as well as in women (p<0.0001).

Conclusions

Women reported higher total symptom prevalence than men. Symptoms related to health generally increased with age, while symptoms related to stress decreased markedly. Significant secular trends across time regarding symptom prevalence were found.

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<![CDATA[Cigarette smoking as a risk factor for diabetic nephropathy: A systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c61e925d5eed0c48496f872

Background

Observational studies suggested that tobacco smoking was associated with diabetic nephropathy (DN). However, the results were conflicting and inconsistent. In the study, we performed a meta-analysis to assess the relationship between tobacco smoking and the development of DN.

Materials and methods

We searched in PubMed, Embase, Web of Science and the Cochrane Library (CENTRAL) from database inception until Mar 8, 2018, and updated our search on May 1, 2018. We screened the reference lists of the retrieved articles. Only original prospective cohort studies which have investigated the association between smoking and DN incidence or its progression were included. Pooled HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using a random effects model.

Results

A total of 9 prospective cohort studies were identified, including more than 203337 participants. Compared with those of no smoking, smoking participants increased the risk of developing DN (HR = 1.07, 95% CI: 1.01–1.13, P = 0.01). The subgroup analysis showed that the current and total smoking may increase the risk of DN, but these results did not reach statistical significance (current: HR = 1.69, 95% CI = 0.79–3.64, p = 0.17; total: HR = 1.17, 95% CI = 0.97–1.41, p = 0.10), whereas former smoking significantly increased the risk of DN (HR = 1.04, 95% CI = 1.03–1.05, p<0.001). Compared with no-smokers, smokers showed an elevated risk of developing DN (HR = 1.05; 95% CI, 1.00–1.11, P = 0.05). In patients with T2DM, those who smoked were at an increased risk of developing DN, as compared to those who had never smoked (HR = 1.05; 95% CI, 1.00–1.11, P = 0.05). However, compared to no smoking, smoking did not increase the risk of DN development in patients with T2DM (HR = 1.15; 95% CI, 0.9–1.47, P = 0.25). Univariate and multivariate meta-regression did not find any confounding factors. No publication bias was found in the meta-analysis.

Conclusions

The present study highlighted that smoking was an independent risk factor for DN, especially in patients with T1DM. This is the first meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies to discuss the relationship between smoking and DN.

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<![CDATA[Decreased lung function is associated with risk of developing non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: A longitudinal cohort study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c521812d5eed0c484797204

Background

Decreased lung function is associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), based on linking mechanisms such as insulin resistance and systemic inflammation However, its association with the risk of developing NAFLD is unclear. Our aim was to investigate whether baseline lung function is associated with incident NAFLD in middle-aged healthy Koreans.

Methods

A cohort study of 96,104 subjects (mean age: 35.7 years) without NAFLD were followed up from 2002 to 2015. NAFLD was diagnosed by ultrasound after the exclusion of other possible causes of liver diseases. Baseline percent predicted forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1%) and forced vital capacity (FVC%) were categorized in quartiles. Adjusted hazard ratios (aHR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) (using the highest quartile as reference) were calculated for incident NAFLD at follow-up, controlling for covariates and potential confounders.

Results

During 579,714.5 person-years of follow-up, 24,450 participants developed NAFLD (incidence rate, 42.2 per 1,000 person-years). The mean follow-up period was 5.9±3.4 years. Regardless of smoking history, the risk for incident NAFLD increased with decreasing quartiles of FEV1 (%) and FVC (%) in a dose-response manner (p for trend<0.001). In never smokers, the aHRs (95% CIs) for incident NAFLD were 1.15 (1.08–1.21), 1.11 (1.05–1.18), and 1.08 (1.02–1.14) in quartiles 1–3 for FEV1 (%) and 1.12 (1.06–1.18), 1.11 (1.05–1.18), and 1.09 (1.03–1.15) in quartiles 1–3 for FVC (%), compared with the highest quartile reference. Similar inverse association was present in smoke-exposed subjects (aHR for incident NAFLD were 1.14, 1.21, 1.13 and 1.17, 1.11, 1.09 across FEV1(%) and FVC(%) quartile in increasing order, respectively).

Conclusions

Reduced lung function was a risk factor for incident NAFLD in a large middle-aged Korean cohort with over half a million person-years of follow-up.

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<![CDATA[Peer-facilitated community-based interventions for adolescent health in low- and middle-income countries: A systematic review]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c521804d5eed0c484796183

Background

Adolescents aged 10–19 represent one sixth of the world’s population and have a high burden of morbidity, particularly in low-resource settings. We know little about the potential of community-based peer facilitators to improve adolescent health in such contexts.

Methods

We did a systematic review of peer-facilitated community-based interventions for adolescent health in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). We searched databases for randomised controlled trials of interventions featuring peer education, counselling, activism, and/or outreach facilitated by young people aged 10–24. We included trials with outcomes across key areas of adolescent health: infectious and vaccine preventable diseases, undernutrition, HIV/AIDS, sexual and reproductive health, unintentional injuries, violence, physical disorders, mental disorders and substance use. We summarised evidence from these trials narratively. PROSPERO registration: CRD42016039190.

Results

We found 20 studies (61,014 adolescents). Fourteen studies tested interventions linked to schools or colleges, and 12 had non-peer-facilitated components, e.g. health worker training. Four studies had HIV-related outcomes, but none reported reductions in HIV prevalence or incidence. Nine studies had clinical sexual and reproductive health outcomes, but only one reported a positive effect: a reduction in Herpes Simplex Virus-2 incidence. Three studies had violence-related outcomes, two of which reported reductions in physical violence by school staff and perpetration of physical violence by adolescents. Seven studies had mental health outcomes, four of which reported reductions in depressive symptoms. Finally, we found eight studies on substance use, four of which reported reductions in alcohol consumption and smoking or tobacco use. There were no studies on infectious and vaccine preventable diseases, undernutrition, or injuries.

Conclusions

There are few trials on the effects of peer-facilitated community-based interventions for adolescent health in LMICs. Existing trials have mixed results, with the most promising evidence supporting work with peer facilitators to improve adolescent mental health and reduce substance use and violence.

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<![CDATA[Secondhand smoke knowledge, sources of information, and associated factors among hospital staff]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c50c474d5eed0c4845e87bc

Purpose

To evaluate knowledge of secondhand smoke (SHS) risks, sources of information, and associated factors and behaviors among hospital staff.

Methods

We conducted a cross-sectional survey using a 40-item self-administered questionnaire among 328 employees at a university hospital. The questions on representative diseases related to SHS were used to measure the degree of knowledge of SHS. Multiple regression analysis was used to determine the correlation between SHS knowledge scores and variables.

Results

Females had better SHS knowledge scores than males, regardless of smoking status (p<0.05). SHS knowledge was positively correlated with cessation education in males, non-smokers, and the total sample (β = 3.950, 2.356, and 2.684, respectively, p<0.05). It was correlated with the experience of any SHS exposure-related symptoms in males, non-smokers, and the total sample (β = 3.950, 2.356, and 2.684, respectively, p<0.05) and discomfort when exposed to SHS in non-smokers and the total sample (β = 0.670 and 0.821, respectively, p<0.05).

Conclusion

SHS knowledge is high among females, when hospital staff are educated about SHS risks, and when they have experienced any SHS exposure-related symptoms or felt uncomfortable when exposed to SHS. SHS risk education is an effective tool to increase SHS knowledge in hospital staff.

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<![CDATA[Socio-economic status and behavioural and cardiovascular risk factors in Papua New Guinea: A cross-sectional survey]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c521856d5eed0c484797c80

Background

Risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) are negatively correlated with socio-economic status (SES) in high-income countries (HIC) but there has been little research on their distribution by household SES within low-and middle-income countries (LMICs). Considering the limited data from LMICs, this paper examines the association between behavioural and cardiovascular risk factors and household SES in Papua New Guinea (PNG).

Methods

Reported here are results of 671 participants from the 900 randomly selected adults aged 15–65 years. These adults were recruited from three socioeconomically and geographically diverse surveillance sites (peri-urban community, rural Highland and an Island community) in PNG in 2013–2014. We measured their CVD risk factors (behavioural and metabolic) using a modified WHO STEPS risk factor survey and analysis of blood samples. We assessed SES by education, occupation and creating a household wealth index based on household assets. We calculated risk ratios (RR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) using a generalized linear model to assess the associations between risks and SES.

Findings

Elevated CVD risk factors were common in all SES groups but the CVD metabolic risk factors were most prevalent among homemakers, peri-urban and rural highlands, and the highest (4th and 5th) wealth quintile population. Adults in the highest wealth quintile had high risks of obesity, elevated HbA1c and metabolic syndrome (MetS) that were greater than those in the lowest quintile although those in the highest wealth quintiles were less likely to smoke tobacco. Compared to people from the Island community, peri-urban residents had increased risks of increased waist circumference (WC) (RR: 1.67, 95%CI: 1.21–2.31), hypertension (RR: 2∙29, 95%CI: 1∙89–4.56), high cholesterol (RR: 2∙22, 95%CI: 1∙20–4∙10), high triglycerides (RR: 1∙49, 95%CI: 1∙17–1∙91), elevated HbA1c (RR: 5∙54, 95%CI: 1∙36–21∙56), and Metabolic syndrome (MetS) (RR: 2∙04, 95%CI: 1∙25–3∙32). Similarly, Rural Highland residents had increased risk of obesity (Waist Circumference RR: 1∙70, 95%CI: 1∙21–3∙38, Waist-Hip-Ratio RR:1∙48, 95%CI: 1∙28–1∙70), hypertension (RR: 2∙60, 95%CI: 1∙71–3∙95), high triglycerides (RR: 1∙34, 95%CI: 1∙06–1∙70) and MetS (RR: 1∙88, 95%CI: 1∙12–3∙16) compared to those in the rural Island site.

Interpretation

CVD risk factors are common in PNG adults but their association with SES varies markedly and by location. Our findings show that all community members are at risk of CVD weather they are part of high or low SES groups. These results support the notion that the association between CVD risk factors and SES differ greatly accordingly to the type of SES measure used, risk factors and the population studied. In addition, our findings contribute further to the limited literature in LMIC. Longitudinal studies are needed to monitor changes in rapidly changing societies such as PNG to inform public health policy for control and prevention of NCDs in the country.

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<![CDATA[Endoscopic screening using esophageal iodine staining and genotypes of ADH1B and ALDH2 in Japanese alcohol-dependent women]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c40f7b6d5eed0c4843866c9

Background

The presence of large or multiple esophageal distinct iodine-unstained lesions (DIULs) is a strong predictor of field cancerization in the upper aerodigestive tract. Several risk factors for DIULs, including genetic polymorphisms of alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenases (ADH1B, rs1229984; ALDH2, rs671), have been demonstrated in Japanese alcohol-dependent men. However, few evaluations of alcohol-dependent women have been conducted in this field.

Methods

Using multiple logistic regression models, we investigated the results of screening using esophageal iodine staining and the identification of determinants for esophageal DIULs in 472 Japanese alcohol-dependent women.

Results

DIULs ≥5 mm, multiple DILUs, and both characteristics were observed in 35 (7.4%), 31 (6.6%), and 16 (3.4%) patients, respectively. DIULs ≥5 mm were histologically diagnosed as low-grade intraepithelial neoplasia in 26 patients and superficial squamous cell carcinoma in 9 patients. Although the inactive heterozygous ALDH2*1/*2 genotype was more common (33.3% vs. 11.4%, p = 0.002) in the group with DIULs ≥5 mm than in the group without DIULs ≥5 mm, no significant differences in the results of a questionnaire asking about current and past facial flushing after a glass of beer were seen between the groups with and without DIULs ≥5 mm. When individuals with current or former flushing were assumed to have inactive ALDH2, the sensitivity and specificity of current or former flushing to identify the presence of inactive ALDH2 were 50.0% and 93.5%, respectively; these values were previously reported to be 88% and 92%, respectively, in a Japanese general female population. The low sensitivity in the present study suggests that a lack of alcohol flushing may play a crucial role in the development of alcohol dependence in women with inactive ALDH2. No significant differences in age, usual alcohol consumption, or smoking habits were observed according to ADH1B and ALDH2 genotypes. Multiple logistic regression analyses showed that the slow-metabolizing ADH1B*1/*1 genotype (odds ratio [95% confidence interval], 12.5 [4.82–32.4] and 9.89 [3.50–27.9]), the inactive heterozygous ALDH2*1/*2 genotype (2.94 [1.18–7.38] and 3.79 [1.40–10.3]), a lower body mass index per -1 kg/m2 (1.17 [1.02–1.35] and 1.38 [1.14–1.67]), and a mean corpuscular volume ≥106 fl (3.70 [1.56–8.81] and 3.27 [1.24–8.64]) increased the risk of DIULs ≥5 mm and multiple DIULs, respectively. The combination of ADH1B*1/*1 and ALDH2*1/*2 markedly increased the risk of esophageal DIULs ≥5 mm (39.3 [10.6–146]).

Conclusions

Japanese alcohol-dependent women shared several common risk factors for esophageal squamous cell neoplasia with alcohol-dependent men, but with considerably different magnitudes.

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<![CDATA[A pilot randomized trial examining the feasibility and acceptability of a culturally tailored and adherence-enhancing intervention for Latino smokers in the U.S.]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c424383d5eed0c4845e045f

Latino smokers in the United States (US) are known to experience smoking cessation treatment disparities due to their under-utilization of services, limited access to health care, and poor smoking cessation treatment outcomes. A limited number of studies have focused on developing and testing smoking cessation treatments for Latino smokers in the US. The objectives of this study were to conduct a feasibility pilot randomized trial testing three smoking cessation interventions for Latinos. Twenty-five adult Latino smokers were randomized to one of three groups: Culturally-Tailored Smoking Cessation plus Adherence Enhancement (CT+AE), Culturally-Tailored Smoking Cessation (CTSC), and a Health Education (HE) control group. All participants received three counseling sessions along with nicotine replacement therapy (NRT). Data relating to intervention acceptability and NRT adherence were collected. Self-reported 7-day point prevalence smoking was collected at 3 and 6 month follow-up and biochemically verified with expired carbon monoxide testing. Overall, the interventions demonstrated high levels of feasibility and acceptability. Days of nicotine patch use were found to be higher in the CT+AE group (mean (M) = 81.3;standard deviation (SD) = 3.32) than the CTSC (M = 68.6;SD = 13.66) and HE (M = 64;SD = 17.70) groups. At 3-month follow-up, approximately 50% of the CT+AE group were smoking abstinent, 25% of the CTSC group, and 44% of the HE group. At 6-month follow-up, 37.5% of the CT+AE group were abstinent, 25% of the CTSC group, and 44.4% of the HE group. This study is the first to target Latino smokers in the US with a culturally-tailored intervention that addresses treatment adherence. Results support the preliminary feasibility and acceptability of the CT+AE intervention.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02596711.

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<![CDATA[The association between HIV infection and pulmonary function in a rural African population]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c478c4bd5eed0c484bd1604

Objectives

HIV infection has been associated with an impaired lung function in high-income countries, but the association between HIV infection and pulmonary function in Sub-Saharan Africa remains unclear. This study aims to investigate the relation between HIV infection and pulmonary function in a rural African population.

Methods

A cross-sectional study was conducted among HIV-positive and HIV-negative adults in a rural area in South Africa, as part of the Ndlovu Cohort Study. A respiratory questionnaire and post-bronchodilator spirometry were performed. Multivariable regression analysis was used to investigate whether HIV was independently associated with a decrease in post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC ratio considering age, sex, body mass index, respiratory risk factors and a history of a pulmonary infection (tuberculosis (TB) or a pneumonia). Possible mediation by a history of pulmonary infection was tested by removing this variable from the final model.

Results

Two hundred and one consecutive participants were enrolled in the study in 2016, 84 (41.8%) were HIV-positive (82.1% on ART). The median age was 38 (IQR 29–51) years. Following multivariable analysis HIV was not significantly associated to a decline in post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC ratio (β -0.017, p 0.18). However, upon removal of a history of a pulmonary infection from the final model HIV was significantly related to post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC ratio, β -0.026, p 0.03.

Conclusions

Pulmonary function is affected by HIV infection which most likely results from co-infection with TB or other pneumonia. Further research should focus on the influence of a pulmonary infection, most notably TB, on pulmonary function, especially as the incidence of TB is high in HIV infection.

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<![CDATA[Longitudinal stability in cigarette smokers of urinary biomarkers of exposure to the toxicants acrylonitrile and acrolein]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c390bd9d5eed0c48491ea77

The urinary metabolites cyanoethyl mercapturic acid (CEMA) and 3-hydroxypropyl mercapturic acid (3-HPMA) have been widely used as biomarkers of exposure to acrylonitrile and acrolein, respectively, but there are no published data on their consistency over time in the urine of cigarette smokers. We provided, free of charge over a 20 week period, Spectrum NRC600/601 research cigarettes to cigarette smokers in the control arm of a randomized clinical trial of the reduced nicotine cigarette. Urine samples were collected at weeks 4, 8, 12, 16, and 20 and analyzed for CEMA and 3-HPMA, and total nicotine equivalents (TNE) using validated methods. Creatinine-corrected intra-class correlation coefficients for CEMA, 3-HPMA, and TNE were 0.67, 0.46, and 0.68, respectively, indicating good longitudinal consistency for CEMA, while that of 3-HPMA was fair. A strong correlation between CEMA and TNE values was observed. These data support the use of CEMA as a reliable biomarker of tobacco smoke exposure. This is the first report of the longitudinal stability of the biomarkers of acrylonitrile and acrolein exposure in smokers. The data indicate that CEMA, the biomarker of acrylonitrile exposure, is consistent over time in cigarette smokers, supporting its use. While 3-HPMA levels were less stable over time, this biomarker is nevertheless a useful monitor of human acrolein exposure because of its specificity to this toxicant.

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<![CDATA[Six years progression of exercise capacity in subjects with mild to moderate airflow obstruction, smoking and never smoking controls]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c2d2e4ed5eed0c484d99285

Background

Exercise capacity is an important feature in patients with COPD. Its impairment drives disability and dependency for daily activities performance. This study evaluated the six years change in exercise capacity in subjects with airflow obstruction and compared this to subjects without airflow obstruction, with and without a smoking history.

Methods

Cardiopulmonary exercise tests (CPET) were repeatedly performed during a six years follow up period. Peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), work rate (WRpeak), heart rate (HRpeak), minute ventilation (VEpeak), respiratory exchange ratio (RERpeak) and ventilatory reserve (VE/MVV) were collected as effort dependent outcomes. The slopes of oxygen uptake, ventilatory and mechanical efficiency (OUES, ΔVE/ΔVCO2 and ΔVO2/ΔWR) were collected as effort independent outcomes.

Results

One hundred and thirty-eight subjects were included. Thirty-eight presented airflow obstruction (63±6 years, 74% men, FEV1 90±15%pred), 44 had a smoking history but no airflow obstruction (61±5 years, 61% men, FEV1 105±15%pred) and 56 had never smoked (61±7 years, 57% men, FEV1 117±18%pred). At baseline, the airflow obstruction group had slightly worse exercise capacity in comparison to the never smoking control group, in absolute terms and expressed as percentage of the predicted value (VO2peak = 27±5 versus 32±8 ml/min/kg, p<0.01; 112±29 versus 130±33%pred, p = 0.04). Most exercise variables showed a statistically significant yearly deterioration, with exception of VE/MVV, ΔVE/ΔVCO2 and ΔVO2/ΔWR. The yearly decline in VO2peak and OUES was not faster in subjects with airflow obstruction than in smoking and never smoking controls (VO2peak -67 (9) versus -76 (9) ml/min, p = 0.44 and versus -58 (9), p = 0.47; OUES -32 (11) versus -68 (10), p = 0.03 and versus -68 (13), p = 0.03).

Conclusions

With exception of VO2peak, effort dependent variables deteriorated faster in subjects with airflow obstruction compared to never smoking controls. The deterioration of effort independent variables, however, was not accelerated in the airflow obstruction group compared to controls.

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