ResearchPad - special-article https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Post-exposure prophylaxis or pre-emptive therapy for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2): study protocol for a pragmatic randomized-controlled trial]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_11593 The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in December 2019 causing the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. Currently, there is a lack of evidence-based therapies to prevent COVID-19 following exposure to the virus, or to prevent worsening of symptoms following confirmed infection. We describe the design of a clinical trial of hydroxychloroquine for post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) and pre-emptive therapy (PET) for COVID-19.MethodsWe will conduct two nested multicentre international double-blind randomized placebo-controlled clinical trials of hydroxychloroquine for: 1) PEP of asymptomatic household contacts or healthcare workers exposed to COVID-19 within the past four days, and 2) PET for symptomatic outpatients with COVID-19 showing symptoms for less than four days. We will recruit 1,500 patients each for the PEP and PET trials. Participants will be randomized 1:1 to receive five days of hydroxychloroquine or placebo. The primary PEP trial outcome will be the incidence of symptomatic COVID-19. The primary PET trial outcome will be an ordinal scale of disease severity (not hospitalized, hospitalized without intensive care, hospitalization with intensive care, or death). Participant screening, informed consent, and follow-up will be exclusively internet-based with appropriate regulatory and research ethics board approvals in Canada and the United States.DiscussionThese complementary randomized-controlled trials are innovatively designed and adequately powered to rapidly answer urgent questions regarding the effectiveness of hydroxychloroquine to reduce virus transmission and disease severity of COVID-19 during a pandemic. In-person participant follow-up will not be conducted to facilitate social distancing strategies and reduce risks of exposure to study personnel. Innovative trial approaches are needed to urgently assess therapeutic options to mitigate the global impact of this pandemic.Trials registrationclinicaltrials.gov (NCT04308668); registered 16 March, 2020. ]]> <![CDATA[Breast Cancer Statistics in Korea in 2017: Data from a Breast Cancer Registry]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_11220 This article describes the breast cancer statistics in Korea, including the incidence, type of surgical procedure, stage, and molecular subtype, using the Korean Breast Cancer Society (KBCS) and Korea Central Cancer Registry data. There were a total of 26,534 new breast cancer diagnoses in 2017 in Korea, of which 4,139 were carcinoma in situ cases and 22,395 were invasive cancer cases. The age standardized rate of breast cancer was 75.3 per 100,000 women in 2017 (63.0 of invasive carcinoma and 12.3 of carcinoma in situ), and it has been steadily increasing across all age groups. Breast cancer occurred most commonly in the 40–49 age group. Compared to 2016, breast conserving surgery (BCS) has increased, and 67.4% of patients were treated with BCS in 2017. The proportions of stage 0 and stage I have continued to increase, accounting for 60.7%. The most common subtype of breast cancer was hormone receptor (HR) positive and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2) negative type comprising 65.9% of the cases, whereas HR negative and HER2 positive type was the rarest comprising 10.2% of the cases. The 5-year relative survival rate of breast cancer patients had increased by 14.0% from 79.2% in 1993–1995 to 93.2% in 2013–2017. It is essential to actively enter breast cancer data into the KBCS registry to improve our understanding.

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<![CDATA[The Landscape of Prescription Drug Shortages During the COVID-19 Pandemic]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_10760 <![CDATA[Challenges in Preparing and Managing the Critical Care Services for a Large Urban Area During COVID-19 Outbreak: Perspective From Delhi]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_10588 The coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has put healthcare services all over the world into a challenging situation. The contagious nature of the disease and the respiratory failure necessitating ventilatory care of these patients have put extra burden on intensive care unit (ICU) services. India has been no exception; by March 2020, the number of COVID-19 patients started increasing in India. This article describes the measures taken and challenges faced in creating ample ICU bed capacity to cater to the anticipated load of patients in the state of Delhi, India, as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. The main challenges faced, among others, were estimating the number of ICU beds to be created; deciding on dedicated hospitals to treat COVID-19 patients; procuring ventilators, personal protective equipment, and other related material; mobilizing human resources and providing their training; and providing isolated in-house accommodations to the staff on duty. The authors acknowledge and agree that the methodology proposed in this article is but one way of approaching this difficult scenario and that there could be other, perhaps better, methods of dealing with such a problem.

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<![CDATA[Preliminary pragmatic lessons from the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic in France]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_8117 The first wave of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic required an unprecedented and historic increase in critical care capacity on a global scale in France. Authors and members from the ACUTE and REANIMATION committees of the French Society of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care (SFAR) wished to share experience and insights gained during the first weeks of this pandemic. These were summarised following the World Health Organization Response Checklist and detailed according to the subsequent subheadings: 1. Command and Control, 2. Communication, 3. Safety and Security, 4. Triage, 5. Surge Capacity, 6. Continuity of essential services, 7. Human resources, 8. Logistics and supply management, 9. Training/Preparation, 10. Psychological comfort for patients and next of kin, 11. Learning and 12. Post disaster recovery. These experience-based recommendations, consensual across all members from both committees of our national society, establish a practical framework for medical teams, either spared by the first wave of severe COVID patients or preparing for the second one.

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<![CDATA[Managing patients with multiple myeloma during the COVID-19 pandemic: recommendations from an expert panel – ABHH monoclonal gammopathies committe]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7987 Since the World has been facing the COVID-19 pandemic, special attention has been taken concerning cancer patients; related to their immunosuppression status, adding risk for more aggressive COVID-19 and mortality, but also concerns about the access and the quality of care in cancer therapy. The COVID-19 pandemic impacts the number of infected, its related mortality, as well as the care of cancer patients. Multiple myeloma patients are a particular group with several important aspects to be considered during pandemic times. In essence, they are immunosuppressed in different intensities during their treatment. Most of them are elderly and all of them require long-term therapy, with prolonged contact with the health care system, possibly including a stem cell transplant during the treatment. A panel of experts in multiple myeloma and infectious diseases discusses pieces of evidence and the lack of the same in the scenario of COVID-19 in myeloma patients, while also exposing what is expected for the next phases of the COVID-19 pandemic.

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<![CDATA[Battle Buddies: Rapid Deployment of a Psychological Resilience Intervention for Health Care Workers During the Coronavirus Disease 2019 Pandemic]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N1a6a301b-c6ff-4054-aac9-7873ac5fa3ee The outbreak of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and its rapid global spread have created unprecedented challenges to health care systems. Significant and sustained efforts have focused on mobilization of personal protective equipment, intensive care beds, and medical equipment, while substantially less attention has focused on preserving the psychological health of the medical workforce tasked with addressing the challenges of the pandemic. And yet, similar to battlefield conditions, health care workers are being confronted with ongoing uncertainty about resources, capacities, and risks; as well as exposure to suffering, death, and threats to their own safety. These conditions are engendering high levels of fear and anxiety in the shortterm, and place individuals at risk for persistent stressexposure syndromes, subclinical mental health symptoms, and professional burnout in the longterm. Given the potentially wide-ranging mental health impact of COVID-19, protecting health care workers from adverse psychological effects of the pandemic is critical. Therefore, we present an overview of the potential psychological stress responses to the COVID-19 crisis in medical providers and describe preemptive resilience-promoting strategies at the organizational and personal level. We then describe a rapidly deployable Psychological Resilience Intervention founded on a peersupport model (Battle Buddies) developed by the United States Army. This intervention—the product of a multidisciplinary collaboration between the Departments of Anesthesiology and Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences at the University of Minnesota Medical Center—also incorporates evidence-informed “stress inoculation” methods developed for managing psychological stress exposure in providers deployed to disasters. Our multilevel, resource-efficient, and scalable approach places 2 key tools directly in the hands of providers: (1) apeersupport Battle Buddy; and (2) adesignated mental health consultant who can facilitate training in stress inoculation methods, provide additional support, or coordinate referral for external professional consultation. In parallel, we have instituted a voluntary research data-collection component that will enable us to evaluate the intervention’s effectiveness while also identifying the most salient resilience factors for future iterations. It is our hope that these elements will provide guidance to other organizations seeking to protect the well-being of their medical workforce during the pandemic. Given the remarkable adaptability of human beings, we believe that, by promoting resilience, our diverse health care workforce can emerge from this monumental challenge with new skills, closer relationships, and greater confidence in the power of community.

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<![CDATA[Anesthesia Considerations and Infection Precautions for Trauma and Acute Care Cases During the Coronavirus Disease 2019 Pandemic: Recommendations From a Task Force of the Chinese Society of Anesthesiology]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N9630d159-e284-4007-85ef-b5ad8bea6a60 Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has spread worldwide. During the ongoing COVID-19 epidemic, most hospitals have postponed elective surgeries. However, some emergency surgeries, especially for trauma patients, are inevitable. For patients with suspected or confirmed COVID-19, a standard protocol addressing preoperative preparation, intraoperative management, and postoperative surveillance should be implemented to avoid nosocomial infection and ensure the safety of patients and the health care workforce. With reference to the guidelines and recommendations issued by the National Health Commission and Chinese Society of Anesthesiology, this article provides recommendations for anesthesia management of trauma and emergency surgery cases during the COVID-19 pandemic.

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<![CDATA[Coronavirus: the geriatric emergency of 2020. Joint document of the Section on Geriatric Cardiology of the Spanish Society of Cardiology and the Spanish Society of Geriatrics and Gerontology]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nbb1b4971-c2cc-4198-b46e-6dce29bc112a SARS-CoV-2 infection, also known as COVID-19 (coronavirus infectious disease-19), was first identified in December 2019. In Spain, the first case of this infection was diagnosed on 31 January, 2020 and, by 15 April 2020, has caused 18 579 deaths, especially in the elderly. Due to the rapidly evolving situation regarding this disease, the data reported in this article may be subject to modifications. The older population are particularly susceptible to COVID-19 infection and to developing severe disease. The higher morbidity and mortality rates in older people have been associated with comorbidity, especially cardiovascular disease, and frailty, which weakens the immune response. Due to both the number of affected countries and the number of cases, the current situation constitutes an ongoing pandemic and a major health emergency. Because Spain has one of the largest older populations in the world, COVID-19 has emerged as a geriatric emergency. This document has been prepared jointly between the Section on Geriatric Cardiology of the Spanish Society of Cardiology and the Spanish Society of Geriatrics and Gerontology.

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<![CDATA[Peri-operative and critical care concerns in coronavirus pandemic]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Na61a07ea-7f5f-4797-bab6-f075dc7311ed

World Health Organization (WHO) declared novel coronavirus outbreak a “pandemic” on March 11th, 2020. India has already reached Stage 2 (local transmission) and the Indian Government, in collaboration with the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR), is taking all necessary steps to halt the community transmission(Stage 3). Anaesthesiologists and intensivists around the globe are making untiring efforts akin to soldiers at the final frontier during war. All efforts pertaining to adequate staffing, Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) and strict adherence to hand hygiene measures are being stressed upon to prevent in-hospital transmission. In this article, all outbreak response measures including triaging, preparation of isolation rooms, decontamination and disinfection protocols as well as fundamental principles of critical care and anaesthetic management in Covid-19 cases is being discussed. All the recommendations have been derived from the past experiences of SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome) and MERS (Middle East Respiratory Syndrome) outbreak as well as upcoming guidelines from the international health fraternity and Indian Health Services.

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<![CDATA[Walk-Through Screening Center for COVID-19: an Accessible and Efficient Screening System in a Pandemic Situation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nb874380b-408a-4305-91bf-5a42e508e52c

With the ongoing novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, the number of individuals that need to be tested for COVID-19 has been rapidly increasing. A walk-through (WT) screening center using negative pressure booths that is inspired by the biosafety cabinet has been designed and implemented in Korea for easy screening of COVID-19 and for safe and efficient consultation for patients with fever or respiratory symptoms. Here, we present the overall concept, advantages, and limitations of the COVID-19 WT screening center. The WT center increases patient access to the screening clinics and adequately protects healthcare personnel while reducing the consumption of personal protective equipment. It can also increase the number of people tested by 9–10 fold. However, there is a risk of cross-infection at each stage of screening treatment, including the booths, and adverse reactions with disinfection of the booths. These limitations can be overcome using mobile technology and increasing the number of booths to reduce congestion inside the center, reducing booth volume for sufficient and rapid ventilation, and using an effective, harmless, and certified environmental disinfectant. A WT center can be implemented in other institutions and countries and modified depending on local needs to cope with the COVID-19 pandemic.

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<![CDATA[Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS): The Pharmacist's Role]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Neff14ae2-5b25-4641-ac27-1ee4193e2f70

Objectives. After two outbreaks of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) occurred in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, from March–June 2003, we reviewed the unexpected role and responsibilities of pharmacists during these two crises, and present strategies for better crisis preparedness.

Methods and Results. Pharmacists were actively involved in battling the SARS crises. After conducting extensive literature searches and evaluations, pharmacists prepared administration and dosing guidelines for the two investigational drugs, ribavirin and interferon alfacon‐1, that were being used to treat the syndrome. They provided direct patient care under modified conditions. They revised drug distribution procedures and developed new ones to meet more stringent infection‐control standards. Collaborative teamwork with key stakeholders was important in accomplishing tasks in an efficient and timely manner. Regular communication with health care staff took place internally and externally. Education and updated information for pharmacists was crucial.

Conclusion. Pharmacists can play a vital role during crises in the areas of drug distribution, drug information, and direct patient care. Collaborative teamwork and close communication are keys to success. Pharmacists must be proactive and take a leadership role in assuming pharmacy‐related responsibilities. By evaluating what worked and what didn't, pharmacists can develop procedures for future crises requiring pharmacy support.

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<![CDATA[Coronavirus Infections in Children Including COVID-19]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N8afa3ab0-99cf-4b56-a55c-558e2150424c

Coronaviruses (CoVs) are a large family of enveloped, single-stranded, zoonotic RNA viruses. Four CoVs commonly circulate among humans: HCoV2-229E, -HKU1, -NL63 and -OC43. However, CoVs can rapidly mutate and recombine leading to novel CoVs that can spread from animals to humans. The novel CoVs severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) emerged in 2002 and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in 2012. The 2019 novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) is currently causing a severe outbreak of disease (termed COVID-19) in China and multiple other countries, threatening to cause a global pandemic. In humans, CoVs mostly cause respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms. Clinical manifestations range from a common cold to more severe disease such as bronchitis, pneumonia, severe acute respiratory distress syndrome, multi-organ failure and even death. SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 seem to less commonly affect children and to cause fewer symptoms and less severe disease in this age group compared with adults, and are associated with much lower case-fatality rates. Preliminary evidence suggests children are just as likely as adults to become infected with SARS-CoV-2 but are less likely to be symptomatic or develop severe symptoms. However, the importance of children in transmitting the virus remains uncertain. Children more often have gastrointestinal symptoms compared with adults. Most children with SARS-CoV present with fever, but this is not the case for the other novel CoVs. Many children affected by MERS-CoV are asymptomatic. The majority of children infected by novel CoVs have a documented household contact, often showing symptoms before them. In contrast, adults more often have a nosocomial exposure. In this review, we summarize epidemiologic, clinical and diagnostic findings, as well as treatment and prevention options for common circulating and novel CoVs infections in humans with a focus on infections in children.

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<![CDATA[Review of Measles in Korea: Quarantine and Elimination]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N4fd20775-3f2a-40d4-a65c-968bb9105ba7

Strong policies were established to maintain vaccination rate at ≥95% to expedite the eradication and elimination of measles outbreaks; nationwide survey of measles immunity to determine the susceptibility and the mandatory submission of second measles vaccination records when entering primary school. The measles control policies were also implemented to help achieve the goal of eliminating measles after the catch-up vaccination and they can be summarized as strategies for classifying measles patients based on their clinical symptoms while anticipating that weaker symptoms than those in typical cases would be seen; improving the operation of laboratories to world-class level for diagnosis of measles and identification of epidemiological circumstances for strengthen the detection of patients suspected of having measles; and immediate response through a rapid reporting system. With these efforts, Korea became the country to make the declaration of measles elimination by complying with all standards presented by the World Health Organization in 2006, re-verified in 2014. However, sporadic outbreaks of measles have repeatedly occurred even after the declaration of measles elimination. This indicates the need for continued control of imported cases and possible re-outbreaks. Also, it will be necessary to find and implement measures to continuously maintain the policy.

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<![CDATA[Causal Diagrams: Pitfalls and Tips]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Ne2e7bed2-e2e1-4c6a-ab87-796d0a0656c0

Graphical models are useful tools in causal inference, and causal directed acyclic graphs (DAGs) are used extensively to determine the variables for which it is sufficient to control for confounding to estimate causal effects. We discuss the following ten pitfalls and tips that are easily overlooked when using DAGs: 1) Each node on DAGs corresponds to a random variable and not its realized values; 2) The presence or absence of arrows in DAGs corresponds to the presence or absence of individual causal effect in the population; 3) “Non-manipulable” variables and their arrows should be drawn with care; 4) It is preferable to draw DAGs for the total population, rather than for the exposed or unexposed groups; 5) DAGs are primarily useful to examine the presence of confounding in distribution in the notion of confounding in expectation; 6) Although DAGs provide qualitative differences of causal structures, they cannot describe details of how to adjust for confounding; 7) DAGs can be used to illustrate the consequences of matching and the appropriate handling of matched variables in cohort and case-control studies; 8) When explicitly accounting for temporal order in DAGs, it is necessary to use separate nodes for each timing; 9) In certain cases, DAGs with signed edges can be used in drawing conclusions about the direction of bias; and 10) DAGs can be (and should be) used to describe not only confounding bias but also other forms of bias. We also discuss recent developments of graphical models and their future directions.

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<![CDATA[Biological bases for a possible effect of cannabidiol in Parkinson’s disease]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N4b136b23-2186-4d71-a944-d38d39e3efa5

Current pharmacotherapy of Parkinson’s disease (PD) is palliative and unable to modify the progression of neurodegeneration. Treatments that can improve patients’ quality of life with fewer side effects are needed, but not yet available. Cannabidiol (CBD), the major non-psychotomimetic constituent of cannabis, has received considerable research attention in the last decade. In this context, we aimed to critically review the literature on potential therapeutic effects of CBD in PD and discuss clinical and preclinical evidence supporting the putative neuroprotective mechanisms of CBD. We searched MEDLINE (via PubMed) for indexed articles published in English from inception to 2019. The following keywords were used: cannabis; cannabidiol and neuroprotection; endocannabinoids and basal ganglia; Parkinson’s animal models; Parkinson’s history; Parkinson’s and cannabidiol. Few studies addressed the biological bases for the purported effects of CBD on PD. Six preclinical studies showed neuroprotective effects, while three targeted the antidyskinetic effects of CBD. Three human studies have tested CBD in patients with PD: an open-label study, a case series, and a randomized controlled trial. These studies reported therapeutic effects of CBD on non-motor symptoms. Additional research is needed to elucidate the potential effectiveness of CBD in PD and the underlying mechanisms involved.

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<![CDATA[Virginia Woolf, neuroprogression, and bipolar disorder]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N3c686da6-797c-4750-9eb4-bf89334a5b1f

Family history and traumatic experiences are factors linked to bipolar disorder. It is known that the lifetime risk of bipolar disorder in relatives of a bipolar proband are 5-10% for first degree relatives and 40-70% for monozygotic co-twins. It is also known that patients with early childhood trauma present earlier onset of bipolar disorder, increased number of manic episodes, and more suicide attempts. We have recently reported that childhood trauma partly mediates the effect of family history on bipolar disorder diagnosis. In light of these findings from the scientific literature, we reviewed the work of British writer Virginia Woolf, who allegedly suffered from bipolar disorder. Her disorder was strongly related to her family background. Moreover, Virginia Woolf was sexually molested by her half siblings for nine years. Her bipolar disorder symptoms presented a pernicious course, associated with hospitalizations, suicidal behavioral, and functional impairment. The concept of neuroprogression has been used to explain the clinical deterioration that takes places in a subgroup of bipolar disorder patients. The examination of Virgina Woolf’s biography and art can provide clinicians with important insights about the course of bipolar disorder.

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<![CDATA[Hunting Common Cold Viruses by Some New Methods]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N4eb547d1-6e00-4c5f-b1be-7f71f8d8d2e6 ]]> <![CDATA[Kraepelin’s views on obsessive neurosis: a comparison with DSM-5 criteria for obsessive-compulsive disorder]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N1544a301-c5ac-41b2-bd9d-19afc6116da2

Emil Kraepelin (1856-1926) is considered one of the founders of modern psychiatric nosology. However, his conceptualization of obsessive-compulsive phenomena is relatively understudied. In this article, we compare and contrast excerpts from the eighth edition (1909-1915) of Kraepelin’s Textbook of Clinical Psychiatry focusing on what Kraepelin called “obsessive neurosis” and related “original pathological conditions” with the current DSM-5 criteria for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Consistently with DSM-5 OCD, Kraepelin described obsessive neurosis as characterized by obsessive ideas, compulsive acts, or both together. His detailed descriptions of these symptoms are broadly coherent with their characterization in DSM-5, which is also true for the differential diagnoses he provided. He also mentioned cases illustrating decreased insight into symptoms and association with tic disorders. In conclusion, Kraepelin’s experience, which reflects decades of consistent clinical work, may help validate current ideas and explain how the current conceptualization has emerged and developed. Even though one can hardly say that the classification laid out in DSM-5 goes back to Kraepelin’s views directly, it still is true that Kraepelin played an outstanding role in systematizing psychiatric diagnostic criteria in general, and provided a major contribution to the conceptual history of OCD.

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<![CDATA[Psychiatric event in multiple sclerosis: could it be the tip of the iceberg?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N86b526ec-3b4b-42ab-9f3e-7381bbb4dbb9

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic progressive inflammatory disease of the central nervous system. Psychiatric comorbidities are highly prevalent in patients with MS, and can have drastic impact on quality of life and interpersonal relationships. Despite this high prevalence, whether psychiatric manifestations may represent the first signs of MS is still debatable. This constitutes an important issue, since early diagnosis of “psychiatric-onset MS” would result in prompt management, which usually ameliorates long-term prognosis. Here, we discuss clinical and radiological hints that suggest a diagnosis of psychiatric-onset MS. Briefly, this entity should be considered in healthy patients presenting with late-onset psychiatric symptoms, with or without cognitive decline, and with negative family history of psychiatric diseases. A thorough neurological exam is crucial to detect any subtle neurological signs. Brain magnetic resonance imaging is recommended to rule out frontotemporal lesions that might explain the clinical picture. Poor response to standard psychiatric treatments provides additional evidence for the diagnosis of an organic disease (e.g., MS). Combining psychopharmaceuticals with intravenous corticosteroids would result in good outcomes, but patients should be monitored carefully for possible psychiatric exacerbation, a common side effect of steroids.

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