ResearchPad - special-issue https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Framing consumer food demand responses in a viral pandemic]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_16802 In this paper, I explore several issues related to how the COVID‐19 pandemic might impact consumer demand for food. These impacts relate to the structure of preferences in the context of a pandemic, income and time constraints, and price effects. Discussion includes accounting for differential impacts of COVID‐19 on demand for food across sociodemographic characteristics, and several high‐level issues and observations related to where and how consumers shop and what they buy. My own thinking leads me to conclude that demand‐side factors will account for most of the changes we see in retail food market. These demand‐side effects will be dominated by income effects, the opportunity cost of time, and longer planning horizons on the part of consumers.

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<![CDATA[Potential implications of COVID‐19 on the Canadian pork industry]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_16798 Canada and the US have strong economic ties and form part of an integrated North American pork industry. Canada's pork industry is export‐oriented, and the US represents a key market for both live pigs and pork. Pork value chain stakeholders include input suppliers, pig producers, transportation companies, slaughter plants, wholesalers, and retailers. There are three overriding areas of concern for the Canadian pork industry with respect to potential impacts of the current pandemic (COVID‐19). The first is Canada/US trade and the ability to continue exporting Canadian live pigs and pork to the US. The second is labour and the impact of potential absenteeism on all sectors of the pork value chain. The third is global trade, because Canada's pork industry relies heavily on exporting pork to markets around the world.

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<![CDATA[Labour issues and COVID‐19]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_16785 The COVID‐19 pandemic has prompted Canada and several other countries to impose an economic shutdown to prevent a deadly public health crisis from becoming much deadlier. In the agriculture and food sector, several hundred thousand restaurant workers have lost their jobs. The rise in unemployment, the closing of restaurants and schools, and social distancing have triggered demand reductions for certain commodities and foods and demand increases for others, bringing along changes in demand for inputs including labour. Canadian employers of temporary foreign workers (TFWs) are facing delays and additional constraints in recruiting, but so have US and European employers of TFWs. Rising food security concerns are making protectionist trade policies popular. Domestic and foreign firms may export less and do more foreign direct investment, inducing trade in jobs.

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<![CDATA[The COVID‐19 pandemic and agriculture – Short and long run implications for international trade relations]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_16770 The COVID‐19 pandemic has put unprecedented strain on food supply chains. Given the ever‐increasing degree of globalization, those supply chains very often stretch across international borders. In the short run, countries have largely been working to keep those supply chains intact and operating efficiently so that panic buying is cooled and shifts in consumption habits arising from personal isolation can be accommodated. Once the crisis has passed, based on what has been learned regarding the international food system's resilience, governments may wish to strengthen institutions that govern international trade. On the other hand, based on their COVID‐19 experience, governments may feel that they are too dependent on foreign sources of supply and may wish to reverse the impacts of globalization on their food systems. As a result, they may become increasingly isolationist, eschewing international cooperation. Which of these opposing forces will prevail may depend on the paths economies follow after the disequilibrium precipitated by the pandemic.

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<![CDATA[Food security and Canada's agricultural system challenged by COVID‐19]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_16715 The effect of COVID‐19 on Canadian food security is examined from two different perspectives. COVID‐19 creates a unique “income shock” that is expected to increase the prevalence of household food insecurity. This food insecurity can be measured by utilizing the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS). More fundamentally, COVID‐19 heightens household concern about the capacity of the Canadian food system to ensure food availability. Despite surges in demand and supply chain disruptions, we currently do not observe broad, rapid appreciation in food prices. This suggests that there is an adequate supply of food for the near term. There is less certainty over intermediate and longer time periods because so many factors are in flux, particularly the rate of increases in sicknesses and deaths across the country and globally. Data on these health factors and elements of the food supply chain are needed to predict beyond a short time frame. In this regard, we discuss three ongoing considerations—ease of capital flows, international exchange, and maintaining transportation—that will help ensure food availability in the longer run.

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<![CDATA[Tracheostomy guidelines developed at a large academic medical center during the COVID‐19 pandemic]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_16708 During the SARS‐CoV‐2 pandemic, tracheostomy may be required for COVID‐19 patients requiring long‐term ventilation in addition to other conditions such as airway compromise from head and neck cancer. As an aerosol‐generating procedure, tracheostomy increases the exposure of health care workers to COVID‐19 infection. Performing surgical tracheostomy and tracheostomy care requires a strategy that mitigates these risks and maintains the quality of patient care.MethodsThis study is a multidisciplinary review of institutional tracheostomy guidelines and clinical pathways. Modifications to support clinical decision making in the context of COVID‐19 were derived by consensus and available evidence.ResultsModified guidelines for all phases of tracheostomy care at an academic tertiary care center in the setting of COVID‐19 are presented.DiscussionDuring the various phases of the COVID‐19 pandemic, clinicians must carefully consider the indications, procedural precautions, and postoperative care for tracheostomies. We present guidelines to mitigate risk to health care workers while preserving the quality of care. ]]> <![CDATA[COVID‐19 impact on fruit and vegetable markets]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_16701 Canadian fruit and vegetable markets were significantly impacted by the spread of the novel coronavirus SARS‐CoV‐2 (and COVID‐19 disease), beginning in March 2020. Due to the closure of restaurants, bars, and schools, produce growers and distributors were forced to shift supplies almost entirely from the foodservice to the retail channel. Shippers reported labor and logistical constraints in making the change, but the fresh produce supply chain remained robust. In the long term, we expect lasting changes in consumers’ online food‐purchasing habits, heightened constraints on immigrant labor markets, and tighter concentration in fresh produce distribution and perhaps retailing.

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<![CDATA[Agriculture, transportation, and the COVID‐19 crisis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_16695 In this short paper, I assess how COVID‐19‐related disruptions in transportation services, as well as new demands for transportation services, could impact Canadian agricultural supply chains. The brief analysis reveals that agricultural access to bulk ocean freight, rail movement, and trucking has generally improved in the pandemic, bolstered by the reduced demand for these transportation services by other sectors of the economy. The intermodal containerized movement of grains and food products has seen some disruption from the lack of empty containers in North America. The widespread consumer adoption of physical distancing measures has vastly increased the demand for retail food pickup and delivery services to the point where these services are being rationed by long wait times. From a policy perspective, there is an apparent need for (a) continued supply chain monitoring and industry engagement, (b) the proactive development of strategies to deal with absenteeism and other potential threats to the supply chain, and (c) an assessment of the economic and health merits of providing additional public resources to provide greater access to grocery pickup and delivery services.

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<![CDATA[Potential impact of the COVID‐19 pandemic on financial toxicity in cancer survivors]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_16687 In the context of COVID‐19, cancer survivors represent a particularly vulnerable population that may be “doubly hit” by both costs of cancer treatment and financial strain imposed by the pandemic.MethodsWe performed a review of the literature pertaining to cancer, financial toxicity, and economic challenges.ResultsMultiple societies have put forth recommendations to modify delivery of cancer care in order to minimize patient exposure to the virus. Cancer survivors, especially patients with head and neck cancer, have been disproportionately affected by rising unemployment levels and economic recessions in the past, both of which are linked to higher cancer mortality. Patients who rely on employer‐provided insurance and do not qualify for Medicaid may lose access to life‐saving treatments.ConclusionsIt is essential to implement interventions and policy changes in order to mitigate the effects of this pandemic but also to ensure this becomes a nonissue during the next one. ]]> <![CDATA[Early institutional head and neck oncologic and microvascular surgery practice patterns across the United States during the SARS‐CoV‐2 (COVID19) pandemic]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_16684 The SARS‐CoV‐2 (COVID‐19) pandemic has caused rapid changes in head and neck cancer (HNC) care. “Real‐time” methods to monitor practice patterns can optimize provider safety and patient care.MethodsHead and neck surgeons from 14 institutions in the United States regularly contributed their practice patterns to a shared spreadsheet. Data from 27 March 2020 to 5 April 2020 was analyzed.ResultsAll institutions had significantly restricted HNC clinic evaluations. Two institutions stopped free‐flap surgery with the remaining scheduling surgery by committee review. Factors contributing to reduced clinical volume included lack of personal protective equipment (PPE) (35%) and lack of rapid COVID‐19 testing (86%).ConclusionsThe COVID‐19 pandemic has caused a reduction in HNC care. Rapid COVID‐19 testing and correlation with infectious potential remain paramount to resuming the care of patients with head and neck cancer. Cloud‐based platforms to share practice patterns will be essential as the pandemic evolves. ]]> <![CDATA[Economic thoughts on the potential implications of COVID‐19 on the Canadian dairy and poultry sectors]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_16681 The dumping of milk, the offering of hospitality size goods in grocery stores, and the closure of processing facilities are examples of the disruptions caused by the pandemic to the dairy, poultry, and egg sectors. These supply management sectors, however, are more resilient to the impacts of COVID‐19 than other sectors as producers are generally more financially stable, losses are pooled, and production/marketing efforts are coordinated.

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<![CDATA[The COVID‐19 Pandemic: Anticipating its Effects on Canada's Agricultural Trade]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_16680 With the deep recession now forecast for the world economy, trade can be expected to fall even more steeply. Agricultural trade will be less significantly affected, being insulated by its relatively low income elasticities of demand. However, a drop in the range of 12 to 20 percent in real trade value should be expected. Canada can be expected to share in this, but, within agricultural exports, cereals will be least affected. This minimal expected impact to cereals stems from the risk of wheat export bans by Russia and Kazakhstan, due to the resulting increase in wheat prices. Livestock, pulses, and horticulture can be expected to face a larger decline in trade prospects and revenues. An equally large threat to falling incomes in our trade partners is their policy responses, particularly the potential increase in import restrictions. These may take the form of more costly inspections, tightened SPS and food safety regulations, and protectionist measures from competing domestic producers.

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<![CDATA[The impact of COVID‐19 on food retail and food service in Canada: Preliminary assessment]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_16675 COVID‐19 has imposed a series of unique challenges on the food retail and food service sectors in Canada. Almost overnight, the roughly 30% of the food dollar that Canadians have been spending on food away from home has shifted to retail.

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<![CDATA[Should we wait or not? The preferable option for patients with stage IV oral cancer in COVID‐19 pandemic]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_16669 The coronavirus infection is rapidly spreading, putting a strain on health care services across the globe. Patients with oral cancer are susceptible often immunosuppressed due to the disease and/or the treatment received.MethodsWe performed a simulation of the currently available data using a multistate and hazards model to provide an objective model for counseling and decision making for health care workers.ResultsStage IV patients with oral cancer who did not receive treatment had progression of disease and an increased mortality rate compared to patients who receive treatment but did not contract COVID‐19. The patients who received treatment and got affected with COVID‐19 had a far worse impact and higher mortality rate than all other groups.ConclusionIsolation and deferring treatment for stage IV patients with oral cancer, so as to avoid hospital visits and contraction of COVID‐19, is an advisable strategy based on this model. ]]> <![CDATA[Tracheostomy protocols during COVID‐19 pandemic]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_16662 The COVID‐19 pandemic has resulted in the implementation of rapidly changing protocols and guidelines related to the indications and perioperative precautions and protocols for tracheostomy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate current guidelines for tracheostomy during the COVID‐19 pandemic to provide a framework for health systems to prepare as the science evolves over the upcoming months and years.MethodsLiterature review was performed. Articles reporting clinical practice guidelines for tracheostomy in the context of COVID‐19 were included.ResultsA total of 13 tracheotomy guidelines were identified. Two were available via PubMed, five in society or organization websites, and six identified via health system websites or other sources. Five were from Otolaryngology‐Head and Neck Surgery specialties, six from Anesthesiology and one from Pulmonary/Critical Care. All (100%) studies recommended postponing elective OR cases in COVID‐19 positive patients, while seven recommended reducing team members to only essential staff and three recommended forming a designated tracheostomy team. Recommendations with supporting references are summarized in the article.ConclusionsTracheostomy guidelines during the COVID‐19 pandemic vary by physician groups and specialty, hospital systems, and supply‐chain/resource availability. This summary is provided as a point‐in‐time current state of the guidelines for tracheotomy management in April 2020 and is expected to change in coming weeks and months as the COVID‐19 pandemic, virus testing and antibody testing evolves. ]]> <![CDATA[COVID‐19 and the Canadian cattle/beef sector: Some preliminary analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_16653 Canada's cattle/beef sector has already weathered a shock after a 2003 case of BSE resulted in closed borders and industry restructuring. Now the sector has to adjust to similar shocks due to COVID‐19. This paper examines the supply chain from the consumer up to the cow‐calf producer by considering consumer reactions, labour market constraints, and supply response. A quarterly market model of North American cattle and beef markets is used to examine price and revenue impacts associated with the market disruptions. Depending on the scenario, there is considerable price and revenue suppression at all levels of the market.

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<![CDATA[Tracheostomy during SARS‐CoV‐2 pandemic: Recommendations from the New York Head and Neck Society]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_16650 The rapid spread of SARS‐CoV‐2 in 2019 and 2020 has resulted in a worldwide pandemic characterized by severe pulmonary inflammation, effusions, and rapid respiratory compromise. The result of this pandemic is a large and increasing number of patients requiring endotracheal intubation and prolonged ventilator support. The rapid rise in endotracheal intubations coupled with prolonged ventilation requirements will certainly lead to an increase in tracheostomy procedures in the coming weeks and months. Performing tracheostomy in the setting of active SARS‐CoV‐2, when necessary, poses a unique situation, with unique risks and benefits for both the patient and the health care providers. The New York Head and Neck Society has collaborated on this document to provide guidance on the performance of tracheostomies during the SARS‐CoV‐2 pandemic.

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<![CDATA[Economic thoughts on COVID‐19 for Canadian food processors]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_16649 In this paper, I explore the potential effects of the COVID‐19 pandemic on Canadian food processors. First, COVID‐19 may have an impact on food processing economic activities because of supply and demand shocks. Second, the impact of COVID‐19 on food processing may depend on the type of products and the size of the processors. The effects of measures taken by the government to flatten the epidemiological curve on the economic activities of the food processing sector are uncertain.

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<![CDATA[Food supply chains during the COVID‐19 pandemic]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_16648 This paper provides an early assessment of the implications of the COVID‐19 pandemic for food supply chains and supply chain resilience. The effects of demand‐side shocks on food supply chains are discussed, including consumer panic buying behaviors with respect to key items, and the sudden change in consumption patterns away from the food service sector to meals prepared and consumed at home. Potential supply‐side disruptions to food supply chains are assessed, including labor shortages, disruptions to transportation networks, and “thickening” of the Canada–U.S. border with respect to the movement of goods. Finally, the paper considers whether the COVID‐19 pandemic will have longer‐lasting effects on the nature of food supply chains, including the growth of the online grocery delivery sector, and the extent to which consumers will prioritize “local” food supply chains.

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<![CDATA[Transition to a virtual multidisciplinary tumor board during the COVID‐19 pandemic: University of Pittsburgh experience]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_16628 Multidisciplinary conferences (MDC) are an important component of head and neck oncologic care including diagnosis, treatment, and survivorship. Virtual MDC allows for improved collaboration between providers at distant sites and proper allocation of health care resources in a time of crisis. When approached systematically, a virtual MDC is feasible to design and implement in a large academic medical center with multiple satellite hospitals.

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