ResearchPad - special-report Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Overcoming nonstructural protein 15-nidoviral uridylate-specific endoribonuclease (nsp15/NendoU) activity of SARS-CoV-2]]>

Replicase–transcriptase complex of SARS-CoV-2 & ‘double-hit hypothesis’ (Key: CoV-coronavirus, PLpro-Papain-like protease, 3CLpro-3CL protease, RdRp-RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, NendoU-endoribonuclease, ExoN exoribonuclease, 2′-O-Mtase-2′-O-ribose methyltransferase)

<![CDATA[3D-Printing to Address COVID-19 Testing Supply Shortages]]> The recent SARS-CoV-2 outbreak has placed immense pressure on supply chains, including shortages in nasopharyngeal (NP) swabs. Here, we report our experience of using 3D-printing to rapidly develop and deploy custom-made NP swabs to address supply shortages at our healthcare institution.

<![CDATA[Quadruple therapy for asymptomatic COVID-19 infection patients]]> Introduction: The novel coronavirus (COVID-19) is currently in epidemic stage. After large-scale interpersonal infection, asymptomatic patients appear. Whether asymptomatic patients are contagious or not and whether they need medication are the arguments among clinical experts.

Areas covered: This paper reports a special asymptomatic couple with COVID-19, of which the male patient is an intercity bus driver but has not induced confirmed infection of his 188 passengers. The patients were treated with four combinations of lopinavir/ritonavir tablets, arbidol tablets, Lianhuaqingwen granules, and recombinant human interferon-α2b (IFN-α2b) injection via aerosol. Their clinical characteristics and medication were summarized and analyzed.

Expert opinion: The two asymptomatic patients far away from Wuhan did not seem to be highly contagious. They improved obviously, after treatment with the quadruple therapy, but the effective drug is still unknown. It should be noted that lopinavir/ritonavir tablets have many drug interactions and are the most likely drugs to cause hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia in these two patients. IFN-α2b is more effective in the early stage of virus infection. Arbidol instruction dose may not be sufficient to inhibit the novel coronavirus in vivo. The evidence-based medicine of Lianhuaqingwen granules for treating various viral infections is just based on Chinese patients.

<![CDATA[Endovascular Therapy for Patients With Acute Ischemic Stroke During the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Proposed Algorithm]]> <![CDATA[Mechanical Thrombectomy in the Era of the COVID-19 Pandemic: Emergency Preparedness for Neuroscience Teams]]> <![CDATA[Report from the COVID-19 Virtual Summit, <i>Disaster Experts Speak Out</i>, March 31, 2020]]> This article captures the webinar narrative on March 31, 2020 of four expert panelists addressing three questions on the current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Each panelist was selected for their unique personal expertise, ranging from front-line emergency physicians from multiple countries, an international media personality, former director of the US Strategic National Stockpile, and one of the foremost international experts in disaster medicine and public policy. The forum was moderated by one of the most widely recognized disaster medical experts in the world. The four panelists were asked three questions regarding the current pandemic as follows:1.What do you see as a particular issue of concern during the current pandemic?2.What do you see as a particular strength during the current pandemic?3.If you could change one thing about the way that the pandemic response is occurring, what would you change?

<![CDATA[Colorectal cancer care in the age of coronavirus: strategies to reduce risk and maintain benefit]]> ]]> <![CDATA[Is there a role for tissue plasminogen activator as a novel treatment for refractory COVID-19 associated acute respiratory distress syndrome?]]> ]]> <![CDATA[Renin–Angiotensin–Aldosterone System Inhibitors in Patients with Covid-19]]> ]]> <![CDATA[CDC’s Multiple Approaches to Safeguard the Health, Safety, and Resilience of Ebola Responders]]>

Over 27,000 people were sickened by Ebola and over 11,000 people died between March of 2014 and June of 2016. The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC; Atlanta, Georgia USA) was one of many public health organizations that sought to stop this outbreak. This agency deployed almost 2,000 individuals to West Africa during that timeframe. Deployment to these countries exposed these individuals to a wide variety of dangers, stressors, and risks.

Being concerned about the at-risk populations in Africa, and also the well-being of its professionals who willingly deployed, the CDC did several things to help safeguard the health, safety, and resilience of these team members before, during, and after deployment.

The accompanying special report highlights innovative pre-deployment training initiatives, customized screening processes, and post-deployment outreach efforts intended to protect and support the public health professionals fighting Ebola. Before deploying, the CDC team members were expected to participate in both internally-created and externally-provided trainings. These ranged from pre-deployment briefings, to Preparing for Work Overseas (PFWO) and Public Health Readiness Certificate Program (PHRCP) courses, to Incident Command System (ICS) 100, 200, and 400 courses.

A small subset of non-clinical deployers also participated in a three-day training designed in collaboration with the Center for the Study of Traumatic Stress (CSTS; Bethesda, Maryland USA) to train individuals to assess and address the well-being and resilience of themselves and their teammates in the field during a deployment. Participants in this unique training were immersed in a Virtual Reality Environment (VRE) that simulated deployment to one of seven different types of emergencies.

The CDC leadership also requested a pre-deployment screening process that helped professionals in the CDC’s Occupational Health Clinic (OHC) determine whether or not individuals were at an increased risk of negative outcomes by participating in a rigorous deployment at that time.

When deployers returned from the field, they received personalized invitations to participate in a voluntary, confidential, post-deployment operational debriefing one-on-one or in a group.

Implementing these approaches provided more information to clinical decision makers about the readiness of deployers. It provided deployers with a greater awareness of the kinds of challenges they were likely to face in the field. The post-deployment outreach efforts reminded staff that their contributions were appreciated and there were resources available if they needed help processing any of the potentially-traumatizing things they may have experienced.

<![CDATA[Molecular Insights into Classic Examples of Evolution]]> ]]> <![CDATA[Molecular detection and point-of-care testing in Ebola virus disease and other threats: a new global public health framework to stop outbreaks]]>

Ultrahigh sensitivity and specificity assays that detect Ebola virus disease or other highly contagious and deadly diseases quickly and successfully upstream in Spatial Care Paths™ can stop outbreaks from escalating into devastating epidemics ravaging communities locally and countries globally. Even had the WHO and CDC responded more quickly and not misjudged the dissemination of Ebola in West Africa and other world regions, mobile rapid diagnostics were, and still are, not readily available for immediate and definitive diagnosis, a stunning strategic flaw that needs correcting worldwide. This article strategizes point-of-care testing for diagnosis, triage, monitoring, recovery and stopping outbreaks in the USA and other countries; reviews Ebola molecular diagnostics, summarizes USA FDA emergency use authorizations and documents why they should not be stop-gaps; and reduces community risk from internal and external infectious disease threats by enabling public health at points of need.

<![CDATA[Human coronavirus NL63: a clinically important virus?]]>

Respiratory tract infection is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, especially among young children. Human coronaviruses (HCoVs) have only recently been shown to cause both lower and upper respiratory tract infections. To date, five coronaviruses (HCoV-229E, HCoV-OC43, SARS-CoV, HCoV-NL63 and HCoV HKU-1) that infect humans have been identified, four of which (HCoV-229E, HCoV-OC43, HCoV-NL63 and HCoV-HKU-1) circulate continuously in the human population. Human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63) was first isolated from the aspirate from a 7-month-old baby in early 2004. Infection with HCoV-NL63 has since been shown to be a common worldwide occurrence and has been associated with many clinical symptoms and diagnoses, including severe lower respiratory tract infection, croup and bronchiolitis. HCoV-NL63 causes disease in children, the elderly and the immunocompromised, and has been detected in 1.0–9.3% of respiratory tract infections in children. In this article, the current knowledge of human coronavirus HCoV-NL63, with special reference to the clinical features, prevalence and seasonal incidence, and coinfection with other respiratory viruses, will be discussed.

<![CDATA[Clinical Practice Guidelines for Achondroplasia*]]>


Achondroplasia (ACH) is a skeletal dysplasia that presents with limb shortening, short stature, and characteristic facial configuration. ACH is caused by mutations of the FGFR3 gene, leading to constantly activated FGFR3 and activation of its downstream intracellular signaling pathway. This results in the suppression of chondrocyte differentiation and proliferation, which in turn impairs endochondral ossification and causes short-limb short stature. ACH also causes characteristic clinical symptoms, including foramen magnum narrowing, ventricular enlargement, sleep apnea, upper airway stenosis, otitis media, a narrow thorax, spinal canal stenosis, spinal kyphosis, and deformities of the lower extremities. Although outside Japan, papers on health supervision are available, they are based on reports and questionnaire survey results. Considering the scarcity of high levels of evidence and clinical guidelines for patients with ACH, clinical practical guidelines have been developed to assist both healthcare professionals and patients in making appropriate decisions in specific clinical situations. Eleven clinical questions were established and a systematic literature search was conducted using PubMed/MEDLINE. Evidence-based recommendations were developed, and the guidelines describe the recommendations related to the clinical management of ACH. We anticipate that these clinical practice guidelines for ACH will be useful for healthcare professionals and patients alike.

<![CDATA[Clinical Practice Guidelines for Hypophosphatasia*]]>


Hypophosphatasia (HPP) is a rare bone disease caused by inactivating mutations in the ALPL gene, which encodes tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNSALP). Patients with HPP have varied clinical manifestations and are classified based on the age of onset and severity. Recently, enzyme replacement therapy using bone-targeted recombinant alkaline phosphatase (ALP) has been developed, leading to improvement in the prognosis of patients with life-threatening HPP. Considering these recent advances, clinical practice guidelines have been generated to provide physicians with guides for standard medical care for HPP and to support their clinical decisions. A task force was convened for this purpose, and twenty-one clinical questions (CQs) were formulated, addressing the issues of clinical manifestations and diagnosis (7 CQs) and those of management and treatment (14 CQs). A systematic literature search was conducted using PubMed/MEDLINE, and evidence-based recommendations were developed. The guidelines have been modified according to the evaluations and suggestions from the Clinical Guideline Committee of The Japanese Society for Pediatric Endocrinology (JSPE) and public comments obtained from the members of the JSPE and a Japanese HPP patient group, and then approved by the Board of Councils of the JSPE. We anticipate that the guidelines will be revised regularly and updated.

<![CDATA[Chronic kidney disease of non-traditional origin in Mesoamerica: a disease primarily driven by occupational heat stress]]>


The death toll of the epidemic of chronic kidney disease of nontraditional origin (CKDnt) in Mesoamerica runs into the tens of thousands, affecting mostly young men. There is no consensus on the etiology. Anecdotal evidence from the 1990s pointed to work in sugarcane; pesticides and heat stress were suspected. Subsequent population-based surveys supported an occupational origin with overall high male-female ratios in high-risk lowlands, but small sex differences within occupational categories, and low prevalence in non-workers. CKDnt was reported in sugarcane and other high-intensity agriculture, and in non-agricultural occupations with heavy manual labor in hot environments, but not among subsistence farmers. Recent studies with stronger designs have shown cross-shift changes in kidney function and hydration biomarkers and cross-harvest kidney function declines related to heat and workload. The implementation of a water-rest-shade intervention midharvest in El Salvador appeared to halt declining kidney function among cane cutters. In Nicaragua a water-rest-shade program appeared sufficient to prevent kidney damage among cane workers with low-moderate workload but not among cutters with heaviest workload. Studies on pesticides and infectious risk factors have been largely negative. Non-occupational risk factors do not explain the observed epidemiologic patterns. In conclusion, work is the main driver of the CKDnt epidemic in Mesoamerica, with occupational heat stress being the single uniting factor shown to lead to kidney dysfunction in affected populations. Sugarcane cutters with extreme heat stress could be viewed as a sentinel occupational population. Occupational heat stress prevention is critical, even more so in view of climate change.

<![CDATA[Assisted reproductive technology in Japan: A summary report for 2017 by the Ethics Committee of the Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology]]>



The Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology (JSOG) has collected cycle‐based assisted reproductive technology (ART) data in an online registry since 2007. Herein, we present the characteristics and treatment outcomes of ART cycles registered during 2017.


We collected cycle‐specific information for all ART cycles implemented at participating facilities and performed descriptive analysis.


In total, 448,210 treatment cycles and 56,617 neonates (1 in 16.7 neonates born in Japan) were reported in 2017, increased from 2016; the number of initiated fresh cycles decreased for the first time ever. The mean patient age was 38.0 years (standard deviation 4.6). A total 110,641 of 245,205 egg retrieval cycles (45.1%) were freeze‐all cycles; fresh embryo transfer (ET) was performed in 55,720 cycles. A total 194,415 frozen‐thawed ET cycles were reported, resulting in 66,881 pregnancies and 47,807 neonates born. Single ET (SET) was performed in 81.8% of fresh transfers and 83.4% of frozen cycles, with singleton pregnancy/live birth rates of 97.5%/97.3% and 96.7%/96.6%, respectively.


Total ART cycles and subsequent live births increased continuously in 2017, whereas the number of initiated fresh cycles decreased. SET was performed in over 80% of cases, and ET shifted from using fresh embryos to frozen ones.

<![CDATA[Zebrafish VEGF Receptors: A Guideline to Nomenclature]]> ]]> <![CDATA[National Training and Education Standards for Health and Wellness Coaching: The Path to National Certification]]>

The purpose of this article is twofold: (1) to announce the findings of the job task analysis as well as national training and education standards for health and wellness coaching (HWC) that have been developed by the large-scale, collaborative efforts of the National Consortium for Credentialing Health and Wellness Coaches (NCCHWC) and (2) to invite commentary from the public. The rapid proliferation of individuals and organizations using the terms of health and/or wellness coaches and the propagation of private industry and academic coach training and education programs endeavoring to prepare these coaches has created an urgent and pressing need for national standards for use of the term health and wellness coach, as well as minimal requirements for training, education, and certification. Professionalizing the field with national standards brings a clear and consistent definition of health and wellness coaching and accepted practice standards that are uniform across the field. In addition, clear standards allow for uniform curricular criteria to ensure a minimal benchmark for education, training, and skills and knowledge evaluation of professional health and wellness coaches.

<![CDATA[Behavioral disorder in people with an intellectual disability and epilepsy: A report of the Intellectual Disability Task Force of the Neuropsychiatric Commission of ILAE ]]>


The management and needs of people with intellectual disability (ID) and epilepsy are well evidenced; less so, the comorbidity of behavioral disorder in this population. “Behavioral disorder” is defined as behaviors that are difficult or disruptive, including stereotypes, difficult or disruptive behavior, aggressive behavior toward other people, behaviors that lead to injury to self or others, and destruction of property. These have an important link to emotional disturbance. This report, produced by the Intellectual Disability Task Force of the Neuropsychiatric Commission of the ILAE, aims to provide a brief review of some key areas of concern regarding behavioral disorder among this population and proposes a range of research and clinical practice recommendations generated by task force members. The areas covered in this report were identified by experts in the field as being of specific relevance to the broad epilepsy community when considering behavioral disorder in persons with epilepsy and ID; they are not intended to be exhaustive. The practice recommendations are based on the authors’ review of the limited research in this field combined with their experience supporting this population. These points are not graded but can be seen as expert opinion guiding future research and clinical practice.