ResearchPad - sports https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Impact of Bone Mineral Density on the Incidence of Age-Related Vertebral Fragility Fracture]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_10899

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<![CDATA[A descriptive cross sectional study comparing barriers and determinants of physical activity of Sri Lankan middle aged and older adults]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7830 Benefits of physical activities are numerous. Barriers for physical exercise may differ among middle aged and older adults. Therefore, identifying and comparing the barriers for participating in regular physical exercises among middle aged and older adults will be useful in designing age specific physical exercise programmes.MethodsThis descriptive cross sectional study was carried out among 206 Sri Lankan adults in the age range of 40–84 years in the Colombo North region of Sri Lanka using culturally validated questionnaires to determine and compare the barriers and factors associated with regular physical activity participation. Majority were males (56%) and 54% were < 60 years. People in the age range of 40–59 years were considered as middle age and ≥ 60 years as older adults. Bivariate analysis and multivariate analysis was carried out to determine the significant factors that are associated with regular physical activity participation.ResultsLack of free time (52%), feeling too lazy (26%) and bad weather (29%) were the main barriers for the participants. In < 60 years, high level of income (p = 0.008) and in ≥ 60 years, being a male (p = 0.016), having a high level of education (P = 0.002) and a high BMI (p = 0.002) had a significant negative association with the level of physical activities.ConclusionsContrary to findings from surveys in several developed countries, this study showed that having a high level of education and being a male were strongly related with lack of physical activity participation. ]]> <![CDATA[Association between attending exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation and cardiovascular risk factors at one-year post myocardial infarction]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7688 Randomized trials confirm the benefits of exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation on cardiovascular risk factors. Whether exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation provides the same favourable effects in real-life cardiac rehabilitation settings, in the modern era of myocardial infarction treatment, is less well known. We examined the association between attending exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation and improvements in cardiovascular risk factors at one-year post myocardial infarction in patients included in the Swedish heart disease registry, SWEDEHEART.MethodsIn this retrospective registry-based cohort study, we included 19 136 patients post myocardial infarction (75% men, 62.8±8.7 years) who were registered in SWEDEHEART between 2011 and 2013. The association between attending exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation (43% participation rate) and changes in cardiovascular risk profile between baseline and one-year follow-up was assessed using multivariable regression analysis adjusting for age, comorbidities and medication.ResultsAttenders more often reported to have stopped smoking (men 64% vs 50%; women 64% vs 53%, p<0.001 for both, only smokers at baseline considered), be more physically active (men 3.9±2.5 vs 3.4±2.7 days/week; women 3.8±2.6 vs 3.0±2.8 days/week, p<0.001 for both) and achieved a slightly larger reduction in triglycerides (men -0.2±0.8 vs -0.1±0.9 mmol/L, p = 0.001; women -0.1±0.6 vs 0.0±0.8 mmol/L, p = 0.01) at one-year compared to non-attenders. Male attenders gained less weight (+0.0±5.7 vs +0.3±5.7 kg, p = 0.01) while female attenders achieved better lipid control (total cholesterol -1.2±1.4 vs -0.9±1.4 mmol/L, p<0.001; low-density lipoprotein -1.2±1.2 vs -0.9 ±1.2 mmol/L, p<0.001) compared to non-attenders.ConclusionsIn an unselected registry cohort of patients post myocardial infarction, compared to non-attenders those attending exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation achieved significantly larger improvements in cardiovascular risk factors at one-year after the acute event. ]]> <![CDATA[The relationship of recreational runners’ motivation and resilience levels to the incidence of injury: A mediation model]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7663 Running participation has increased significantly in the last decade. Despite its association with different health-related aspects, athletes may experience adverse outcomes, including injuries. The aim of this study was twofold: to examine the relationship between runners’ resilience levels, motivation and incidence of injury, on the one hand; and to analyse the mediation that intrinsic and extrinsic motivation has on the association between the number of injuries and psychological resilience levels among amateur athletes. The sample consisted of a total of 1725 runners (age: 40.40 ± 9.39 years), 1261 of whom were male (age: 43.16 ± 9.38), and 465 of whom were female (age: 40.34 ± 9.14). Athletes completed the Behavioural Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire (BREQ-3), the Resilience scale (CD-RISC 10), and an Injury retrospective survey. Three mediation models were constructed, and the results showed a significant indirect association of athletes’ intrinsic motivation and resilience on the number of injuries (β = 0.022, CI = 0.007, 0.0) in mediation model 1, whereas extrinsic motivation was found to have no significant association on those variables (β = -0.062, CI = -0.137, 0.009) in mediation model 2. Model 3 showed significant differences with respect to resilience (p < 0.05) and intrinsic motivation (p < 0.05). Therefore, the mediation of intrinsic motivation on athletes’ resilience levels and incidence of injury was demonstrated, i.e., it was found that intrinsic motivation was associated with a higher incidence of injury, while no such correlation was found for extrinsic motivation. This study shows that the amateur long distance runners with a high level of intrinsic motivation tend to suffer from a greater number of injuries, and at the same time psychological resilience was associated with a lower number of injuries.

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<![CDATA[Family-based habit intervention to promote parent support for child physical activity in Canada: protocol for a randomised trial]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nf8f2cd45-53f8-402f-a5cd-daf81095f95a Regular physical activity (PA) participation has many important physical and psychological health benefits, managing and preventing over 25 chronic conditions. Being more physically active as a child is associated with being more active as an adult, but less than 10% of Canadian children are achieving the recommended PA guidelines of 60 minutes per day of moderate to vigorous PA. Parental support is a predictor of child PA, but parent intention to support child PA does not always predict enacted support. Targeting factors that assist in the sustainability of parent support behaviour of child PA may have an impact on child PA. The purpose of this study is to evaluate an intervention designed to promote habit formation of parental support (HABIT, independent variable) on child PA (dependant variable) compared with a planning and education group (PLANNING) and an education only group (EDUCATION).Methods and analysisThe three conditions will be compared using a 6-month longitudinal randomised trial. Eligible families have at least one child aged 6–12 years who is not meeting the 2011 Canadian PA Guidelines. Intervention materials are delivered at baseline, with check-in sessions at 6 weeks and 3 months. Child’s moderate-to-vigorous PA, measured by accelerometry, is assessed at baseline, 6 weeks, 3 months and 6 months as the primary outcome. At baseline and 6 months, children perform fitness testing. Parents and children complete questionnaires at all timepoints. So far, 123 families have been recruited from the Greater Victoria and surrounding area. Recruitment will be continuing through 2020 with a target of 240 families.Ethics and disseminationThis protocol has been approved by the University of Victoria Human Research Ethics Board (Victoria, Canada). Results will be shared at conferences as presentations and as published manuscripts. Study findings will be made available to interested participants.Trial registration numberNCT03145688; Pre-results ]]> <![CDATA[‘In search of lost time’: Identifying the causative role of cumulative competition load and competition time-loss in professional tennis using a structural nested mean model]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N4f3da08e-598e-44d5-a4f3-a2c64fcebd1f

Injury prevention is critical to the achievement of peak performance in elite sport. For professional tennis players, the topic of injury prevention has gained even greater importance in recent years as multiple of the best male players have been sidelined owing to injury. Identifying potential causative factors of injury is essential for the development of effective prevention strategies, yet such research is hampered by incomplete data, the complexity of injury etiology, and observational study biases. The present study attempts to address these challenges by focusing on competition load and time-loss to competition—a completely observable risk factor and outcome—and using a structural nested mean model (SNMM) to identify the potential causal role of cumulative competition load on the risk of time-loss. Using inverse probability of treatment weights to balance exposure histories with respect to player ability, past injury, and consecutive competition weeks at each time point; the SNMM analysis of 389 professional male players and 55,773 weeks of competition found that total load significantly increases the risk of time-loss (HR = 1.05 per 1,000 games of additional load 95% CI 1.01-1.10) and this effect becomes magnified with age. Standard regression showed a protective effect of load, highlighting the value of more robust causal methods in the study of dynamic exposures and injury in sport and the need for further applications of these methods for understanding how time-loss and injuries of elite athletes might be prevented in the future.

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<![CDATA[Optimal Cut-Off Value of the Coracohumeral Ligament Area as a Morphological Parameter to Confirm Frozen Shoulder]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N088c5d8b-60c2-42d7-bc22-79f71b3f2ab8

Background

Thickened coracohumeral ligament (CHL) is one of the important morphological changes of frozen shoulder (FS). Previous research reported that coracohumeral ligament thickness (CHLT) is correlated with anterior glenohumeral instability, rotator interval and eventually FS. However, thickness may change depending on the cutting angle, and measurement point. To reduce measurement mistakes, we devised a new imaging criteria, called the coracohumeral ligament area (CHLA).

Methods

CHL data were collected and analyzed from 52 patients with FS, and from 51 control subjects (no evidence of FS). Shoulder magnetic resonance imaging was performed in all subjects. We investigated the CHLT and CHLA at the maximal thickened view of the CHL using our picture archiving and communications system. The CHLA was measured as the whole area of the CHL including the most hypertrophied part of the MR images on the oblique sagittal plane. The CHLT was measured at the thickest point of the CHL.

Results

The average CHLA was 40.88 ± 12.53 mm2 in the control group and 67.47 ± 19.88 mm2 in the FS group. The mean CHLT was 2.84 ± 0.67 mm in the control group and 4.01 ± 1.11 mm in the FS group. FS patients had significantly higher CHLA (P < 0.01) and CHLT (P < 0.01) than the control group. The receiver operator characteristic analysis showed that the most suitable cut-off score of the CHLA was 50.01 mm2, with 76.9% sensitivity, 76.5% specificity, and area under the curve (AUC) of 0.87. The most suitable cut-off value of the CHLT was 3.30 mm, with 71.2% sensitivity, 70.6% specificity, and AUC of 0.81.

Conclusion

The significantly positive correlation between the CHLA, CHLT and FS was found. We also demonstrate that the CHLA has statistically equivalent power to CHLT. Thus, for diagnosis of FS, the treating physician can refer to CHLA as well as CHLT.

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<![CDATA[Prevalence of depressive symptoms among Italian medical students: The multicentre cross-sectional “PRIMES” study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N89095419-220d-4d38-944c-d00bb778cf6f

Background

Four percent of the world’s population suffers from depression, which is a major public health issue. Medical students are at risk, as their depressive symptoms (DS) prevalence is reported to be approximately 27% worldwide. Since few data on Italian medical students exist, this study aimed to estimate their DS prevalence and assess risk and protective factors.

Methods

The PRIMES was a multicentre cross-sectional study performed in 12 Italian medical schools. Questionnaires were self-reported and included 30 sociodemographic items and the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II). The primary outcome was the presence of DS (BDI-II score≥14). The main analyses were chi-squared tests and multivariable logistic regressions with a p-value<0.05 considered significant.

Results

The number of collected questionnaires was 2,513 (117 BDI-II incomplete). Females accounted for 61.3% of the respondents, and the median age was 22 years (IQR = 4). The prevalence of DS was 29.5%. Specifically, 14.0% had mild depression, 11.1% had moderate depression, and 4.5% had severe depression. The main risk factors for DS were age, being female, bisexual/asexual orientation, living with partner/housemates, poor economic status (worsened by living far from home), less than 90 min of weekly exercise, relatives with psychiatric disorders, personal chronic disease, judging medical school choice negatively, unsatisfying friendships with classmates, competitive and hostile climate among classmates, thinking that medical school hinders specific activities and being worried about not measuring up to the profession. Protective factors included family cohesion, hobbies, intellectual curiosity as a career motivation and no worries about the future.

Conclusion

Italian medical students are at high risk of reporting DS, similar to the global population of medical students’. Medical schools must make efforts to implement preventive and treatment interventions by offering counselling and working on modifiable factors, such as lifestyle and learning climate.

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<![CDATA[Analysis of team-sport wheelchair falls during the Rio 2016 Summer Paralympic Games: a video-based cross-sectional observational study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nbe9a95f1-7e71-4291-b688-43612e4252f6

Objectives

To present the fall characteristics of athletes playing wheelchair rugby (WR) and wheelchair basketball (WB) using official videos from the Rio 2016 Paralympic Games and compare the key fall characteristics among the team wheelchair sports event.

Methods

Eighteen WR and 10 WB game videos for men (MWB) and women (WWB), including 8 teams per sport, were obtained from the official International Paralympic Committee of the Rio 2016 Paralympic Games. The videos were analysed to assess the number of falls, playing time of fall, playing phase, contact with other athletes, the direction of the fall and the body part first in contact with the floor during the fall.

Results

In total, 359 falls (96 for WR, 172 for MWB and 91 for WWB) occurred with a mean of 5.3, 17.2 and 9.1 falls per match, respectively (p<0.05). Significant differences among the three sports were detected in the playing time (p=0.011), presence of contact (p=0.037), direction (p<0.001) and body part first in contact with the floor (p<0.001). For WR, the falls were primarily lateral and caused by contact, occurring in the second half of the match. WB falls tended to be in the first half for women and the second half for men. Most falls were contact falls in the forward direction.

Conclusion

By observing the situational details, we described that a number of falls due to contact occurred during these team sports events, especially MWB. In addition, each sport exhibited characteristics attributable to differences in gender, degree of impairment and game rules. The directions of the falls and characteristics of the affected body parts indicate differences in impairments depending on the sport. A fall to the side or back may indicate a risk of injury.

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<![CDATA[Guidelines about physical activity and exercise to reduce cardiometabolic risk factors: protocol for a systematic review and critical appraisal]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N32ab355f-f047-4944-9a79-808fc3bbfde4

Introduction

Physical activity can prevent a wide range of diseases, including highly prevalent conditions such as heart disease, diabetes and associated cardiometabolic disorders. Numerous guidelines for the prescription of physical activity and exercise to promote general health and prevent disease are released each year, but the quality of these guidelines is currently unknown. This systematic review and critical appraisal of physical activity and exercise guidelines aims to summarise the current status and quality of these guidelines to provide suggestions to improve the development of future guidelines in this area.

Methods and analysis

We will conduct a systematic review of guidelines in Ovid MEDLINE(R) and Epub Ahead of Print, In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, and Daily, Ovid EMBASE, Ovid Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Ovid Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and Scopus databases published from database 2000 through 23 October 2019, written in English for the use of physical activity and exercise for the prevention of cardiometabolic disease and related risk factors in otherwise healthy individuals. We will also search the grey literature for additional eligible documents. We will use the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation II tool to assess the quality of eligible recommendations from all included guidelines, as well as perform exploratory analyses on guideline development variables.

Ethics and dissemination

As a protocol for the review and critical appraisal of published documents, no potential ethical considerations are discussed. The protocol will guide the development of the review, which will be disseminated to relevant journals for publication.

PROSPERO registration number

CRD42019126364

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<![CDATA[The Effects of Circuit Strength Training on the Development of Physical Fitness and Performance-Related Variables in Handball Players]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N9776a014-b9ba-40be-a253-d6619c17fd0f

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of 12 weeks of circuit training on physical fitness in handball players. Subjects were randomly divided into a circuit strength training group (CT, n = 10) and a control group (CG, n = 9). Training sessions and matches were performed together, but during the 12-week intervention, the experimental group replaced part of the regular regimen with circuit strength training. Measures assessed in both groups before and after the intervention included: the agility T-half Test, the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test, squat and counter-movement jumps, 15 m and 30 m sprints, and strength tests for the bench press, pull over, and the half squat. The upper limb bench press and pull-over tests along with the lower limb back half squat were performed using a 1-repetition maximum protocol. Based on the intraclass correlation coefficient and excluding the agility T-test (ICC = 0.72), we found excellent relative reliability for all variables (intraclass correlation coefficient range: 0.85-0.96, SEM range: 0.03-3.00). For absolute reliability or coefficients of variation, 71% (5/7) of the variables were excellent (CV < 5%). The circuit strength training group showed significant interaction effects and relevant effect sizes for the 12-week training period (8/9, 89%), and the mean effect size for the CT was markedly higher (d = 1.3, range: 0.41 - 2.76) than in the CG (d = - 1.0, range: -0.73 - 0.29). The largest improvements were in the Yo-Yo test (d = 2.76) and the squat jump (d = 2.05). These results show that a 12-week circuit strength training program is an effective method to increase handball-related performance characteristics.

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<![CDATA[The Effect of Neurofeedback Training on the Visual Processing Efficiency in Judo Athletes]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N292e9815-6aef-4101-98a7-da5797e3ce0f

Abstract

This study aimed to analyse the effect of neurofeedback (NFB) training based on beta-wave amplification and theta-wave inhibition on the visual processing efficiency of judo athletes. The study examined 12 male athletes from the national team of the Polish Judo Association. Participants were divided into the experimental (EG, n = 6) and the control group (CG, n = 6). The NFB training protocol was performed and recorded using a Deymed Truscan system with 24 active channels. The effect of NFB training was examined by computer-based simple and complex reaction tests and selected tests of the Vienna Test System (VST). One – way ANOVA showed statistically significant differences between the CG and the EG in theta and beta values after the first and the second cycle of training. There were statistically significant differences between the CG and the EG in the results of reaction speed tests after individual cycles of training. The highest reduction in simple reaction time was obtained after the second training cycle, when training was performed every second day and lasted four minutes.

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<![CDATA[Technical Performance and Perceived Exertion Variations Between Small-Sided Basketball Games in Under-14 and Under-16 Competitive Levels]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N7c5f4254-3a13-4456-a7a9-93930b6a24e3

Abstract

The aim of this study was twofold: i) to compare the rate of perceived exertion (RPE) and the frequencies of technical actions per minute in different small-sided games (SSGs) between under-14 and under-16 age groups, and ii) to compare the RPE and the frequencies of technical actions per minute between 1 x 1, 2 x 2, 3 x 3, 4 x 4 and 5 x 5 formats within age groups. Twenty young male basketball players from the same club (N = 10, from under-14; N = 10, from under-16) competing at the national level voluntarily participated in this study. Five different SSGs (1 x 1, 2 x 2, 3 x 3, 4 x 4 and 5 x 5) were played twice on courts of the same relative area and were compared in terms of the RPE and technical actions. The number of technical-tactical actions per minute, i.e. conquered balls (CB), received balls (RB), lost balls (LB), attacking balls/passes (AB), shots (S), rebounds (R), and the RPE were collected for each player for each SSG session. The results revealed that most of the differences between age groups were considered trivial/small and/or unclear for all SSG formats, though likely moderate differences between age groups were found in 1 x 1 and 2 x 2 SSGs, revealing that young players had greater frequencies of received, conquered, and lost balls. Within-age-group comparisons also showed moderate-to-large increases in technical actions during smaller formats than during larger ones. The main evidence of this study revealed that age group seemed not to largely influence the RPE or technical actions during different SSGs. However, smaller formats moderately-to-largely increased the number of technical actions. Interestingly, the biggest format (5 x 5) largely increased the RPE in comparison to the remaining formats. As a conclusion, technical actions and the RPE were influenced more by the format of play than by the age group.

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<![CDATA[The Use of Small-Sided Games as an Aerobic Fitness Assessment Supplement Within Elite Level Professional Soccer]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Na995a317-828c-4a09-9aa3-3b3b1c40fbc6

Abstract

The purpose of this investigation was to quantify the association between 5 vs. 5 small sided games (SSG) running performance and physiological performance during the Yo-YoIR1 test to ascertain the utility of SSGs as a potential fitness test modality within elite professional soccer players. Twenty-three (n = 23) elite male professional soccer players (mean ± SD age 25.3 ± 3.1 yrs, mass: 76 ± 9 kg, height: 176 ± 9 cm) were assessed. Players completed an intermittent aerobic fitness test (Yo-YoIR1) and a 5 vs. 5 SSGs protocol for the purpose of the study. During all SSGs players wore GPS (Statsports 10-Hz, Viper Pod, Newry, Northern Ireland) and HR monitors (Polar, Oy Kemple, Finland) with these measures related to Yo-YoIR1 running performance. Results revealed SSGs running performance (TD; m) and physiological performance (HR) showed the lowest CV% (< 5%), with high speed movements, accelerations and decelerations highlighting higher CV% during SSGs. Possibly small to possibly very large associations were observed for running performance during 5 vs. 5 SSGs and Yo-YoIR1 performance, with negative associations observed between physiological performance during SSG and YoYoIR1 running performance. To conclude, the current study observed how running performance during a standardised 5 vs. 5 SSG protocol within elite soccer cohorts is associated with the Yo-YoIR1 running performance. Given the low CV%, repeatability and large association of global running performance and internal load measures during a 5 vs. 5 SSG with Yo-YoIR1 performance, this particular soccer specific SSG protocol potentially supplements traditional non-sport specific testing assessments.

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<![CDATA[Effect of an Inside Floater on Soccer Players Tactical Behaviour in Small Sided and Conditioned Games]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N92ea62b2-27f1-4a6e-980e-db6e7d83244c

Abstract

The aim of this study was to verify the effect of an inside floater on soccer players’ tactical behaviour in small-sided and conditioned games (SSCGs). The sample comprised 54 Brazilian top-level academy players. The instrument used to assess players’ tactical behaviour was the System of Tactical Assessment in Soccer (FUT-SAT). Tactical behaviour was analysed through the number of tactical actions and the percentage of correct actions regarding the core tactical principles of soccer. Repeated measures test was used to compare tactical behaviour between games (SSCGs) with and without an inside floater. Pearson’s r was used to verify the effect size of the inside floater on tactical behaviour. As for tactical actions, SSCGs with an inside floater displayed significantly lower means for the tactical principles of penetration (2.76 ± 1.63; p < .001), delay (6.11 ± 2.68; p < .018), defensive coverage (1.64 ± 1.14; p < .001) and significantly higher means for the tactical principle of defensive unity (14.98 ± 4.57; p < .032). With respect to the percentage of correct actions, SSCGs with an inside floater displayed significantly lower means for all tactical principles, except for offensive coverage (90.5 ± 18.48; p < 1.000). It was concluded that the inside floater allowed players to modify their behaviour in such a way that they adapted to the constraints imposed by the presence of an inside floater. Furthermore, the inside floater provided more difficulty for players, and thus may be considered an important task constraint to be added in SSCGs.

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<![CDATA[Muscle Thickness During Core Stability Exercises in Children and Adults]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N43f3c39b-d729-424f-ad56-39e56e1e824a

Abstract

Core stability exercises are regular part of exercise programs for asymptomatic individuals across ages. The purpose of this study was to examine deep abdominal and multifidus muscle thickness in children and adults and to determine reliability of the rehabilitative ultrasound (RUSI) imaging. Transversus abdominis and lumbar multifidus thickness at rest and during core stability exercise were examined in pre-pubertal children (N = 23), adolescents (N = 20), young adults (N = 21) and middle-aged adults (N = 22). Thirty-nine participants were re-tested one week after to establish reliability. Muscle thickness at rest was lower in children and adolescents compared with young and middle-aged adults (p < 0.008). Young adults displayed the highest relative transversus abdominis thickness upon contraction (p < 0.008). Lumbar multfidus contraction thickness was greater in young-adults than middle-aged adults and pre-pubertal children (p < 0.008), but it was similar between young-adults and adolescents (p > 0.008). Reliability was high for both muscles (ICC3,3 = 0.76 - 0.99). The age-related differences in muscle thickness indicate that core stability exercises may be beneficial for children and middle-aged adults.

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<![CDATA[The Basketball Pass: A Systematic Review]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N9c5bae38-4a61-4920-a57a-e542f2e5b99a

Abstract

The aim of this study was to review and organise current literature about the basketball pass and find the main factors that influence its learning skills and performance. Thirty-seven studies were included after the screening process. The documents were classified into main research topics. This review identified the following conclusions: (i) the assessment of passing performance should be made under uncertain and variable conditions to obtain information on players’ responses to competitive scenarios, (ii) it is advisable to incorporate new and random activities to facilitate the transference of learning to the competition, (iii) it is recommended to include overwhelming factors during the practice to minimise the effect of pressure and choking, (iv) optimal physical conditioning is essential to maintain passing performance during a basketball game, (v) small sided games and changing environments stand as the best training situations to improve passing skills. Furthermore, limited information is available about biomechanical aspects and physical conditioning training programs to improve passing skills in basketball. Likewise, there is sparse data on passing skills development in children.

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<![CDATA[Acute impact of an endurance race on cardiac function and biomarkers of myocardial injury in triathletes with and without myocardial fibrosis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N03a1ac45-c18e-44c9-9b0f-3ee82f0d2bea

Aims

The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of myocardial injury and cardiac dysfunction after an endurance race by biomarkers and cardiac magnetic resonance in triathletes with and without myocardial fibrosis.

Methods and results

Thirty asymptomatic male triathletes (45 ± 10 years) with over 10 training hours per week and 55 ± 8 ml/kg per minute maximal oxygen uptake during exercise testing were studied before (baseline) and 2.4 ± 1.1 hours post-race. Baseline cardiac magnetic resonance included cine, T1/T2, late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) and extracellular volume imaging. Post-race non-contrast cardiac magnetic resonance included cine and T1/T2 mapping. Non-ischaemic myocardial fibrosis was present in 10 triathletes (LGE+) whereas 20 had no fibrosis (LGE–). At baseline, LGE + triathletes had higher peak exercise systolic blood pressure with 222 ± 21 mmHg compared to LGE– triathletes (192 ± 30 mmHg, P < 0.01). Post-race troponin T and creatine kinase MB were similarly increased in both groups, but there was no change in T2 and T1 from baseline to post-race with 54 ± 3 ms versus 53 ± 3 ms (P = 0.797) and 989 ± 21 ms versus 989 ± 28 ms (P = 0.926), respectively. However, post-race left atrial ejection fraction was significantly lower in LGE + triathletes compared to LGE– triathletes (53 ± 6% vs. 59 ± 6%, P < 0.05). Furthermore, baseline atrial peak filling rates were lower in LGE –  triathletes (121 ± 30 ml/s/m2) compared to LGE + triathletes (161 ± 34 ml/s/m2, P < 0.01). Post-race atrial peak filling rates increased in LGE– triathletes to 163 ± 46 ml/s/m2, P < 0.001), but not in LGE + triathletes (169 ± 50ml/s/m2, P = 0.747).

Conclusion

Despite post-race troponin T release, we did not find detectable myocardial oedema by cardiac magnetic resonance. However, the unfavourable blood pressure response during exercise testing seemed to be associated with post-race cardiac dysfunction, which could explain the occurrence of myocardial fibrosis in triathletes.

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<![CDATA[The North Texas Concussion Registry (ConTex)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N82ea6df0-c131-4380-b121-e5a98276177a

Purpose

The North Texas Concussion Registry (ConTex) was established in 2015 as a multi-institutional collaboration intended to study risk factors, recovery patterns and clinical outcomes associated with concussion across the lifespan, with a particular emphasis on sport-related concussion.

Participants

Prospective enrolment of individuals who sustained a concussion within the past 6 months who were seen at one of four North Texas ConTex concussion clinics which employ common diagnostic criteria and assessment metrics to evaluate effects of a concussion as well as longitudinal tracking of recovery.

Findings to date

The ConTex database and multidisciplinary oversight team has been established, and over 1700 participants aged 5–88 years have been enrolled. A majority of concussions were sport-related (60%), with a mean age of 17.5 years and similar numbers of males and females. Three-month follow-up compliance has been excellent (86%), with a majority of subjects reporting good recovery by that time. ConTex has provided a rich data source for multiple research projects focused on concussion characteristics, risk factors and outcomes, and led to the development of a statewide youth concussion registry.

Future plans

ConTex data are being analysed to add to the body of knowledge regarding concussion mechanisms, factors related to recovery and improving outcomes for concussion patients. ConTex will serve as a platform for future treatment studies and may serve as a model for other concussion surveillance programmes.

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<![CDATA[Physical activity and health-related quality of life in former elite and recreational cricketers from the UK with upper extremity or lower extremity persistent joint pain: a cross-sectional study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Ncf0985df-95ac-48e6-a1f1-3437bc582b1a

Objective

To evaluate and compare physical activity (PA) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in former elite and recreational cricketers with upper extremity (UE), lower extremity (LE) or no joint pain.

Study design

Cross-sectional cohort.

Setting

Despite the high prevalence of joint pain in former athletes, the impact of UE pain and LE pain on PA and HRQoL and potential differences between former recreational and elite athletes are poorly understood.

Participants

703 former cricketers aged ≥18 years (mean age 58.7, SD 12.9, played an average of 30 (IQR 20–40) seasons, 72% of whom had played at a recreational level) were recruited through the Cricket Health and Wellbeing Study and met eligibility requirements (UE pain, LE pain or no joint pain (defined as pain on most days of the past month)).

Primary and secondary outcomes

The International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Short Form collected weekly metabolic equivalents (METS), while the Short-Form 8 collected physical (PCS) and mental (MCS) component scores. Kruskal-Wallis tests with Dunn’s post-hoc and multivariable linear regressions were performed.

Results

Weekly METS were similar in former cricketers with UE pain (median (IQR) 2560 (722–4398)), LE pain (2215 (527–3903)) and no pain (2449 (695–4203), p=0.39). MCS were similar between groups (UE pain 56.0 (52.1–60.0); LE pain 55.2 (51.1–59.4); no pain 54.7 (50.7–58.7), p=0.38). PCS were more impaired in former cricketers with UE pain (49.8 (44.9–54.8)) or LE pain (46.7 (41.0–51.9)) compared with no pain (54.2 (51.5–56.9), p<0.0001). Former cricketers with LE pain reported worse PCS than those with UE pain (p=0.04). Similar relationships were observed in former elite and recreational cricketers.

Conclusion

Despite impaired physical components of HRQoL in former cricketers with UE pain or LE pain, pain was not related to PA levels or mental components of HRQoL. Physical components of HRQoL were most impaired in those with LE pain, and findings were similar among former elite and recreational cricketers.

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