ResearchPad - sports-and-exercise-medicine https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Relationship between maximal incremental and high-intensity interval exercise performance in elite athletes]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13822 This descriptive study aimed to explore the physiological factors that determine tolerance to exertion during high-intensity interval effort. Forty-seven young women (15–28 years old) were enrolled: 23 athletes from Taiwan national or national reserve teams and 24 moderately active females. Each participant underwent a maximal incremental INC (modified Bruce protocol) cardiopulmonary exercise test on the first day and high-intensity interval testing (HIIT) on the second day, both performed on a treadmill. The HIIT protocol involved alternation between 1-min effort at 120% of the maximal speed, at the same slope reached at the end of the INC, and 1-min rest until volitional exhaustion. Gas exchange, heart rate (HR), and muscle oxygenation at the right vastus lateralis, measured by near-infrared spectroscopy, were continuously recorded. The number of repetitions completed (Rlim) by each participant was considered the HIIT tolerance index. The results showed a large difference in the Rlim (range, 2.6–12.0 repetitions) among the participants. Stepwise linear regression revealed that the variance in the Rlim within the cohort was related to the recovery rates of oxygen consumption (V˙O2), HR at the second minute after INC, and muscle tissue saturation index at exhaustion (R = 0.644). In addition, age was linearly correlated with Rlim (adjusted R = −0.518, p < 0.0001). In conclusion, the recovery rates for V˙O2 and HR after the incremental test, and muscle saturation index at exhaustion, were the major physiological factors related to HIIT performance. These findings provide insights into the role of the recovery phase after maximal INC exercise testing. Future research investigating a combination of INC and HIIT testing to determine training-induced performance improvement is warranted.

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<![CDATA[A descriptive cross sectional study comparing barriers and determinants of physical activity of Sri Lankan middle aged and older adults]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7830 Benefits of physical activities are numerous. Barriers for physical exercise may differ among middle aged and older adults. Therefore, identifying and comparing the barriers for participating in regular physical exercises among middle aged and older adults will be useful in designing age specific physical exercise programmes.MethodsThis descriptive cross sectional study was carried out among 206 Sri Lankan adults in the age range of 40–84 years in the Colombo North region of Sri Lanka using culturally validated questionnaires to determine and compare the barriers and factors associated with regular physical activity participation. Majority were males (56%) and 54% were < 60 years. People in the age range of 40–59 years were considered as middle age and ≥ 60 years as older adults. Bivariate analysis and multivariate analysis was carried out to determine the significant factors that are associated with regular physical activity participation.ResultsLack of free time (52%), feeling too lazy (26%) and bad weather (29%) were the main barriers for the participants. In < 60 years, high level of income (p = 0.008) and in ≥ 60 years, being a male (p = 0.016), having a high level of education (P = 0.002) and a high BMI (p = 0.002) had a significant negative association with the level of physical activities.ConclusionsContrary to findings from surveys in several developed countries, this study showed that having a high level of education and being a male were strongly related with lack of physical activity participation. ]]> <![CDATA[Association between attending exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation and cardiovascular risk factors at one-year post myocardial infarction]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7688 Randomized trials confirm the benefits of exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation on cardiovascular risk factors. Whether exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation provides the same favourable effects in real-life cardiac rehabilitation settings, in the modern era of myocardial infarction treatment, is less well known. We examined the association between attending exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation and improvements in cardiovascular risk factors at one-year post myocardial infarction in patients included in the Swedish heart disease registry, SWEDEHEART.MethodsIn this retrospective registry-based cohort study, we included 19 136 patients post myocardial infarction (75% men, 62.8±8.7 years) who were registered in SWEDEHEART between 2011 and 2013. The association between attending exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation (43% participation rate) and changes in cardiovascular risk profile between baseline and one-year follow-up was assessed using multivariable regression analysis adjusting for age, comorbidities and medication.ResultsAttenders more often reported to have stopped smoking (men 64% vs 50%; women 64% vs 53%, p<0.001 for both, only smokers at baseline considered), be more physically active (men 3.9±2.5 vs 3.4±2.7 days/week; women 3.8±2.6 vs 3.0±2.8 days/week, p<0.001 for both) and achieved a slightly larger reduction in triglycerides (men -0.2±0.8 vs -0.1±0.9 mmol/L, p = 0.001; women -0.1±0.6 vs 0.0±0.8 mmol/L, p = 0.01) at one-year compared to non-attenders. Male attenders gained less weight (+0.0±5.7 vs +0.3±5.7 kg, p = 0.01) while female attenders achieved better lipid control (total cholesterol -1.2±1.4 vs -0.9±1.4 mmol/L, p<0.001; low-density lipoprotein -1.2±1.2 vs -0.9 ±1.2 mmol/L, p<0.001) compared to non-attenders.ConclusionsIn an unselected registry cohort of patients post myocardial infarction, compared to non-attenders those attending exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation achieved significantly larger improvements in cardiovascular risk factors at one-year after the acute event. ]]> <![CDATA[The relationship of recreational runners’ motivation and resilience levels to the incidence of injury: A mediation model]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7663 Running participation has increased significantly in the last decade. Despite its association with different health-related aspects, athletes may experience adverse outcomes, including injuries. The aim of this study was twofold: to examine the relationship between runners’ resilience levels, motivation and incidence of injury, on the one hand; and to analyse the mediation that intrinsic and extrinsic motivation has on the association between the number of injuries and psychological resilience levels among amateur athletes. The sample consisted of a total of 1725 runners (age: 40.40 ± 9.39 years), 1261 of whom were male (age: 43.16 ± 9.38), and 465 of whom were female (age: 40.34 ± 9.14). Athletes completed the Behavioural Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire (BREQ-3), the Resilience scale (CD-RISC 10), and an Injury retrospective survey. Three mediation models were constructed, and the results showed a significant indirect association of athletes’ intrinsic motivation and resilience on the number of injuries (β = 0.022, CI = 0.007, 0.0) in mediation model 1, whereas extrinsic motivation was found to have no significant association on those variables (β = -0.062, CI = -0.137, 0.009) in mediation model 2. Model 3 showed significant differences with respect to resilience (p < 0.05) and intrinsic motivation (p < 0.05). Therefore, the mediation of intrinsic motivation on athletes’ resilience levels and incidence of injury was demonstrated, i.e., it was found that intrinsic motivation was associated with a higher incidence of injury, while no such correlation was found for extrinsic motivation. This study shows that the amateur long distance runners with a high level of intrinsic motivation tend to suffer from a greater number of injuries, and at the same time psychological resilience was associated with a lower number of injuries.

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<![CDATA[Family-based habit intervention to promote parent support for child physical activity in Canada: protocol for a randomised trial]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nf8f2cd45-53f8-402f-a5cd-daf81095f95a Regular physical activity (PA) participation has many important physical and psychological health benefits, managing and preventing over 25 chronic conditions. Being more physically active as a child is associated with being more active as an adult, but less than 10% of Canadian children are achieving the recommended PA guidelines of 60 minutes per day of moderate to vigorous PA. Parental support is a predictor of child PA, but parent intention to support child PA does not always predict enacted support. Targeting factors that assist in the sustainability of parent support behaviour of child PA may have an impact on child PA. The purpose of this study is to evaluate an intervention designed to promote habit formation of parental support (HABIT, independent variable) on child PA (dependant variable) compared with a planning and education group (PLANNING) and an education only group (EDUCATION).Methods and analysisThe three conditions will be compared using a 6-month longitudinal randomised trial. Eligible families have at least one child aged 6–12 years who is not meeting the 2011 Canadian PA Guidelines. Intervention materials are delivered at baseline, with check-in sessions at 6 weeks and 3 months. Child’s moderate-to-vigorous PA, measured by accelerometry, is assessed at baseline, 6 weeks, 3 months and 6 months as the primary outcome. At baseline and 6 months, children perform fitness testing. Parents and children complete questionnaires at all timepoints. So far, 123 families have been recruited from the Greater Victoria and surrounding area. Recruitment will be continuing through 2020 with a target of 240 families.Ethics and disseminationThis protocol has been approved by the University of Victoria Human Research Ethics Board (Victoria, Canada). Results will be shared at conferences as presentations and as published manuscripts. Study findings will be made available to interested participants.Trial registration numberNCT03145688; Pre-results ]]> <![CDATA[‘In search of lost time’: Identifying the causative role of cumulative competition load and competition time-loss in professional tennis using a structural nested mean model]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N4f3da08e-598e-44d5-a4f3-a2c64fcebd1f

Injury prevention is critical to the achievement of peak performance in elite sport. For professional tennis players, the topic of injury prevention has gained even greater importance in recent years as multiple of the best male players have been sidelined owing to injury. Identifying potential causative factors of injury is essential for the development of effective prevention strategies, yet such research is hampered by incomplete data, the complexity of injury etiology, and observational study biases. The present study attempts to address these challenges by focusing on competition load and time-loss to competition—a completely observable risk factor and outcome—and using a structural nested mean model (SNMM) to identify the potential causal role of cumulative competition load on the risk of time-loss. Using inverse probability of treatment weights to balance exposure histories with respect to player ability, past injury, and consecutive competition weeks at each time point; the SNMM analysis of 389 professional male players and 55,773 weeks of competition found that total load significantly increases the risk of time-loss (HR = 1.05 per 1,000 games of additional load 95% CI 1.01-1.10) and this effect becomes magnified with age. Standard regression showed a protective effect of load, highlighting the value of more robust causal methods in the study of dynamic exposures and injury in sport and the need for further applications of these methods for understanding how time-loss and injuries of elite athletes might be prevented in the future.

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<![CDATA[Prevalence of depressive symptoms among Italian medical students: The multicentre cross-sectional “PRIMES” study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N89095419-220d-4d38-944c-d00bb778cf6f

Background

Four percent of the world’s population suffers from depression, which is a major public health issue. Medical students are at risk, as their depressive symptoms (DS) prevalence is reported to be approximately 27% worldwide. Since few data on Italian medical students exist, this study aimed to estimate their DS prevalence and assess risk and protective factors.

Methods

The PRIMES was a multicentre cross-sectional study performed in 12 Italian medical schools. Questionnaires were self-reported and included 30 sociodemographic items and the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II). The primary outcome was the presence of DS (BDI-II score≥14). The main analyses were chi-squared tests and multivariable logistic regressions with a p-value<0.05 considered significant.

Results

The number of collected questionnaires was 2,513 (117 BDI-II incomplete). Females accounted for 61.3% of the respondents, and the median age was 22 years (IQR = 4). The prevalence of DS was 29.5%. Specifically, 14.0% had mild depression, 11.1% had moderate depression, and 4.5% had severe depression. The main risk factors for DS were age, being female, bisexual/asexual orientation, living with partner/housemates, poor economic status (worsened by living far from home), less than 90 min of weekly exercise, relatives with psychiatric disorders, personal chronic disease, judging medical school choice negatively, unsatisfying friendships with classmates, competitive and hostile climate among classmates, thinking that medical school hinders specific activities and being worried about not measuring up to the profession. Protective factors included family cohesion, hobbies, intellectual curiosity as a career motivation and no worries about the future.

Conclusion

Italian medical students are at high risk of reporting DS, similar to the global population of medical students’. Medical schools must make efforts to implement preventive and treatment interventions by offering counselling and working on modifiable factors, such as lifestyle and learning climate.

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<![CDATA[Analysis of team-sport wheelchair falls during the Rio 2016 Summer Paralympic Games: a video-based cross-sectional observational study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nbe9a95f1-7e71-4291-b688-43612e4252f6

Objectives

To present the fall characteristics of athletes playing wheelchair rugby (WR) and wheelchair basketball (WB) using official videos from the Rio 2016 Paralympic Games and compare the key fall characteristics among the team wheelchair sports event.

Methods

Eighteen WR and 10 WB game videos for men (MWB) and women (WWB), including 8 teams per sport, were obtained from the official International Paralympic Committee of the Rio 2016 Paralympic Games. The videos were analysed to assess the number of falls, playing time of fall, playing phase, contact with other athletes, the direction of the fall and the body part first in contact with the floor during the fall.

Results

In total, 359 falls (96 for WR, 172 for MWB and 91 for WWB) occurred with a mean of 5.3, 17.2 and 9.1 falls per match, respectively (p<0.05). Significant differences among the three sports were detected in the playing time (p=0.011), presence of contact (p=0.037), direction (p<0.001) and body part first in contact with the floor (p<0.001). For WR, the falls were primarily lateral and caused by contact, occurring in the second half of the match. WB falls tended to be in the first half for women and the second half for men. Most falls were contact falls in the forward direction.

Conclusion

By observing the situational details, we described that a number of falls due to contact occurred during these team sports events, especially MWB. In addition, each sport exhibited characteristics attributable to differences in gender, degree of impairment and game rules. The directions of the falls and characteristics of the affected body parts indicate differences in impairments depending on the sport. A fall to the side or back may indicate a risk of injury.

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<![CDATA[Guidelines about physical activity and exercise to reduce cardiometabolic risk factors: protocol for a systematic review and critical appraisal]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N32ab355f-f047-4944-9a79-808fc3bbfde4

Introduction

Physical activity can prevent a wide range of diseases, including highly prevalent conditions such as heart disease, diabetes and associated cardiometabolic disorders. Numerous guidelines for the prescription of physical activity and exercise to promote general health and prevent disease are released each year, but the quality of these guidelines is currently unknown. This systematic review and critical appraisal of physical activity and exercise guidelines aims to summarise the current status and quality of these guidelines to provide suggestions to improve the development of future guidelines in this area.

Methods and analysis

We will conduct a systematic review of guidelines in Ovid MEDLINE(R) and Epub Ahead of Print, In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, and Daily, Ovid EMBASE, Ovid Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Ovid Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and Scopus databases published from database 2000 through 23 October 2019, written in English for the use of physical activity and exercise for the prevention of cardiometabolic disease and related risk factors in otherwise healthy individuals. We will also search the grey literature for additional eligible documents. We will use the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation II tool to assess the quality of eligible recommendations from all included guidelines, as well as perform exploratory analyses on guideline development variables.

Ethics and dissemination

As a protocol for the review and critical appraisal of published documents, no potential ethical considerations are discussed. The protocol will guide the development of the review, which will be disseminated to relevant journals for publication.

PROSPERO registration number

CRD42019126364

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<![CDATA[The North Texas Concussion Registry (ConTex)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N82ea6df0-c131-4380-b121-e5a98276177a

Purpose

The North Texas Concussion Registry (ConTex) was established in 2015 as a multi-institutional collaboration intended to study risk factors, recovery patterns and clinical outcomes associated with concussion across the lifespan, with a particular emphasis on sport-related concussion.

Participants

Prospective enrolment of individuals who sustained a concussion within the past 6 months who were seen at one of four North Texas ConTex concussion clinics which employ common diagnostic criteria and assessment metrics to evaluate effects of a concussion as well as longitudinal tracking of recovery.

Findings to date

The ConTex database and multidisciplinary oversight team has been established, and over 1700 participants aged 5–88 years have been enrolled. A majority of concussions were sport-related (60%), with a mean age of 17.5 years and similar numbers of males and females. Three-month follow-up compliance has been excellent (86%), with a majority of subjects reporting good recovery by that time. ConTex has provided a rich data source for multiple research projects focused on concussion characteristics, risk factors and outcomes, and led to the development of a statewide youth concussion registry.

Future plans

ConTex data are being analysed to add to the body of knowledge regarding concussion mechanisms, factors related to recovery and improving outcomes for concussion patients. ConTex will serve as a platform for future treatment studies and may serve as a model for other concussion surveillance programmes.

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<![CDATA[Physical activity and health-related quality of life in former elite and recreational cricketers from the UK with upper extremity or lower extremity persistent joint pain: a cross-sectional study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Ncf0985df-95ac-48e6-a1f1-3437bc582b1a

Objective

To evaluate and compare physical activity (PA) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in former elite and recreational cricketers with upper extremity (UE), lower extremity (LE) or no joint pain.

Study design

Cross-sectional cohort.

Setting

Despite the high prevalence of joint pain in former athletes, the impact of UE pain and LE pain on PA and HRQoL and potential differences between former recreational and elite athletes are poorly understood.

Participants

703 former cricketers aged ≥18 years (mean age 58.7, SD 12.9, played an average of 30 (IQR 20–40) seasons, 72% of whom had played at a recreational level) were recruited through the Cricket Health and Wellbeing Study and met eligibility requirements (UE pain, LE pain or no joint pain (defined as pain on most days of the past month)).

Primary and secondary outcomes

The International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Short Form collected weekly metabolic equivalents (METS), while the Short-Form 8 collected physical (PCS) and mental (MCS) component scores. Kruskal-Wallis tests with Dunn’s post-hoc and multivariable linear regressions were performed.

Results

Weekly METS were similar in former cricketers with UE pain (median (IQR) 2560 (722–4398)), LE pain (2215 (527–3903)) and no pain (2449 (695–4203), p=0.39). MCS were similar between groups (UE pain 56.0 (52.1–60.0); LE pain 55.2 (51.1–59.4); no pain 54.7 (50.7–58.7), p=0.38). PCS were more impaired in former cricketers with UE pain (49.8 (44.9–54.8)) or LE pain (46.7 (41.0–51.9)) compared with no pain (54.2 (51.5–56.9), p<0.0001). Former cricketers with LE pain reported worse PCS than those with UE pain (p=0.04). Similar relationships were observed in former elite and recreational cricketers.

Conclusion

Despite impaired physical components of HRQoL in former cricketers with UE pain or LE pain, pain was not related to PA levels or mental components of HRQoL. Physical components of HRQoL were most impaired in those with LE pain, and findings were similar among former elite and recreational cricketers.

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<![CDATA[Relationship between cricket participation, health and well-being: scoping review protocol]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N5945508f-d66b-455a-a510-fb39dc99bff6

Introduction

Cricket is a popular sport played by 2.5 billion people of all ages and abilities. However, cricket participation is decreasing in the UK, despite an increased focus of governments on increasing sport participation to enhance public health. Understanding the health benefits and mitigating the health risks of cricket participation may help cricket organisations promote cricket participation while optimising the long-term health of cricket participants. Currently, there is no literature review on the relationship between cricket participation, health and well-being; thus, this relationship remains unclear. Therefore, the aims of this scoping review were (1) to investigate the relationship between cricket participation, health and well-being and (ii) to identify the research gaps related to cricket, health and well-being.

Methods and analysis

Due to the broad nature of our research question and the large number of health outcomes assessed within the cricket literature and to facilitate identification of research gaps, a scoping review methodology was used. The methodology of this paper was informed by previous scoping review protocols and best practice methodological frameworks. MEDLINE, CINAHL, Embase, Scopus, PsycINFO, SPORTDiscus, Cochrane Library, EBSCO, Web of Science and PEDro and grey literature sources (Google Scholar, ClinicalTrials.gov, ISRCTN Registry and ProQuest) will be systematically searched. Studies that assess a construct related to health and/or well-being in current and/or former cricketers from all ages and standards of play will be eligible. Two reviewers will independently screen full texts of identified studies for eligibility and will perform data extraction. Results will be presented in tabular and graphical forms and will be reported descriptively.

Ethics and dissemination

This research is exempt from ethics approval due to the data being available through published and public available resources. Results will be published in a peer-reviewed sports and exercise medicine journal regardless of positive or negative findings. In addition, results will be disseminated through multiple platforms, including conference presentations and social media using multimedia resources (eg, infographics, animations, videos, podcasts and blogs), to engage stakeholder groups, including cricketers, cricket coaches, sporting bodies, sports medicine professionals and policy makers. There findings will inform clinical decision making, policy changes and future research agendas.

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<![CDATA[Exercise and adiposity in overweight and obese children and adolescents: a systematic review with network meta-analysis of randomised trials]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nfbe50bfb-a4cf-4eb7-acbd-c8e6226f6554

Objectives

Determine both the effects and hierarchy of effectiveness for exercise interventions (aerobic, strength training or both) on selected measures of adiposity (body mass index (BMI) in kg/m2, fat mass and per cent body fat) in overweight and obese children and adolescents.

Design

Network meta-analysis of randomised exercise intervention trials.

Setting

Any setting where a randomised trial could be conducted.

Participants

Overweight and obese male and/or female children and adolescents 2–18 years of age.

Interventions

Randomised exercise intervention trials>4 weeks, published between 1 January 1973 and 22 August 2018, and which included direct and/or indirect evidence for aerobic, strength training or combined aerobic and strength training.

Primary outcomes

Changes in BMI in kg/m2, fat mass and per cent body fat.

Results

Fifty-seven studies representing 127 groups (73 exercise, 54 control) and 2792 participants (1667 exercise, 1125 control) met the criteria for inclusion. Length of training (X- ± SD) averaged 14.1±6.2 weeks, frequency, 3.3±1.1 days per week and duration 42.0±21.0 min per session. Significant and clinically important reductions in BMI, fat mass and per cent body fat were observed in aerobic versus control comparisons (BMI, mean, 95% CI -1.0, 1.4 to −0.6; fat mass -2.1, –3.3 to −1.0 kg; per cent fat -1.5, –2.2 to −0.9%) and combined aerobic and strength versus control comparisons (BMI -0.7, –1.4 to −0.1; fat mass -2.5, –4.1 to −1.0 kg; per cent fat, -2.2, –3.2 to −1.2%). A significant reduction in per cent fat was also found for strength vs control comparisons (-1.3,–2.5 to −0.1%). Combined aerobic and strength training was ranked first for improving both fat mass (kg) and per cent body fat while aerobic exercise was ranked first for improving BMI.

Conclusions

Aerobic and combined aerobic and strength training are associated with improvements in adiposity outcomes in overweight and obese children and adolescents.

PROSPERO registration number

CRD42017073103.

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<![CDATA[Boost your brain, while having a break! The effects of long-term cognitively engaging physical activity breaks on children’s executive functions and academic achievement]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c897718d5eed0c4847d2449

Classroom-based physical activity (PA) is gaining attention in terms of its potential to enhance children’s cognitive functions, but it remains unclear as to which specific modality of PA affects cognitive functions most. The aim of the study was to examine the effects of qualitatively different PA breaks on children’s cognitive outcomes. Children (N = 142) aged between 7 and 9 years were allocated to a 20-week classroom-based PA program, with either high physical exertion and high cognitive engagement (combo group), high physical exertion and low cognitive engagement (aerobic group), or low physical exertion and high cognitive engagement (cognition group). Executive functions (updating, inhibition, shifting) and academic achievement (mathematics, spelling, reading) were measured pre- and post-intervention. Results showed that the combo group profited the most displaying enhanced shifting and mathematic performance. The cognition group profited only in terms of enhanced mathematic performance, whereas the aerobic group remained unaffected. These results suggest that the inclusion of cognitively engaging PA breaks seem to be a promising way to enhance school children’s cognitive functions.

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<![CDATA[The effect of contact sport expertise on postural control]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6f14f5d5eed0c48467abb2

It has been demonstrated that expertise in sport influences standing balance ability. However, little is known concerning how physical contact in sport affects balance ability. The aim of this study was to examine whether differences between contact and limited-contact sport experiences results in differences in postural control. Twenty male collegiate athletes (10 soccer/contact, 10 baseball/limited contact) and ten male untrained students stood quietly on a force plate under various bipedal and unipedal conditions, with and without vision. Significant differences for sway area and COP speed were found between the soccer players and the other two groups for unipedal stances without vision. Soccer players were found to have superior postural control compared with participants involved in limited contact sport or no sport at all. Contact sports may lead to increased postural control through enhanced use of proprioceptive and vestibular information.

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<![CDATA[The Sport Concussion Assessment Tool (SCAT2) for evaluating civilian mild traumatic brain injury. A pilot normative study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c76fe2cd5eed0c484e5b651

Self-report measures, particularly symptom inventories, are critical tools for identifying patients with persistent post-concussion symptoms and their follow-up. Unlike in military or sports-related assessment, in general civilian settings pre-injury levels of concussion-like symptoms are lacking. Normative data are available in adolescent and college populations, but no reference data exist to guide clinical adult explorations. The purpose of this study was to use the second edition of the Sport Concussion Assessment Tool (SCAT2) to profile a cohort of 60 healthy community volunteers who had not sustained a head injury. Participating volunteers underwent MRI scanning and were evaluated with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Participants reported a median of 3 concussion-like symptoms and the 97.5 percentile score was found at 10.5 symptoms, out of a total of 22. The median severity score was 4.9 points, and 28.9 was the upper limit of the reference interval. Only 10 participants (16.7%) did not endorse any symptom. The most frequently endorsed symptom was feeling difficulty in concentrating, with 41.7% of the sample reporting it. Age, sex and general distress, anxiety and depressive symptoms were not associated with concussion-like symptoms. Our data yielded elevated cut-offs scores for both the number of symptoms and the symptom severity. In conclusion, postconcussive-like symptoms are frequent in the general non-concussed adult population and it should be taken into account in any future models developed for screening patients at risk of developing physical, cognitive, and psychological complaints following mild traumatic injury.

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<![CDATA[Workplace burnout and health issues among Colombian correctional officers]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6c75e7d5eed0c4843d047c

Introduction

Correctional employees typically work under adverse conditions that may enhance the occurrence of different negative psychological states. Burnout constitutes a high-risk phenomenon that may affect people’s physical/mental health and welfare, especially in vulnerable occupational groups.

Objectives

The aim of this study was to characterize the burnout profile of correctional officers, and to associate their burnout profile with health issues and lifestyle factors.

Methods

The full sample was composed of 219 Colombian correctional officers with a mean age of 30.18 years. A questionnaire composed of three sections was employed: demographic data, burnout, and health information.

Results

A high proportion of participants reported burnout indicators, also significantly correlated to their health indicators and lifestyle factors. Cluster analyses were used in order to characterize the burnout/age (model A) and burnout/age/psychological disturbance (model B) profiles of correctional officers. Furthermore, significant differences were found when comparing frequencies of alcohol consumption and physical exercise (lifestyle indicators) and perceived social support of officers depending on their profile.

Conclusions

the discussion focused on the negative impact of burnout on health, and on the importance of strengthening occupational programs aimed at reducing the impact of hazardous working conditions that contribute to the development of burnout, and to the arise different mid and long-term health complains among correctional workers.

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<![CDATA[Cardiopulmonary responses to maximal aerobic exercise in patients with cystic fibrosis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6dca0ed5eed0c48452a718

Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a debilitating chronic condition, which requires complex and expensive disease management. Exercise has now been recognised as a critical factor in improving health and quality of life in patients with CF. Hence, cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) is used to determine aerobic fitness of young patients as part of the clinical management of CF. However, at present there is a lack of conclusive evidence for one limiting system of aerobic fitness for CF patients at individual patient level. Here, we perform detailed data analysis that allows us to identify important systems-level factors that affect aerobic fitness. We use patients’ data and principal component analysis to confirm the dependence of CPET performance on variables associated with ventilation and metabolic rates of oxygen consumption. We find that the time at which participants cross the gas exchange threshold (GET) is well correlated with their overall performance. Furthermore, we propose a predictive modelling framework that captures the relationship between ventilatory dynamics, lung capacity and function and performance in CPET within a group of children and adolescents with CF. Specifically, we show that using Gaussian processes (GP) we can predict GET at the individual patient level with reasonable accuracy given the small sample size of the available group of patients. We conclude by presenting an example and future perspectives for improving and extending the proposed framework. The modelling and analysis have the potential to pave the way to designing personalised exercise programmes that are tailored to specific individual needs relative to patient’s treatment therapies.

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<![CDATA[Association of physical fitness components and health-related quality of life in women with systemic lupus erythematosus with mild disease activity]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c76fe31d5eed0c484e5b6cc

Objectives

To study the association of different components of physical fitness [flexibility, muscle strength and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF)] and a clustered fitness score with health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in women with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and to analyze whether participants with high fitness level have better HRQoL.

Methods

This cross-sectional study included 70 women with SLE (aged 42.5; SD 13.9 years). The back-scratch test assessed flexibility, the 30-sec chair stand and handgrip strength tests assessed muscle strength, and the 6-min walk test (n = 49) assessed CRF. HRQoL was assessed through the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36).

Results

Flexibility was positively associated with the physical function dimension and the physical component summary (PCS) (rpartial between 0.26 and 0.31; p<0.05), and negatively related with social functioning dimension (rpartial = -0.26; p<0.05). Muscle strength was positively associated with the physical function, physical role, bodily pain dimensions and the PCS (rpartial between 0.27 and 0.49; all p<0.05). CRF was positively associated with the physical function and bodily pain dimensions, and PCS (rpartial between 0.39 and 0.65; all p<0.05). The clustered fitness score was associated with the physical function (B = 17.16) and bodily pain (B = 14.35) dimensions, and the PCS (B = 6.02), all p<0.005. Patients with high fitness level had greater scores in the physical function, physical role, and bodily pain dimensions and the PCS, all p≤0.05.

Conclusions

Our study suggests that muscle strength and CRF are positively associated with HRQoL, while flexibility showed contradictory results. These findings highlight the importance of maintaining adequate fitness levels in women with SLE.

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<![CDATA[Hopping in hypogravity—A rationale for a plyometric exercise countermeasure in planetary exploration missions]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6dca14d5eed0c48452a748

Moon and Mars are considered to be future targets for human space explorations. The gravity level on the Moon and Mars amount to 16% and 38%, respectively, of Earth’s gravity. Mechanical loading during the anticipated habitual activities in these hypogravity environments will most likely not be sufficient to maintain physiological integrity of astronauts unless additional exercise countermeasures are performed. Current microgravity exercise countermeasures appear to attenuate but not prevent ‘space deconditioning’. However, plyometric exercises (hopping and whole body vibration) have shown promise in recent analogue bed rest studies and may be options for space exploration missions where resources will be limited compared to the ISS. This paper therefore tests the hypothesis that plyometric hop exercise in hypogravity can generate sufficient mechanical stimuli to prevent musculoskeletal deconditioning. It has been suggested that hypogravity-induced reductions in peak ground reaction force (peak vertical GRF) can be offset by increases in hopping height. Therefore, this study investigated the effects of simulated hypogravity (0.16G, 0.27G, 0.38G, and 0.7G) upon sub-maximal plyometric hopping on the Verticalised Treadmill Facility, simulating different hypogravity levels. Results show that peak vertical GRF are negatively related to simulated gravity level, but positively to hopping height. Contact times decreased with increasing gravity level but were not influenced through hopping height. In contrast, flight time increased with decreasing gravity levels and increasing hopping height (P < 0.001). The present data suggest that the anticipated hypogravity-related reductions of musculoskeletal forces during normal walking can be compensated by performing hops and therefore support the idea of plyometric hopping as a robust and resourceful exercise countermeasure in hypogravity. As maximal hop height was constrained on the VTF further research is needed to determine whether similar relationships are evident during maximal hops and other forms of jumping.

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