ResearchPad - storage-and-handling https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Analytical performance of thrombospondin-1 and cathepsin D immunoassays part of a novel CE-IVD marked test as an aid in the diagnosis of prostate cancer]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_15745 The Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) test suffers from low specificity for the diagnosis of Prostate Cancer (PCa). We originally discovered two cancer-related proteins thrombospondin-1 (THBS1) and cathepsin D (CTSD) using a mass-spectrometry-based proteomics approach. The two serum proteins were shown to improve the diagnosis of high-grade PCa. Thus, we developed quantitative ELISAs for the determination of their concentration in human serum. Here we report their analytical performance in terms of limit of detection, specificity, precision, linearity and interferences, which were determined based on CLSI guidelines. Further, we investigated the influence of pre-analytical factors on concentration measurements. For this, blood from 4–6 donors was collected in different tubes and stored at room temperature for different times prior to centrifugation at different centrifugal forces and temperatures. Stability of THBS1 and CTSD under different storage temperatures was also evaluated. Our results show that the assays are specific, linear and sensitive enough to allow measurement of clinical samples. Precision in terms of repeatability and total within-laboratory coefficient of variation (CV) are 5.5% and 8.1% for THBS1 and 4.3% and 7.2% for CTSD, respectively. Relative laboratory-to-laboratory differences were -6.3% for THBS1 and -3% for CTSD. Both THBS1 and CTSD were stable in serum samples, with 80–120% recoveries of concentrations across donors, sample preparation and storage. In conclusion, the ELISAs as part of the novel commercial in vitro diagnostic test Proclarix are suitable for the use in clinical practice. THBS1 and CTSD can be accurately measured for their intended use independent of the lot and laboratory when conditions consistent with routine practice for PSA sampling and storage are used.

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<![CDATA[Accurate and reproducible enumeration of T-, B-, and NK lymphocytes using the BD FACSLyric 10-color system: A multisite clinical evaluation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c58d639d5eed0c4840318fc

Clinical flow cytometry is a reliable methodology for whole blood cell phenotyping for different applications. The BD FACSLyric™ system comprises a flow cytometer available in different optical configurations, BD FACSuite™ Clinical software, and optional BD FACS™ Universal Loader. BD FACSuite Clinical software used with BD™ FC Beads and BD CS&T Beads enable universal setup for performance QC, instrument control, data acquisition/storage, online/offline data analysis, and instrument standardization. BD Biosciences sponsored the clinical evaluation of the BD FACSLyric 10-color configuration at seven clinical sites using delinked and de-identified blood specimens from HIV-infected and uninfected subjects to enumerate T-, B-, and NK-lymphocytes with the BD Multitest™ reagents (BD Multitest IMK kit and BD Multitest 6-color TBNK). Samples were analyzed on the BD FACSLyric system with BD FACSuite Clinical software, and on the BD FACSCanto™ II system with BD FACSCanto clinical software and BD FACS 7-Color Setup beads. For equivalency between methods, data (n = 362) were analyzed with Deming regression for absolute count and percentage of lymphocytes. Results gave R2 ≥0.98, with slope values ≥0.96, and slope ranges between 0.90–1.05. The percent (%) bias values were <10% for T- and NK cells and <15% for B- cells. The between-site (n = 4) total precision was tested for 5 days (2 runs/day), and gave %coefficient of variation below 10% for absolute cell counts. The stability claims were confirmed (n = 186) for the two BD Multitest reagents. The reference intervals were re-established in male and female adults (n = 134). The analysis by gender showed statistically significant differences for CD3+ and CD4+ T-cell counts and %CD4. In summary, the BD FACSLyric and the BD FACSCanto II systems generated comparable measurements of T-, B-, and NK-cells using BD Multitest assays.

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<![CDATA[Improving cost-efficiency of faecal genotyping: New tools for elephant species]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5b527bd5eed0c4842bc95f

Despite the critical need for non-invasive tools to improve monitoring of wildlife populations, especially for endangered and elusive species, faecal genetic sampling has not been adopted as regular practice, largely because of the associated technical challenges and cost. Substantial work needs to be undertaken to refine sample collection and preparation methods in order to improve sample set quality and provide cost-efficient tools that can effectively support wildlife management. In this study, we collected an extensive set of forest elephant (Loxodonta cyclotis) faecal samples throughout Gabon, Central Africa, and prepared them for genotyping using 107 single-nucleotide polymorphism assays. We developed a new quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay targeting a 130-bp nuclear DNA fragment and demonstrated its suitability for degraded samples in all three elephant species. Using this assay to compare the efficacy of two sampling methods for faecal DNA recovery, we found that sampling the whole surface of a dung pile with a swab stored in a small tube of lysis buffer was a convenient method producing high extraction success and DNA yield. We modelled the influence of faecal quality and storage time on DNA concentration in order to provide recommendations for optimized collection and storage. The maximum storage time to ensure 75% success was two months for samples collected within 24 hours after defecation and extended to four months for samples collected within one hour. Lastly, the real-time quantitative PCR assay allowed us to predict genotyping success and pre-screen DNA samples, thus further increasing the cost-efficiency of our approach. We recommend combining the validation of an efficient sampling method, the build of in-country DNA extraction capacity for reduced storage time and the development of species-specific quantitative PCR assays in order to increase the cost-efficiency of routine non-invasive DNA analyses and expand the use of next-generation markers to non-invasive samples.

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<![CDATA[Effect of pequi (Caryocar brasiliense) and juçara (Euterpe edulis) waste extract on oxidation process stability in broiler meat treated by UV-C]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c25457ed5eed0c48442c84b

The aim of this study was to determine the potential for waste extracts from the pequi (Caryocar brasiliense) and juçara (Euterpe edulis) to reduce oxidatiove processes in antibiotic-free broiler meat. The use of natural antioxidants extracted from fruit-processing wastes has been neglected. Although these residues contain high amounts of these bioactive compounds, they are often discarded by industry. Meat samples were exposed previously submitted to UV-C radiation at 1.161 mW / cm2 for 10 minutes to accelerate the rancidity process. Pequi and juçara waste extracts were obtained by microwave-assisted extraction (MAE). A total of four conditions were tested using antibiotic-free broiler thighs and drumstick meat: BN–with no antioxidant (negative control), BP–with BHT (Butylated hydroxytoluene) (positive control), BE–with juçara extract, BC–with pequi extract. The color, pH, lipid and protein oxidation (days 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10), antioxidant contents and activity (days 0 and 10), and proximal composition and fatty acid profile (day 0) were tested, followed by principal component analysis (PCA). Pequi waste extract presented the highest antioxidant content and activity. BE and BC treatments presented the highest total phenolic (TPC) and flavonoid (TFC) content, and BE presented the highest total monomeric anthocyanin content (TAC). TFC increased during storage in all treatments. The waste extracts of C. brasiliense presented the highest antioxidant activity against lipid oxidation in the antibiotic-free broiler meat. Moreover, both extracts presented high antioxidant activity against protein oxidation. Although the pequi peel extract had a better effect in terms of suppressing both types of oxidation, either this extract or the jussara waste extract could be used as a technological strategy to reduce the oxidative processes in antibiotic-free broiler meat for the poultry industry. Thus, waste extracts can be a potential technology to reduce the oxidative processes in antibiotic-free broiler meat.

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<![CDATA[Experimental studies addressing the longevity of Bacillus subtilis spores – The first data from a 500-year experiment]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c1028ebd5eed0c4842487a5

The ability to form endospores allows certain Gram-positive bacteria (e.g. Bacillus subtilis) to challenge the limits of microbial resistance and survival. Thus, B. subtilis is able to tolerate many environmental extremes by transitioning into a dormant state as spores, allowing survival under otherwise unfavorable conditions. Despite thorough study of spore resistance to external stresses, precisely how long B. subtilis spores can lie dormant while remaining viable, a period that potentially far exceeds the human lifespan; is not known although convincing examples of long term spore survival have been recorded. In this study, we report the first data from a 500-year microbial experiment, which started in 2014 and will finish in 2514. A set of vials containing a defined concentration of desiccated B. subtilis spores is opened and tested for viability every two years for the first 24 years and then every 25 years until experiment completion. Desiccated baseline spore samples were also exposed to environmental stresses, including X-rays, 254 nm UV-C, 10% H2O2, dry heat (120°C) and wet heat (100°C) to investigate how desiccated spores respond to harsh environmental conditions after long periods of storage. Data from the first 2 years of storage show no significant decrease in spore viability. Additionally, spores of B. subtilis were subjected to various short-term storage experiments, revealing that space-like vacuum and high NaCl concentration negatively affected spore viability.

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<![CDATA[Standardising and Assessing Digital Images for Use in Clinical Trials: A Practical, Reproducible Method That Blinds the Assessor to Treatment Allocation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9feab0ee8fa60b731fa

With the increasing availability of high quality digital cameras that are easily operated by the non-professional photographer, the utility of using digital images to assess endpoints in clinical research of skin lesions has growing acceptance. However, rigorous protocols and description of experiences for digital image collection and assessment are not readily available, particularly for research conducted in remote settings. We describe the development and evaluation of a protocol for digital image collection by the non-professional photographer in a remote setting research trial, together with a novel methodology for assessment of clinical outcomes by an expert panel blinded to treatment allocation.

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<![CDATA[Measuring high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T blood concentration in population surveys]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db53ab0ee8fa60bdcba8

Introduction

The blood test for high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (HS-CTnT) has been proposed as a marker of cardiovascular risk in the general population, as it is associated with subsequent incidence of cardiovascular events and mortality. We aimed at evaluating the feasibility of HS-CTnT testing within large nationally-representative population surveys in which blood samples are collected during household visits, shipped using the standard civil postal service, and then frozen for subsequent analyses.

Methods

The Health Survey for England (HSE) consists of a series of annual surveys beginning in 1991. It is designed to provide regular information on various aspects of the nation’s health and risk factors. We measured HS-CTnT in the blood of 200 people from the HSE 2016 wave, then froze and stored their blood samples at -40°C for 5–10 weeks, and then thawed and retested them to appreciate the extent of within-person agreement or test-retest reliability of the two measurements.

Results

The Cronbach's Alpha (Scale Reliability Coefficient) and the Interclass Correlation Coefficient (two-way mixed-effects model for consistency of agreement at individual level) were 0.97 (95%CI = 0.96–0.99) and 0.95 (95%CI = 0.94–0.96) respectively. The time delay from blood withdrawal to analysis and storage (1–4 days) did not affect the results, nor did the freezing time before the retest (5–10 weeks).

Conclusion

The measurement of HS-CTnT plasma concentration within large nationally-representative surveys such as the Health Survey for England is feasible.

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<![CDATA[Preservation of Multiple Mammalian Tissues to Maximize Science Return from Ground Based and Spaceflight Experiments]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db01ab0ee8fa60bc6bab

Background

Even with recent scientific advancements, challenges posed by limited resources and capabilities at the time of sample dissection continue to limit the collection of high quality tissues from experiments that can be conducted only infrequently and at high cost, such as in space. The resources and time it takes to harvest tissues post-euthanasia, and the methods and duration of long duration storage, potentially have negative impacts on sample quantity and quality, thereby limiting the scientific outcome that can be achieved.

Objectives

The goals of this study were to optimize methods for both sample recovery and science return from rodent experiments, with possible relevance to both ground based and spaceflight studies. The first objective was to determine the impacts of tissue harvest time post-euthanasia, preservation methods, and storage duration, focusing on RNA quality and enzyme activities in liver and spleen as indices of sample quality. The second objective was to develop methods that will maximize science return by dissecting multiple tissues after long duration storage in situ at -80°C.

Methods

Tissues of C57Bl/6J mice were dissected and preserved at various time points post-euthanasia and stored at -80°C for up to 11 months. In some experiments, tissues were recovered from frozen carcasses which had been stored at -80°C up to 7 months. RNA quantity and quality was assessed by measuring RNA Integrity Number (RIN) values using an Agilent Bioanalyzer. Additionally, the quality of tissues was assessed by measuring activities of hepatic enzymes (catalase, glutathione reductase and GAPDH).

Results

Fresh tissues were collected up to one hour post-euthanasia, and stored up to 11 months at -80°C, with minimal adverse effects on the RNA quality of either livers or RNAlater-preserved spleens. Liver enzyme activities were similar to those of positive controls, with no significant effect observed at any time point. Tissues dissected from frozen carcasses that had been stored for up to 7 months at -80°C had variable results, depending on the specific tissue analyzed. RNA quality of liver, heart, and kidneys were minimally affected after 6–7 months of storage at -80°C, whereas RNA degradation was evident in tissues such as small intestine, bone, and bone marrow when they were collected from the carcasses frozen for 2.5 months.

Conclusion

These results demonstrate that 1) the protocols developed for spaceflight experiments with on-orbit dissections support the retrieval of high quality samples for RNA expression and some protein analyses, despite delayed preservation post-euthanasia or prolonged storage, and 2) many additional tissues for gene expression analysis can be obtained by dissection even following prolonged storage of the tissue in situ at -80°C. These findings have relevance both to high value, ground-based experiments when sample collection capability is severely constrained, and to spaceflight experiments that entail on-orbit sample recovery by astronauts.

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<![CDATA[Fibrous Hydrogels for Cell Encapsulation: A Modular and Supramolecular Approach]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da26ab0ee8fa60b80dcb

Artificial 3-dimensional (3D) cell culture systems, which mimic the extracellular matrix (ECM), hold great potential as models to study cellular processes under controlled conditions. The natural ECM is a 3D structure composed of a fibrous hydrogel that provides both mechanical and biochemical cues to instruct cell behavior. Here we present an ECM-mimicking genetically engineered protein-based hydrogel as a 3D cell culture system that combines several key features: (1) Mild and straightforward encapsulation meters (1) ease of ut I am not so sure.encapsulation of the cells, without the need of an external crosslinker. (2) Supramolecular assembly resulting in a fibrous architecture that recapitulates some of the unique mechanical characteristics of the ECM, i.e. strain-stiffening and self-healing behavior. (3) A modular approach allowing controlled incorporation of the biochemical cue density (integrin binding RGD domains). We tested the gels by encapsulating MG-63 osteoblastic cells and found that encapsulated cells not only respond to higher RGD density, but also to overall gel concentration. Cells in 1% and 2% (weight fraction) protein gels showed spreading and proliferation, provided a relative RGD density of at least 50%. In contrast, in 4% gels very little spreading and proliferation occurred, even for a relative RGD density of 100%. The independent control over both mechanical and biochemical cues obtained in this modular approach renders our hydrogels suitable to study cellular responses under highly defined conditions.

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<![CDATA[The Antibacterial Activity of Australian Leptospermum Honey Correlates with Methylglyoxal Levels]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da7dab0ee8fa60b995a8

Most commercially available therapeutic honey is derived from flowering Leptospermum scoparium (manuka) plants from New Zealand. Australia has more than 80 Leptospermum species, and limited research to date has found at least some produce honey with high non-peroxide antibacterial activity (NPA) similar to New Zealand manuka, suggesting Australia may have a ready supply of medical-grade honey. The activity of manuka honey is largely due to the presence of methylglyoxal (MGO), which is produced non-enzymatically from dihydroxyacetone (DHA) present in manuka nectar. The aims of the current study were to chemically quantify the compounds contributing to antibacterial activity in a collection of Australian Leptospermum honeys, to assess the relationship between MGO and NPA in these samples, and to determine whether NPA changes during honey storage. Eighty different Leptospermum honey samples were analysed, and therapeutically useful NPA was seen in samples derived from species including L. liversidgei and L. polygalifolium. Exceptionally high levels of up to 1100 mg/kg MGO were present in L. polygalifolium honey samples sourced from the Northern Rivers region in NSW and Byfield, QLD, with considerable diversity among samples. There was a strong positive relationship between NPA and MGO concentration, and DHA was present in all of the active honey samples, indicating a potential for ongoing conversion to MGO. NPA was stable, with most samples showing little change following seven years of storage in the dark at 4°C. This study demonstrates the potential for Australian Leptospermum honey as a wound care product, and argues for an extension of this analysis to other Leptospermum species.

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<![CDATA[Cervical Cytology Specimen Stability in Surepath Preservative and Analytical Sensitivity for HPV Testing with the cobas and Hybrid Capture 2 Tests]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da6aab0ee8fa60b92b27

None of the commercial HPV tests are U.S. FDA-approved for testing of cervical cytology specimens in SurePath preservative. Still, ~30% of HPV testing is performed on specimens in this formalin-containing preservative. Formalin-induced DNA fragmentation and cross-linking may interfere with HPV detection. We evaluated analytical sensitivity and specimen stability of the cobas 4800 HPV (Roche) and Hybrid Capture 2 HPV (HC2, Qiagen) tests with residual cervical cytology samples in SurePath preservative available within 1 week of collection. Cobas testing was performed with and without heating samples at 120°C for 20 min diluted 1:1 in an alkaline environment (pretreatment) to revert DNA crosslinking. Stability was tested after 2 weeks of storage at ambient temperature followed by ≤10 weeks at 4°C. Analytical sensitivity and positivity rates (HC2, 18%; cobas pretreated, 46%; cobas untreated, 47%) were greater for cobas than HC2 (n = 682). After 6 weeks of storage, mean HC2 ratios were lower (mean 0.9, SD 6.3) but high variability limited statistical power to detect trends. Cobas threshold cycles (Ct’s) increased in untreated (mean 2.1) but not pretreated samples (mean 0.3; n = 110; p≤0.0001). Overall, cobas had greater analytical sensitivity for samples in SurePath preservative. Although pretreatment introduced a manual sample transfer step and 30 min of incubation times, it improved stability without negatively affecting analytical sensitivity. While awaiting results of large trials to evaluate the clinical performance of cobas, the addition of the pretreatment step may improve the detection of HPV, especially after prolonged sample storage.

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<![CDATA[The Quality of Selected Essential Medicines Sold in Accredited Drug Dispensing Outlets and Pharmacies in Tanzania]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db25ab0ee8fa60bd0185

Introduction

The purpose of this study was to investigate the quality of a select group of medicines sold in accredited drug dispensing outlets (ADDOs) and pharmacies in different regions of Tanzania as part of an in-depth cross-sectional assessment of community access to medicines and community use of medicines.

Methods

We collected 242 samples of amoxicillin trihydrate, artemether-lumefantrine (ALu), co-trimoxazole, ergometrine maleate, paracetamol, and quinine from selected ADDOs and pharmacies in Mbeya, Morogoro, Singida, and Tanga regions. The analysis included physical examination and testing with validated analytical techniques. Assays for eight of nine products were conducted using high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC). For ALu tablets, we used a two-tiered approach, where tier 1 was a semi-quantitative Global Pharma Health Fund-Minilab® method and tier 2 was high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) as described in The International Pharmacopoeia’s monograph for artemether-lumefantrine.

Results and Discussion

The physical examination of samples revealed no defects in the solid and oral liquid dosage forms, but unusual discoloration in an injectable solution, ergometrine maleate. For ALu, the results showed that of 38 samples, 31 (81.6%) passed tier 1 testing and 7 (18.4%) gave inconclusive drug content results. The inconclusive ALu samples were submitted for tier 2 testing and all met the quality standards. The pass rate using the HPTLC and TLC/HPLC assays was 93.8%; the failures were the ergometrine maleate samples purchased from both ADDOs and pharmacies. The disintegration testing of the solid dosage forms was conducted in accordance with US Pharmacopeia monographs. Only two samples of paracetamol, 1.2% of the solid dosage forms, failed to comply to standards. The study revealed a high overall rate of 92.6% of samples that met the quality standards. Although the overall failure rate was 7.4%, it is important to note that this was largely limited to one product and likely due to poor distribution and storage rather than poor manufacturing practices.

Conclusions

Over 90% of the medicines sold in ADDOs and pharmacies met quality standards. Policy makers need to reconsider ergometrine maleate’s place on the list of medicines that ADDOs are allowed to dispense, by either substituting a more temperature-stable therapeutically equivalent product or requiring those sites to have refrigerators, which is not a feasible option for rural Tanzania.

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<![CDATA[Rigid geometry solves “curse of dimensionality” effects in clustering methods: An application to omics data]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db5fab0ee8fa60be108e

The quality of samples preserved long term at ultralow temperatures has not been adequately studied. To improve our understanding, we need a strategy to analyze protein degradation and metabolism at subfreezing temperatures. To do this, we obtained liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/MS) data of calculated protein signal intensities in HEK-293 cells. Our first attempt at directly clustering the values failed, most likely due to the so-called “curse of dimensionality”. The clusters were not reproducible, and the outputs differed with different methods. By utilizing rigid geometry with a prime ideal I-adic (p-adic) metric, however, we rearranged the sample clusters into a meaningful and reproducible order, and the results were the same with each of the different clustering methods tested. Furthermore, we have also succeeded in application of this method to expression array data in similar situations. Thus, we eliminated the “curse of dimensionality” from the data set, at least in clustering methods. It is possible that our approach determines a characteristic value of systems that follow a Boltzmann distribution.

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<![CDATA[Rescuing Perishable Neuroanatomical Information from a Threatened Biodiversity Hotspot: Remote Field Methods for Brain Tissue Preservation Validated by Cytoarchitectonic Analysis, Immunohistochemistry, and X-Ray Microcomputed Tomography]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da0eab0ee8fa60b78b04

Biodiversity hotspots, which harbor more endemic species than elsewhere on Earth, are increasingly threatened. There is a need to accelerate collection efforts in these regions before threatened or endangered species become extinct. The diverse geographical, ecological, genetic, morphological, and behavioral data generated from the on-site collection of an individual specimen are useful for many scientific purposes. However, traditional methods for specimen preparation in the field do not permit researchers to retrieve neuroanatomical data, disregarding potentially useful data for increasing our understanding of brain diversity. These data have helped clarify brain evolution, deciphered relationships between structure and function, and revealed constraints and selective pressures that provide context about the evolution of complex behavior. Here, we report our field-testing of two commonly used laboratory-based techniques for brain preservation while on a collecting expedition in the Congo Basin and Albertine Rift, two poorly known regions associated with the Eastern Afromontane biodiversity hotspot. First, we found that transcardial perfusion fixation and long-term brain storage, conducted in remote field conditions with no access to cold storage laboratory equipment, had no observable impact on cytoarchitectural features of lizard brain tissue when compared to lizard brain tissue processed under laboratory conditions. Second, field-perfused brain tissue subjected to prolonged post-fixation remained readily compatible with subsequent immunohistochemical detection of neural antigens, with immunostaining that was comparable to that of laboratory-perfused brain tissue. Third, immersion-fixation of lizard brains, prepared under identical environmental conditions, was readily compatible with subsequent iodine-enhanced X-ray microcomputed tomography, which facilitated the non-destructive imaging of the intact brain within its skull. In summary, we have validated multiple approaches to preserving intact lizard brains in remote field conditions with limited access to supplies and a high degree of environmental exposure. This protocol should serve as a malleable framework for researchers attempting to rescue perishable and irreplaceable morphological and molecular data from regions of disappearing biodiversity. Our approach can be harnessed to extend the numbers of species being actively studied by the neuroscience community, by reducing some of the difficulty associated with acquiring brains of animal species that are not readily available in captivity.

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<![CDATA[The Production of a Stable Infliximab Powder: The Evaluation of Spray and Freeze-Drying for Production]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da3aab0ee8fa60b87850

In prospect of developing an oral dosage form of Infliximab, for treatment of Crohn’s disease and rheumatoid arthritis, freeze-drying (vial vs Lyoguard trays) and spray-drying were investigated as production method for stable powders. Dextran and inulin were used in combination with sucrose as stabilizing excipients. The drying processes did not affect Infliximab in these formulations, i.e. both the physical integrity and biological activity (TNF binding) were retained. Accelerated stability studies (1 month at 60°C) showed that the TNF binding ability of Infliximab was conserved in the freeze-dried formulations, whereas the liquid counterpart lost all TNF binding. After thermal treatment, the dried formulations showed some chemical modification of the IgG in the dextran-sucrose formulation, probably due to Maillard reaction products. This study indicates that, with the appropriate formulation, both spray-drying and freeze-drying may be useful for (bulk) powder production of Infliximab.

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<![CDATA[Incubation Temperature Effects on Hatchling Performance in the Loggerhead Sea Turtle (Caretta caretta)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db09ab0ee8fa60bc9928

Incubation temperature has significant developmental effects on oviparous animals, including affecting sexual differentiation for several species. Incubation temperature also affects traits that can influence survival, a theory that is verified in this study for the Northwest Atlantic loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta). We conducted controlled laboratory incubations and experiments to test for an effect of incubation temperature on performance of loggerhead hatchlings. Sixty-eight hatchlings were tested in 2011, and 31 in 2012, produced from eggs incubated at 11 different constant temperatures ranging from 27°C to 33°C. Following their emergence from the eggs, we tested righting response, crawling speed, and conducted a 24-hour long swim test. The results support previous studies on sea turtle hatchlings, with an effect of incubation temperature seen on survivorship, righting response time, crawling speed, change in crawl speed, and overall swim activity, and with hatchlings incubated at 27°C showing decreased locomotor abilities. No hatchlings survived to be tested in both years when incubated at 32°C and above. Differences in survivorship of hatchlings incubated at high temperatures are important in light of projected higher sand temperatures due to climate change, and could indicate increased mortality from incubation temperature effects.

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<![CDATA[Adjustment of Cell-Type Composition Minimizes Systematic Bias in Blood DNA Methylation Profiles Derived by DNA Collection Protocols]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db04ab0ee8fa60bc7bc2

Differences in DNA collection protocols may be a potential confounder in epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS) using a large number of blood specimens from multiple biobanks and/or cohorts. Here we show that pre-analytical procedures involved in DNA collection can induce systematic bias in the DNA methylation profiles of blood cells that can be adjusted by cell-type composition variables. In Experiment 1, whole blood from 16 volunteers was collected to examine the effect of a 24 h storage period at 4°C on DNA methylation profiles as measured using the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip array. Our statistical analysis showed that the P-value distribution of more than 450,000 CpG sites was similar to the theoretical distribution (in quantile-quantile plot, λ = 1.03) when comparing two control replicates, which was remarkably deviated from the theoretical distribution (λ = 1.50) when comparing control and storage conditions. We then considered cell-type composition as a possible cause of the observed bias in DNA methylation profiles and found that the bias associated with the cold storage condition was largely decreased (λadjusted = 1.14) by taking into account a cell-type composition variable. As such, we compared four respective sample collection protocols used in large-scale Japanese biobanks or cohorts as well as two control replicates. Systematic biases in DNA methylation profiles were observed between control and three of four protocols without adjustment of cell-type composition (λ = 1.12–1.45) and no remarkable biases were seen after adjusting for cell-type composition in all four protocols (λadjusted = 1.00–1.17). These results revealed important implications for comparing DNA methylation profiles between blood specimens from different sources and may lead to discovery of disease-associated DNA methylation markers and the development of DNA methylation profile-based predictive risk models.

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<![CDATA[Studies on bacterial community composition are affected by the time and storage method of the rumen content]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db59ab0ee8fa60bdf182

The objective of this study was to investigate three storage methods and four storage times for rumen sampling in terms of quality and yield of extracted metagenomic DNA as well as the composition of the rumen bacterial community. One Nellore steer fitted with a ruminal silicone-type cannula was used as a donor of ruminal contents. The experiment comprised 11 experimental groups: pellet control (PC), lyophilized control (LC), P-20: pellet stored frozen at -20°C for a period of 3, 6, and 12 months, P-80: pellet stored frozen at -80°C for a period of 3, 6, and 12 months, and L-20: lyophilized sample stored frozen at -20°C for a period of 3, 6, and 12 months. Metagenomic DNA concentrations were measured spectrophotometrically and fluorometrically and ion torrent sequencing was used to assess the bacterial community composition. The L-20 method could not maintain the yield of DNA during storage. In addition, the P-80 group showed a greater yield of metagenomic DNA than the other groups after 6 months of storage. Rumen samples stored as pellets (P-20 and P-80) resulted in lower richness Chao 1, ACE, and Shannon Wiener indices when compared to PC, while LC and PC were only different in richness ACE. The storage method and storage time influenced the proportions of 14 of 17 phyla identified by sequencing. In the P-20 group, the proportion of Cyanobacteria, Elusimicrobia, Fibrobacteres, Lentisphaerae, Proteobacteria, and Spirochaetes phyla identified was lower than 1%. In the P-80 group, there was an increase in the proportion of the Bacteroidetes phylum (p = 0.010); however, the proportion of Actinobacteria, Chloroflexi, SR1, Synergistetes, TM7, and WPS.2 phyla were unchanged compared to the PC group (p > 0.05). The class Clostridium was the most abundant in all stored groups and increased in its proportion, especially in the L-20 group. The rumen sample storage time significantly reduced the yield of metagenomic DNA extracted. Therefore, the storage method can influence the abundance of phyla, classes, and bacterial families studied in rumen samples and affect the richness and diversity index.

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<![CDATA[Long-term cryopreservation of decellularised oesophagi for tissue engineering clinical application]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db5dab0ee8fa60be04f1

Oesophageal tissue engineering is a therapeutic alternative when oesophageal replacement is required. Decellularised scaffolds are ideal as they are derived from tissue-specific extracellular matrix and are non-immunogenic. However, appropriate preservation may significantly affect scaffold behaviour. Here we aim to prove that an effective method for short- and long-term preservation can be applied to tissue engineered products allowing their translation to clinical application. Rabbit oesophagi were decellularised using the detergent-enzymatic treatment (DET), a combination of deionised water, sodium deoxycholate and DNase-I. Samples were stored in phosphate-buffered saline solution at 4°C (4°C) or slow cooled in medium with 10% Me2SO at -1°C/min followed by storage in liquid nitrogen (SCM). Structural and functional analyses were performed prior to and after 2 and 4 weeks and 3 and 6 months of storage under each condition. Efficient decellularisation was achieved after 2 cycles of DET as determined with histology and DNA quantification, with preservation of the ECM. Only the SCM method, commonly used for cell storage, maintained the architecture and biomechanical properties of the scaffold up to 6 months. On the contrary, 4°C method was effective for short-term storage but led to a progressive distortion and degradation of the tissue architecture at the following time points. Efficient storage allows a timely use of decellularised oesophagi, essential for clinical translation. Here we describe that slow cooling with cryoprotectant solution in liquid nitrogen vapour leads to reliable long-term storage of decellularised oesophageal scaffolds for tissue engineering purposes.

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<![CDATA[Inactivation of Lipase and Lipoxygenase of Wheat Germ with Temperature-Controlled Short Wave Infrared Radiation and Its Effect on Storage Stability and Quality of Wheat Germ Oil]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9d5ab0ee8fa60b6588f

Wheat germ (WG) is quite susceptible to deterioration due to the presence of lipase (LA) and lipoxygenase (LOX). Therefore it is indispensable to adopt a stabilization step to decrease the activity of LA and LOX while retaining a maximum level of nutrients. But over-drying can make foodstuffs more susceptible to autoxidation. So a stabilization protocol for inactivating LA and LOX of WG with a temperature- controlled short wave infrared (SIR) radiation system was adopted to retard its rancidity and retain a maximum level of fat-soluble nutrients. Meanwhile, the critical storage water activity (Aw) of WG for inhibiting both hydrolytic and oxidative rancidity was appraised. Results indicate that WG irradiated at 90°C for 20 min acquired the optimal stabilization effect, and its residual LA and LOX activity were 18.02% and 19.21%, respectively. At this condition, the free fatty acids (FFA) content and peroxide value (PV) increment of WG oil at 40°C remained below 5% and 2.24 meq O2/kg for 60 days, respectively. The residual Aw of this WG sample was 0.13, and it is near the Aw corresponding to its monolayer. No significant decrease of fatty acids was observed during SIR processing, while about 96.42% of its original tocopherols still retained in WG treated at 90°C for 20 min.

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