ResearchPad - streptococcus https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Traditional milk transformation schemes in Côte d’Ivoire and their impact on the prevalence of <i>Streptococcus bovis</i> complex bacteria in dairy products]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14743 The Streptococcus bovis/Streptococcus equinus complex (SBSEC) and possibly Streptococcus infantarius subsp. infantarius (Sii) are associated with human and animal diseases. Sii predominate in spontaneously fermented milk products with unknown public health effects. Sii/SBSEC prevalence data from West Africa in correlation with milk transformation practices are limited. Northern Côte d’Ivoire served as study area due to its importance in milk production and consumption and to link a wider Sudano-Sahelian pastoral zone of cross-border trade. We aimed to describe the cow milk value chain and determine Sii/SBSEC prevalence with a cross-sectional study. Dairy production practices were described as non-compliant with basic hygiene standards. The system is influenced by secular sociocultural practices and environmental conditions affecting product properties. Phenotypic and molecular analyses identified SBSEC in 27/43 (62.8%) fermented and 26/67 (38.8%) unfermented milk samples. Stratified by collection stage, fermented milk at producer and vendor levels featured highest SBSEC prevalence of 71.4% and 63.6%, respectively. Sii with 62.8% and 38.8% as well as Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. macedonicus with 7.0% and 7.5% were the predominant SBSEC species identified among fermented and unfermented milk samples, respectively. The population structure of Sii/SBSEC isolates seems to reflect evolving novel dairy-adapted, non-adapted and potentially pathogenic lineages. Northern Côte d’Ivoire was confirmed as area with high Sii presence in dairy products. The observed production practices and the high diversity of Sii/SBSEC supports in-depth investigations on Sii ecology niche, product safety and related technology in the dairy value chain potentially affecting large population groups across sub-Saharan Africa.

]]>
<![CDATA[A prospective study of bloodstream infections among febrile adolescents and adults attending Yangon General Hospital, Yangon, Myanmar]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13833 Bloodstream infection (BSI) is common among persons seeking healthcare for severe febrile illness in low-and middle-income countries. Data on community-onset BSI are few for some countries in Asia, including Myanmar. Such data are needed to inform empiric antimicrobial treatment of patients and to monitor and control antimicrobial resistance. We performed a one year, prospective study collecting information and blood cultures from patients presenting with fever at a tertiary referral hospital in Yangon, Myanmar. We found that almost 10% of participants had a bloodstream infection, and that Salmonella enterica serovars Typhi and Paratyphi A were the most common pathogens. Typhoidal Salmonella were universally resistant to ciprofloxacin. More than half of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae were resistant to extended-spectrum cephalosporins and resistance to carbapenems was also identified in some isolates. We show that typhoid and paratyphoid fever are common, and fluoroquinolone resistance is widespread. Extended-spectrum cephalosporin resistance is common in E. coli and K. pneumoniae and carbapenem resistance is present. Our findings inform empiric antimicrobial management of severe febrile illness, underscore the value of routine use of blood cultures, indicate that measures to prevent and control enteric fever are warranted, and suggest a need to monitor and mitigate antimicrobial resistance among community-acquired pathogens.

]]>
<![CDATA[Streptococcal H2O2 inhibits IgE-triggered degranulation of RBL-2H3 mast cell/basophil cell line by inducing cell death]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nadf2e0c3-9608-4100-a6fa-f03310d30959

Mast cells and basophils are central players in allergic reactions triggered by immunoglobulin E (IgE). They have intracellular granules containing allergic mediators (e.g., histamine, serotonin, inflammatory cytokines, proteases and β-hexosaminidase), and stimulation by IgE-allergen complex leads to the release of such allergic mediators from the granules, that is, degranulation. Mast cells are residents of mucosal surfaces, including those of nasal and oral cavities, and play an important role in the innate defense system. Members of the mitis group streptococci such as Streptococcus oralis, are primary colonizers of the human oral cavity. They produce hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as a by-product of sugar metabolism. In this study, we investigated the effects of streptococcal infection on RBL-2H3 mast cell/basophil cell line. Infection by oral streptococci did not induce degranulation of the cells. Stimulation of the RBL-2H3 cells with anti-dinitrophenol (DNP) IgE and DNP-conjugated human serum albumin triggers degranulation with the release of β-hexosaminidase. We found that S. oralis and other mitis group streptococci inhibited the IgE-triggered degranulation of RBL-2H3 cells. Since mitis group streptococci produce H2O2, we examined the effect of S. oralis mutant strain deficient in producing H2O2, and found that they lost the ability to suppress the degranulation. Moreover, H2O2 alone inhibited the IgE-induced degranulation. Subsequent analysis suggested that the inhibition of degranulation was related to the cytotoxicity of streptococcal H2O2. Activated RBL-2H3 cells produce interleukin-4 (IL-4); however, IL-4 production was not induced by streptococcal H2O2. Furthermore, an in vivo study using the murine pollen-induced allergic rhinitis model suggested that the streptococcal H2O2 reduces nasal allergic reaction. These findings reveal that H2O2 produced by oral mitis group streptococci inhibits IgE-stimulated degranulation by inducing cell death. Consequently, streptococcal H2O2 can be considered to modulate the allergic reaction in mucosal surfaces.

]]>
<![CDATA[Detection of microbial cell-free DNA in maternal and umbilical cord plasma in patients with chorioamnionitis using next generation sequencing]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N85cfbb28-a074-423a-88cd-d5e05af52830

Background

Chorioamnionitis has been linked to spontaneous preterm labor and complications such as neonatal sepsis. We hypothesized that microbial cell-free (cf) DNA would be detectable in maternal plasma in patients with chorioamnionitis and could be the basis for a non-invasive method to detect fetal exposure to microorganisms.

Objective

The purpose of this study was to determine whether next generation sequencing could detect microbial cfDNA in maternal plasma in patients with chorioamnionitis.

Study design

Maternal plasma (n = 94) and umbilical cord plasma (n = 120) were collected during delivery at gestational age 28–41 weeks. cfDNA was extracted and sequenced. Umbilical cord plasma samples with evidence of contamination were excluded. The prevalence of microorganisms previously implicated in choriomanionitis, neonatal sepsis and intra-amniotic infections, as described in the literature, were examined to determine if there was enrichment of these microorganisms in this cohort. Specific microbial cfDNA associated with chorioamnionitis was first detected in umbilical cord plasma and confirmed in the matched maternal plasma samples (n = 77 matched pairs) among 14 cases of histologically confirmed chorioamnionitis and one case of clinical chorioamnionitis; 63 paired samples were used as controls. A correlation of rank of a given microorganism across maternal plasma and matched umbilical cord plasma was used to assess whether signals found in umbilical cord plasma were also present in maternal plasma.

Results

Microbial DNA sequences associated with clinical and/or histological chorioamnionitis were enriched in maternal plasma in cases with suspected chorioamnionitis when compared to controls (12/14 microorganisms, p = 0.02). Analysis of the microbial cfDNA in umbilical cord plasma among the 1,251 microorganisms detectable with this assay identified Streptococcus mitis, Ureaplasma spp., and Mycoplasma spp. in cases of suspected chorioamnionitis. This assay also detected cfDNA from Lactobacillus spp. in controls. Comparison between maternal plasma and umbilical cord plasma confirmed these signatures were also present in maternal plasma. Unbiased analysis of microorganisms with significantly correlated signal between matched maternal plasma and umbilical cord plasma identified the above listed 3 microorganisms, all of which have previously been implicated in patients with chorioamnionitis (Mycoplasma hominis p = 0.0001; Ureaplasma parvum p = 0.002; Streptococcus mitis p = 0.007). These data show that the pathogen signal relevant for chorioamnionitis can be identified in both maternal and umbilical cord plasma.

Conclusion

This is the first report showing the detection of relevant microbial cell-free cfDNA in maternal plasma and umbilical cord plasma in patients with clinical and/or histological chorioamnionitis. These results may lead to the development of a specific assay to detect perinatal infections for targeted therapy to reduce early neonatal sepsis complications.

]]>
<![CDATA[Epidemiological and clinical features of invasive pneumococcal disease caused by serotype 12F in adults, Japan]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c78501ad5eed0c484007c91

Enhanced surveillance of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in adults was conducted during April 2013–March 2018 in 10 of 47 prefectures in Japan, and a total of 1277 IPD patients were enrolled. An emergence of IPD caused by serotype 12F was identified during May 2015–March 2018 through this surveillance. 12F isolates were composed of four related sequence types. In total, 120 patients with 12F IPD were reported during this period. To characterize the clinical features of 12F IPD, the disease characteristics of these patients were compared with those of 1157 patients with non-12F IPD. Compared with the non-12F IPD patients, a significantly lower proportion of 12F IPD patients was aged 65 years or older (55% vs. 70%), vaccinated with 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide (4% vs. 14%), had comorbid illness (65% vs. 77%), or were immunocompromised (19% vs. 30%; all P < 0.05). No significant difference in the proportion of case fatalities was found between the two groups. The proportions of those aged 65 years or older (53% vs. 69%) and with bacteremic pneumonia (35% vs. 69%) were significantly lower in 17 patients who died from 12F IPD than in 205 patients who died from non-12F IPD (all P < 0.05). Differences in clinical features were similarly found between 12F IPD patients and patients in low- or intermediate-level invasive potential serogroups. Our data demonstrated that serotype 12F was associated with IPD in younger adults and a lower proportion of comorbid illness, including immunocompromised conditions, in adult IPD, suggesting the high invasive potential of the serotype 12F. In addition, patients who died from 12F IPD were younger and had proportionately more bacteremia without focus. These findings may provide new insight into the pathogenesis of IPD in adults caused by 12F serotype with a high invasive potential.

]]>
<![CDATA[Effectiveness of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines against invasive pneumococcal disease among children under five years of age in Africa: A systematic review]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c75ac73d5eed0c484d087d7

Background

Despite the widespread implementation of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, Streptococcus pneumoniae remains the leading cause of severe pneumonia associated with mortality among children less than 5 years of age worldwide, with the highest mortality rates recorded in Africa and Asia. However, information on the effectiveness and prevalence of vaccine serotypes post-roll out remains scarce in most African countries. Hence, this systematic review aimed to describe what is known about the decline of childhood invasive pneumococcal disease post-introduction of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in Africa.

Methods

This systematic review included articles published between 2009 and 2018 on the implementation of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in Africa. We searched PubMed, Scopus and African Index Medicus for articles in English. Studies on implementation programmes of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine 10/13, with before and after data from different African countries, were considered eligible. The review followed the procedures published in PROSPERO (ID = CRD42016049192).

Results

In total, 2,280 studies were identified through electronic database research, and only 8 studies were eligible for inclusion in the final analysis. Approximately half (n = 3) of these studies were from South Africa. The overall decline in invasive pneumococcal disease ranged from 31.7 to 80.1%. Invasive pneumococcal diseases caused by vaccine serotypes declined significantly, the decline ranged from 35.0 to 92.0%. A much higher decline (55.0–89.0%) was found in children below 24 months of age. Of all vaccine serotypes, the relative proportions of serotypes 1, 5 and 19A doubled following vaccine roll out.

Interpretation

Following the introduction of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, a significant decline was observed in invasive pneumococcal disease caused by vaccine serotypes. However, data on the effectiveness in this region remain scarce, meriting continued surveillance to assess the effectiveness of pneumococcal vaccination to improve protection against invasive pneumococcal disease.

]]>
<![CDATA[Utility of MALDI-TOF MS as a new tool for Streptococcus pneumoniae serotyping]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6c759fd5eed0c4843cff31

Nowadays, more than 95 different Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes are known, being less than one third responsible for the majority of severe pneumococcal infections. After the introduction of conjugate vaccines, a change in the epidemiology of the serotypes causing invasive pneumococcal disease has been observed making the surveillance of circulating serotypes especially relevant. Some recent studies have used matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) technology to identify the most frequent pneumococcal serotypes that cause invasive disease. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the efficacy of previously described discriminatory peaks determined by MALDI-TOF MS for the identification of serotypes 6B, 19F, 19A and 35B using reference and clinical isolates and to try to identify other discriminatory peaks for serotypes 11A, 19F and 19A using transformed pneumococcal strains. Most of the proposed peaks defined in the literature for the identification of serotypes 6B, 19F, 19A, 35B were not found in the spectra of the 10 reference isolates nor in those of the 60 clinical isolates tested corresponding to these four serotypes. The analysis and comparison of the mass spectra of genetically modified pneumococci (transformed strains) did not allow the establishment of new discriminatory peaks for serotypes 11A, 19F, and 19A. MALDI-TOF MS in the usual range of 2,000 to 20,000 m/z did not prove to be a valid technique for direct S. pneumoniae serotyping.

]]>
<![CDATA[Selection of an appropriate empiric antibiotic regimen in hematogenous vertebral osteomyelitis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c673063d5eed0c484f37a49

Background

Empiric antibiotic therapy for suspected hematogenous vertebral osteomyelitis (HVO) should be initiated immediately in seriously ill patients and may be required in those with negative microbiological results. The aim of this study was to inform the appropriate selection of empiric antibiotic regimens for the treatment of suspected HVO by analyzing antimicrobial susceptibility of isolated bacteria from microbiologically proven HVO.

Method

We conducted a retrospective chart review of adult patients with microbiologically proven HVO in five tertiary-care hospitals over a 7-year period. The appropriateness of empiric antibiotic regimens was assessed based on the antibiotic susceptibility profiles of isolated bacteria.

Results

In total, 358 cases of microbiologically proven HVO were identified. The main causative pathogens identified were methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (33.5%), followed by methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) (24.9%), Enterobacteriaceae (19.3%), and Streptococcus species (11.7%). Extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae and anaerobes accounted for only 1.7% and 1.4%, respectively, of the causative pathogens. Overall, 73.5% of isolated pathogens were susceptible to levofloxacin plus rifampicin, 71.2% to levofloxacin plus clindamycin, and 64.5% to amoxicillin-clavulanate plus ciprofloxacin. The susceptibility to these oral combinations was lower in cases of healthcare-associated HVO (52.6%, 49.6%, and 37.6%, respectively) than in cases of community-acquired HVO (85.8%, 84.0%, and 80.4%, respectively). Vancomycin combined with ciprofloxacin, ceftriaxone, ceftazidime, or cefepime was similarly appropriate (susceptibility rates of 93.0%, 94.1%, 95.8%, and 95.8%, respectively).

Conclusions

Based on our susceptibility data, vancomycin combined with a broad-spectrum cephalosporin or fluoroquinolone may be appropriate for empiric treatment of HVO. Fluoroquinolone-based oral combinations may be not appropriate due to frequent resistance to these agents, especially in cases of healthcare-associated HVO.

]]>
<![CDATA[PepN is a non-essential, cell wall-localized protein that contributes to neutrophil elastase-mediated killing of Streptococcus pneumoniae]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5df336d5eed0c484580f0d

Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn) is an asymptomatic colonizer of the human nasopharynx but can also cause disease in the inner ear, meninges, lung and blood. Although various mechanisms contribute to the effective clearance of Spn, opsonophagocytosis by neutrophils is perhaps most critical. Upon phagocytosis, Spn is exposed to various degradative molecules, including a family of neutrophil serine proteases (NSPs) that are stored within intracellular granules. Despite the critical importance of NSPs in killing Spn, the bacterial proteins that are degraded by NSPs leading to Spn death are still unknown. In this report, we identify a 90kDa protein in a purified cell wall (CW) preparation, aminopeptidase N (PepN) that is degraded by the NSP neutrophil elastase (NE). Since PepN lacked a canonical signal sequence or LPxTG motif, we created a mutant expressing a FLAG tagged version of the protein and confirmed its localization to the CW compartment. We determined that not only is PepN a CW-localized protein, but also is a substrate of NE in the context of intact Spn cells. Furthermore, in comparison to wild-type TIGR4 Spn, a mutant strain lacking PepN demonstrated a significant hyper-resistance phenotype in vitro in the presence of purified NE as well as in opsonophagocytic assays with purified human neutrophils ex vivo. Taken together, this is the first study to demonstrate that PepN is a CW-localized protein and a substrate of NE that contributes to the effective killing of Spn by NSPs and human neutrophils.

]]>
<![CDATA[The 5’-nucleotidase S5nA is dispensable for evasion of phagocytosis and biofilm formation in Streptococcus pyogenes]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5ca309d5eed0c48441f036

5’-nucleotidases are widespread among all domains of life. The enzymes hydrolyze phosphate residues from nucleotides and nucleotide derivatives. In some pathobiontic bacteria, 5’-nucleotidases contribute to immune evasion by dephosphorylating adenosine mono-, di-, or tri-phosphates, thereby either decreasing the concentration of pro-inflammatory ATP or increasing the concentration of anti-inflammatory adenosine, both acting on purinergic receptors of phagocytic cells. The strict human pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes expresses a surface-associated 5’-nucleotidase (S5nA) under infection conditions that has previously been discussed as a potential virulence factor. Here we show that deletion of the S5nA gene does not significantly affect growth in human blood, evasion of phagocytosis by neutrophils, formation of biofilms and virulence in an infection model with larvae of the greater wax moth Galleria mellonella in S. pyogenes serotypes M6, M18 and M49. Hence, the surface-associated 5’-nucleotidase S5nA seems dispensable for evasion of phagocytosis and biofilm formation in S. pyogenes.

]]>
<![CDATA[Bacterial causes of otitis media with spontaneous perforation of the tympanic membrane in the era of 13 valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5df324d5eed0c484580d85

After pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) implementation, the number of acute otitis media (AOM) episodes has decreased, but AOM still remains among the most common diagnoses in childhood. From 2% to 17% of cases of AOM feature spontaneous perforation of the tympanic membrane (SPTM). The aim of this study was to describe the bacteriological causes of SPTM 5 to 8 years years after PCV13 implementation, in 2010. From 2015 to 2018, children with SPTM were prospectively enrolled by 41 pediatricians. Middle ear fluid was obtained by sampling spontaneous discharge. Among the 470 children with SPTM (median age 20.8 months), no otopathogen was isolated for 251 (53.4% [95% CI 48.8%;58.0%]): 47.1% of infants and toddlers, 68.3% older children (p<0.001). Among children with isolated bacterial otopathogens (n = 219), non-typable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) was the most frequent otopathogen isolated (n = 106, 48.4% [95% CI 41.6%;55.2%]), followed by Streptoccocus pyogenes (group A streptococcus [GAS]) (n = 76, 34.7% [95% CI 28.4%;41.4%]) and Streptococcus pneumoniae (Sp) (n = 61, 27.9% [95% Ci 22.0%;34.3%]). NTHi was frequently isolated in infants and toddlers (53.1%), whereas the main otopathogen in older children was GAS (52.3%). In cases of co-infection with at least two otopathogens (16.9%, n = 37/219), NTHi was frequently involved (78.4%, n = 29/37). When Sp was isolated, PCV13 serotypes accounted for 32.1% of cases, with serotype 3 the main serotype (16.1%). Among Sp strains, 29.5% were penicillin-intermediate and among NTHi strains, 16.0% were β-lactamase–producers. More than 5 years after PCV13 implementation, the leading bacterial species recovered from AOM with SPTM was NTHi for infants and toddlers and GAS for older children. In both age groups, Sp was the third most frequent pathogen and vaccine serotypes still played an important role. No resistant Sp strains were isolated, and the frequency of β-lactamase–producing NTHi did not exceed 16%.

]]>
<![CDATA[Spread of ceftriaxone non-susceptible pneumococci in South Korea: Long-term care facilities as a potential reservoir]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5b52afd5eed0c4842bce46

Despite the availability of a pneumococcal National Immunization Program, which provides free PPSV23 vaccination for older adults aged ≥65 years in South Korea, pneumococcal pneumonia remains one of the most common respiratory infections, with increasing antimicrobial resistance. From January to December in 2015, all pneumococcal isolates were collected from a 1,050-bed teaching hospital in South Korea. All isolates were analyzed for serotype, genotype, and antimicrobial susceptibility. Demographic, clinical and microbiological data were compared between ceftriaxone susceptible and non-susceptible cases. Among 92 microbiologically identified pneumococcal isolates, ceftriaxone non-susceptible pneumococci (CNSP) accounted for 32 cases (34.8%). Some of these cases also showed levofloxacin resistance (25%, 8/32 isolates) and all CNSP cases were multidrug resistant. Compared to patients with ceftriaxone susceptible pneumococci (CSP), long-term care facility residents (odds ratio [OR] 7.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.8–62.1) and patients with chronic lung (OR 4.1, 95% CI 1.1–15.0) and renal diseases (OR 9.1, 95% CI 1.2–70.5) were more common among those with CNSP on multivariate analysis. PPSV23-unique serotypes not included in PCV13 were more common in CNSP than in CSP (34.4% versus 13.3%, p = 0.02). Regarding genotypes, ST320 (10 cases), ST166 (7 cases) and ST8279 (3 cases) were dominant in CNSP, and ST8279 was only detected in previous long-term care facility residents. Clonal expansion and spread of CNSP strains should be monitored among patients with chronic lung/renal diseases and residents of long-term care facilities.

]]>
<![CDATA[Mutant prevention and minimum inhibitory concentration drug values for enrofloxacin, ceftiofur, florfenicol, tilmicosin and tulathromycin tested against swine pathogens Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Pasteurella multocida and Streptococcus suis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c40f7b8d5eed0c48438671f

Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Pasteurella multocida and Streptococcus suis are prevalent bacterial causes of swine infections. Morbidity, mortality and positively impacting the financial burden of infection occurs with appropriate antimicrobial therapy. Increasing antimicrobial resistance complicates drug therapy and resistance prevention is now a necessity to optimize therapy and prolong drug life. Mutant bacterial cells are said to arise spontaneously in bacterial densities of 107−109 or greater colony forming units/ml. Antibiotic drug concentration inhibiting growth of the least susceptible cell in these high density populations has been termed the mutant prevention concentration (MPC). In this study MPC and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of ceftiofur, enrofloxacin, florfenicol, tilmicosin and tulathromycin were determined against the swine pathogens A. pleuropneumoniae, P.multocida and S. suis. The following MIC90/MPC90 values (mg/L) for 67 A. pleuropneumoniae and 73 P. multocida strains respectively were as follows: A. pleuropneumoniae 0.031/0.5, ≤0.016/0.5, 0.5/2, 4/32, 2/32; P. multocida 0.004/0.25, 0.016/0.125, 0.5/0.5, 8/16, 0.5/1. For 33 S. suis strains, MIC90 values (mg/L) respectively were as follows: 1, 0.25, 4, ≥8 and ≥8. A total of 16 S. suis strains with MIC values of 0.063–0.5 mg/L to ceftiofur and 0.25–0.5 mg/L to enrofloxacin were tested by MPC; MPC values respectively were 0.5 and 1 mg/L respectively. MPC concentrations provide a dosing target which may serve to reduce amplification of bacterial subpopulations with reduced antimicrobial susceptibility. Drug potency based on MIC90 values was ceftiofur > enrofloxacin >florfenicol = tulathromycin > tilmicosin; based on MPC90 values was enrofloxacin > ceftiofur > tulathromycin > florfenicol ≥ tilmicosin.

]]>
<![CDATA[Molecular typing of Streptococcus suis strains isolated from diseased and healthy pigs between 1996-2016]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6059f1d5eed0c4847cc4d8

Streptococcus suis is an economically important pathogen of pigs as well as a zoonotic cause of human disease. Serotyping is used for further characterization of isolates; some serotypes seem to be more virulent and more widely spread than others. This study characterizes a collection of German field isolates of Streptococcus suis from pigs dating from 1996 to 2016 with respect to capsular genes (cps) specific for individual serotypes and pathotype by multiplex PCR and relates results to the clinical background of these isolates. The most prominent finding was the reduction in prevalence of serotype-2/serotype-1/2 among invasive isolates during this sampling period, which might be attributed to widely implemented autogenous vaccination programs in swine against serotype 2 in Germany. In diseased pigs (systemically ill; respiratory disease) isolates of serotype-1/serotype-14, serotype-2/serotype-1/2, serotype 3 to 5 and 7 to 9 were most frequent while in carrier isolates a greater variety of cps types was found. Serotype-1/serotype-14 seemed to be preferentially located in joints, serotype 4 and serotype 3 in the central nervous system, respectively. The virulence associated extracellular protein factor was almost exclusively associated with invasive serotype-1/serotype-14 and serotype-2/serotype-1/2 isolates. In contrast, lung isolates of serotype-2/serotype-1/2 mainly harbored the gene for muramidase-released protein. Serotype 4 and serotype 9 isolates from clinically diseased pigs most frequently carried the muramidase-released protein gene and the suilysin gene. When examined by transmission electron microscopy all but one of the isolates which were non-typable by molecular and serological methods showed various amounts of capsular material indicating potentially new serotypes among these isolates. Given the variety of cps types/serotypes detected in pigs, not only veterinarians but also medical doctors should consider other serotypes than just serotype 2 when investigating potential human cases of Streptococcus suis infection.

]]>
<![CDATA[Diagnosis of bacterial meningitis in Ghana: Polymerase chain reaction versus latex agglutination methods]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6059efd5eed0c4847cc4c7

Bacterial meningitis is a public health crisis in the northern part of Ghana, where it contributes to very high mortality and morbidity rates. Early detection of the causative organism will lead to better management and effective treatment. Our aim was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of Pastorex and Wellcogen latex agglutination tests for the detection of bacterial meningitis in a resource-limited setting. CSF samples from 330 suspected meningitis patients within the northern zone of Ghana were analysed for bacterial agents at the zonal Public Health Reference Laboratory in Tamale using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and two latex agglutination test kits; Pastorex and Wellcogen. The overall positivity rate of samples tested for bacterial meningitis was 46.4%. Streptococcus pneumoniae was the most common cause of bacterial meningitis within the sub-region, with positivity rate of 25.2%, 28.2% and 28.8% when diagnosed using Wellcogen, Pastorex and PCR respectively. The Pastorex method was 97.4% sensitive while the Wellcogen technique was 87.6% sensitive. Both techniques however produced the same specificity of 99.4%. Our study revealed that the Pastorex method has a better diagnostic value for bacterial meningitis than the Wellcogen method and should be the method of choice in the absence of PCR.

]]>
<![CDATA[Deletion of genes involved in the ketogluconate metabolism, Entner-Doudoroff pathway, and glucose dehydrogenase increase local and invasive virulence phenotypes in Streptococcus pneumoniae]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c3e4f3cd5eed0c484d733f0

Streptococcus pneumoniae displays increased resistance to antibiotic therapy following biofilm formation. A genome-wide search revealed that SP 0320 and SP 0675 (respectively annotated as 5-keto-D-gluconate-5-reductase and glucose dehydrogenase) contain the highest degree of homology to CsgA of Myxococcus xanthus, a signaling factor that promotes cell aggregation and biofilm formation. Single and double SP 0320 and SP 0675 knockout mutants were created in strain BS72; however, no differences were observed in the biofilm-forming phenotypes of mutants compared to the wild type strain. Using the chinchilla model of otitis media and invasive disease, all three mutants exhibited greatly increased virulence compared to the wild type strain (increased pus formation, tympanic membrane rupture, mortality rates). The SP 0320 gene is located in an operon with SP 0317, SP 0318 and SP 0319, which we bioinformatically annotated as being part of the Entner-Doudoroff pathway. Deletion of SP 0317 also resulted in increased mortality in chinchillas; however, mutations in SP 0318 and SP 0319 did not alter the virulence of bacteria compared to the wild type strain. Complementing the SP 0317, SP 0320 and SP 0675 mutant strains reversed the virulence phenotype. We prepared recombinant SP 0317, SP 0318, SP 0320 and SP 0675 proteins and confirmed their functions. These data reveal that disruption of genes involved in the degradation of ketogluconate, the Entner-Doudoroff pathway, and glucose dehydrogenase significantly increase the virulence of bacteria in vivo; two hypothetical models involving virulence triggered by reduced in carbon-flux through the glycolytic pathways are presented.

]]>
<![CDATA[Antibiotic susceptibility, cytotoxicity, and protease activity of viridans group streptococci causing endophthalmitis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c269771d5eed0c48470f88f

The viridans group streptococci comprise multiple species and have gained more recognition in recent years as common etiologic agents of bacterial endophthalmitis. The purpose of this study was to identify the species of human endophthalmitis isolates of viridans streptococci and to characterize their potential virulence attributes. The species of 22 endophthalmitis strains of viridans streptococci were identified by Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Time-of-Flight. Susceptibilities to 3 antibiotics commonly used for bacterial endophthalmitis were determined. The extracellular milieu of each strain was tested for cytotoxicity of retinal pigmented epithelial cells, hemolysis of sheep erythrocytes, and protease activity using gelatin zymography. Identified species were Streptococcus mitis/oralis, S. salivarius, S. vestibularis, S. parasanguinis, S. mutans, S. constellatus, and S. gordonii. One strain of S. pseudoporcinus was also identified. All strains were sensitive to vancomycin, 77% were resistant to amikacin, and 27% had intermediate resistance to ceftazidime. Extracellular milieu from all strains except one (S. pseudoporcinus) were largely devoid of toxicity to retinal pigmented epithelial cells and sheep erythrocytes. Twelve strains, 10 of which were S. mitis/oralis, produced protease activity. Interestingly, not all of the S. mitis/oralis strains were proteolytic. These findings highlight the diversity of virulence factor production in ocular strains of the viridans streptococci not only at the group level but also at the species level.

]]>
<![CDATA[Asymptomatic carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae detected by qPCR on the palm of hands of populations in rural Senegal]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c1813a3d5eed0c4847756bf

Aside from malaria, infectious diseases are an important cause of death in sub-Saharan Africa and continue to pose major public health problems in African countries, notably pneumonia. Streptococcus pneumoniae remains the most common bacterial cause of pneumonia in all age groups. The skin is one of the main infection sites followed by the oropharynx. The skin carriage of certain pathogenic bacteria such as S. pneumoniae is often ignored or under-diagnosed. Finally, the mode of transmission of these infections remains uncertain. Here, we hypothesized that skin could play a role in the transmission of these infections. We collected 649 cotton swabs from a healthy population in Dielmo and Ndiop, rural Senegal. The sampling was carried out on the palm of the hands. After DNA extraction and actin control, qPCR targeting eight different bacteria was performed on 614 skin samples. We detected Streptococcus pneumoniae in 33.06% (203/614), Staphylococcus aureus in 18.08% (111/614) and Streptococcus pyogenes in 1.95% (12/614) of samples. A skin S. pneumoniae carriage was detected in more than a third of a rural population in rural Africa, highlighting the need to develop hand disinfection programs in order to reduce the burden of infections.

]]>
<![CDATA[The Transcriptional landscape of Streptococcus pneumoniae TIGR4 reveals a complex operon architecture and abundant riboregulation critical for growth and virulence]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c117b9cd5eed0c484699dd5

Efficient and highly organized regulation of transcription is fundamental to an organism’s ability to survive, proliferate, and quickly respond to its environment. Therefore, precise mapping of transcriptional units and understanding their regulation is crucial to determining how pathogenic bacteria cause disease and how they may be inhibited. In this study, we map the transcriptional landscape of the bacterial pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae TIGR4 by applying a combination of high-throughput RNA-sequencing techniques. We successfully map 1864 high confidence transcription termination sites (TTSs), 790 high confidence transcription start sites (TSSs) (742 primary, and 48 secondary), and 1360 low confidence TSSs (74 secondary and 1286 primary) to yield a total of 2150 TSSs. Furthermore, our study reveals a complex transcriptome wherein environment-respondent alternate transcriptional units are observed within operons stemming from internal TSSs and TTSs. Additionally, we identify many putative cis-regulatory RNA elements and riboswitches within 5’-untranslated regions (5’-UTR). By integrating TSSs and TTSs with independently collected RNA-Seq datasets from a variety of conditions, we establish the response of these regulators to changes in growth conditions and validate several of them. Furthermore, to demonstrate the importance of ribo-regulation by 5’-UTR elements for in vivo virulence, we show that the pyrR regulatory element is essential for survival, successful colonization and infection in mice suggesting that such RNA elements are potential drug targets. Importantly, we show that our approach of combining high-throughput sequencing with in vivo experiments can reconstruct a global understanding of regulation, but also pave the way for discovery of compounds that target (ribo-)regulators to mitigate virulence and antibiotic resistance.

]]>
<![CDATA[Proteotyping bacteria: Characterization, differentiation and identification of pneumococcus and other species within the Mitis Group of the genus Streptococcus by tandem mass spectrometry proteomics]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c181340d5eed0c484774934

A range of methodologies may be used for analyzing bacteria, depending on the purpose and the level of resolution needed. The capability for recognition of species distinctions within the complex spectrum of bacterial diversity is necessary for progress in microbiological research. In clinical settings, accurate, rapid and cost-effective methods are essential for early and efficient treatment of infections. Characterization and identification of microorganisms, using, bottom-up proteomics, or “proteotyping”, relies on recognition of species-unique or associated peptides, by tandem mass spectrometry analyses, dependent upon an accurate and comprehensive foundation of genome sequence data, allowing for differentiation of species, at amino acid-level resolution. In this study, the high resolution and accuracy of MS/MS-based proteotyping was demonstrated, through analyses of the three phylogenetically and taxonomically most closely-related species of the Mitis Group of the genus Streptococcus: i.e., the pathogenic species, Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus), and the commensal species, Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae and Streptococcus mitis. To achieve high accuracy, a genome sequence database used for matching peptides was created and carefully curated. Here, MS-based, bottom-up proteotyping was observed and confirmed to attain the level of resolution necessary for differentiating and identifying the most-closely related bacterial species, as demonstrated by analyses of species of the Streptococcus Mitis Group, even when S. pneumoniae were mixed with S. pseudopneumoniae and S. mitis, by matching and identifying more than 200 unique peptides for each species.

]]>