ResearchPad - structural-biology https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Nek7 conformational flexibility and inhibitor binding probed through protein engineering of the R-spine]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_9198 Nek7 is a serine/threonine-protein kinase required for proper spindle formation and cytokinesis. Elevated Nek7 levels have been observed in several cancers, and inhibition of Nek7 might provide a route to the development of cancer therapeutics. To date, no selective and potent Nek7 inhibitors have been identified. Nek7 crystal structures exhibit an improperly formed regulatory-spine (R-spine), characteristic of an inactive kinase. We reasoned that the preference of Nek7 to crystallise in this inactive conformation might hinder attempts to capture Nek7 in complex with Type I inhibitors. Here, we have introduced aromatic residues into the R-spine of Nek7 with the aim to stabilise the active conformation of the kinase through R-spine stacking. The strong R-spine mutant Nek7SRS retained catalytic activity and was crystallised in complex with compound 51, an ATP-competitive inhibitor of Nek2 and Nek7. Subsequently, we obtained the same crystal form for wild-type Nek7WT in apo form and bound to compound 51. The R-spines of the three well-ordered Nek7WT molecules exhibit variable conformations while the R-spines of the Nek7SRS molecules all have the same, partially stacked configuration. Compound 51 bound to Nek2 and Nek7 in similar modes, but differences in the precise orientation of a substituent highlights features that could be exploited in designing inhibitors that are selective for particular Nek family members. Although the SRS mutations are not required to obtain a Nek7–inhibitor structure, we conclude that it is a useful strategy for restraining the conformation of a kinase in order to promote crystallogenesis.

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<![CDATA[Recent advances in understanding prodrug transport through the SLC15 family of proton-coupled transporters]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_9192 Solute carrier (SLC) transporters play important roles in regulating the movement of small molecules and ions across cellular membranes. In mammals, they play an important role in regulating the uptake of nutrients and vitamins from the diet, and in controlling the distribution of their metabolic intermediates within the cell. Several SLC families also play an important role in drug transport and strategies are being developed to hijack SLC transporters to control and regulate drug transport within the body. Through the addition of amino acid and peptide moieties several novel antiviral and anticancer agents have been developed that hijack the proton-coupled oligopeptide transporters, PepT1 (SCL15A1) and PepT2 (SLC15A2), for improved intestinal absorption and renal retention in the body. A major goal is to understand the rationale behind these successes and expand the library of prodrug molecules that utilise SLC transporters. Recent co-crystal structures of prokaryotic homologues of the human PepT1 and PepT2 transporters have shed important new insights into the mechanism of prodrug recognition. Here, I will review recent developments in our understanding of ligand recognition and binding promiscuity within the SLC15 family, and discuss current models for prodrug recognition.

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<![CDATA[The road to the structure of the mitochondrial respiratory chain supercomplex]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_9190 The four complexes of the mitochondrial respiratory chain are critical for ATP production in most eukaryotic cells. Structural characterisation of these complexes has been critical for understanding the mechanisms underpinning their function. The three proton-pumping complexes, Complexes I, III and IV associate to form stable supercomplexes or respirasomes, the most abundant form containing 80 subunits in mammals. Multiple functions have been proposed for the supercomplexes, including enhancing the diffusion of electron carriers, providing stability for the complexes and protection against reactive oxygen species. Although high-resolution structures for Complexes III and IV were determined by X-ray crystallography in the 1990s, the size of Complex I and the supercomplexes necessitated advances in sample preparation and the development of cryo-electron microscopy techniques. We now enjoy structures for these beautiful complexes isolated from multiple organisms and in multiple states and together they provide important insights into respiratory chain function and the role of the supercomplex. While we as non-structural biologists use these structures for interpreting our own functional data, we need to remind ourselves that they stand on the shoulders of a large body of previous structural studies, many of which are still appropriate for use in understanding our results. In this mini-review, we discuss the history of respiratory chain structural biology studies leading to the structures of the mammalian supercomplexes and beyond.

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<![CDATA[Heterogeneity of proteome dynamics between connective tissue phases of adult tendon]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7267 Muscles are anchored to bones through specialized tissues called tendons. Made of bundles of fibers (or fascicles) linked together by an ‘interfascicular’ matrix, healthy tendons are required for organisms to move properly. Yet, these structures are constantly exposed to damage: the interfascicular matrix, in particular, is highly susceptible to injury as it allows the fascicles to slide on each other.

One way to avoid damage could be for the body to continually replace proteins in tendons before they become too impaired. However, the way proteins are renewed in these structures is currently not well understood – indeed, it has long been assumed that almost no protein turnover occurs in tendons. In particular, it is unknown whether proteins in the interfascicular matrix have a higher turn over than those in the fascicles.

To investigate, Choi, Simpson et al. fed rats on water carrying a molecular label that becomes integrated into new proteins. Analysis of individual proteins from the rats’ tendons showed great variation in protein turnover, with some replaced every few days and others only over several years. This suggests that protein turnover is actually an important part of tendon health. In particular, the results show that turnover is higher in the interfascicular matrix, where damage is expected to be more likely.

Protein turnover also plays a part in conditions such as cancer, heart disease and kidney disease. Using approaches like the one developed by Choi, Simpson et al. could help to understand how individual proteins are renewed in a range of diseases, and how to design new treatments.

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<![CDATA[Single-molecule observation of ATP-independent SSB displacement by RecO in <i>Deinococcus radiodurans</i>]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N75dd0523-a172-49b7-a20f-e040e1226ee1 Deinococcus radiodurans (DR) survives in the presence of hundreds of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) breaks by efficiently repairing such breaks. RecO, a protein that is essential for the extreme radioresistance of DR, is one of the major recombination mediator proteins in the RecA-loading process in the RecFOR pathway. However, how RecO participates in the RecA-loading process is still unclear. In this work, we investigated the function of drRecO using single-molecule techniques. We found that drRecO competes with the ssDNA-binding protein (drSSB) for binding to the freely exposed ssDNA, and efficiently displaces drSSB from ssDNA without consuming ATP. drRecO replaces drSSB and dissociates it completely from ssDNA even though drSSB binds to ssDNA approximately 300 times more strongly than drRecO does. We suggest that drRecO facilitates the loading of RecA onto drSSB-coated ssDNA by utilizing a small drSSB-free space on ssDNA that is generated by the fast diffusion of drSSB on ssDNA.

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<![CDATA[Limited dishevelled/Axin oligomerization determines efficiency of Wnt/β-catenin signal transduction]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N89b0a066-5932-4aa3-9c28-7c04aeecc210 Stem cells can give rise to many types of specialized cells through a process called differentiation, which is partly regulated by changes in the levels of a protein known as β-catenin. On one hand, a ‘destruction complex’ can keep β-catenin levels low; this complex includes a protein called Axin and an enzyme known as GSK-3, which can tag β-catenin for degradation. On the other hand, when β-catenin levels need to increase, another protein called Dishevelled is activated. By binding to Axin, Dishevelled can bring the destruction complex in contact with other proteins, which leads to the deactivation of GSK-3.

Dishevelled and Axin interact via a region that is similar in the two proteins, called DIX in Dishevelled and DAX in Axin. Studies of DIX and DAX have shown that both regions can form polymers – that is, a high number of similar units can bind together to form larger structures. However, these experiments were at higher concentrations than would be found in the cell. It was thought that, when combined, DIX and DAX might form these long chains together, preventing Axin from carrying out its role in destroying β-catenin. Kan et al. set out to better understand this process by studying how DIX and DAX behave separately, and how they interact.

The proteins were examined using a technique called cryo-electron microscopy, which allows scientists to dissect the structure of large proteins. When there was a high concentration of DIX in the sample, the molecules attached to one another to form long double-stranded helices. Similarly, DAX also formed helices, but these were shorter and only single-stranded. When the two proteins were combined, DAX bound only to the ends of short DIX chains, so that there are not more than four DAX chains attached to each DIX double helix.

To see if this behaviour happens naturally, Kan et al. attached fluorescent tags to Dishevelled proteins and followed them in living cells: this showed that Dishevelled forms smaller chains with fewer than ten molecules. Together these results highlight how Dishevelled binds to Axin to deactivate GSK-3, to prevent the enzyme from promoting β-catenin destruction.

Mutations in the genes that encode β-catenin or its regulators are associated with cancer. Ultimately, a better understanding of how β-catenin is regulated could help to identify new opportunities for drug development.

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<![CDATA[Cryo-EM structure of the potassium-chloride cotransporter KCC4 in lipid nanodiscs]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N58103102-565b-4494-8b69-a2dcfc1a57fa Cation-chloride-cotransporters (CCCs) catalyze transport of Cl- with K+ and/or Na+across cellular membranes. CCCs play roles in cellular volume regulation, neural development and function, audition, regulation of blood pressure, and renal function. CCCs are targets of clinically important drugs including loop diuretics and their disruption has been implicated in pathophysiology including epilepsy, hearing loss, and the genetic disorders Andermann, Gitelman, and Bartter syndromes. Here we present the structure of a CCC, the Mus musculus K+-Cl- cotransporter (KCC) KCC4, in lipid nanodiscs determined by cryo-EM. The structure, captured in an inside-open conformation, reveals the architecture of KCCs including an extracellular domain poised to regulate transport activity through an outer gate. We identify binding sites for substrate K+ and Cl- ions, demonstrate the importance of key coordinating residues for transporter activity, and provide a structural explanation for varied substrate specificity and ion transport ratio among CCCs. These results provide mechanistic insight into the function and regulation of a physiologically important transporter family.

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<![CDATA[A single power stroke by ATP binding drives substrate translocation in a heterodimeric ABC transporter]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N31301349-16ac-43e0-9228-476ce24b03ef ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters constitute the largest family of primary active transporters, responsible for many physiological processes and human maladies. However, the mechanism how chemical energy of ATP facilitates translocation of chemically diverse compounds across membranes is poorly understood. Here, we advance the quantitative mechanistic understanding of the heterodimeric ABC transporter TmrAB, a functional homolog of the transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP) by single-turnover analyses at single-liposome resolution. We reveal that a single conformational switch by ATP binding drives unidirectional substrate translocation. After this power stroke, ATP hydrolysis and phosphate release launch the return to the resting state, which facilitates nucleotide exchange and a new round of substrate binding and translocation. In contrast to hitherto existing steady-state assays, our single-turnover approach uncovers the power stroke in substrate translocation and the tight chemomechanical coupling in these molecular machines.

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<![CDATA[Top-down machine learning approach for high-throughput single-molecule analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N957aad02-2c00-4587-a7f5-2b73aea07b8d During a chemical or biological process, a molecule may transition through a series of states, many of which are rare or short-lived. Advances in technology have made it easier to detect these states by gathering large amounts of data on individual molecules. However, the increasing size of these datasets has put a strain on the algorithms and software used to identify different molecular states.

Now, White et al. have developed a new algorithm called DISC which overcomes this technical limitation. Unlike most other algorithms, DISC requires minimal input from the user and uses a new method to group the data into categories that represent distinct molecular states. Although this new approach produces a similar end-result, it reaches this conclusion much faster than more commonly used algorithms.

To test the effectiveness of the algorithm, White et al. studied how individual molecules of a chemical known as cAMP bind to parts of proteins called cyclic nucleotide binding domains (or CNDBs for short). A fluorescent tag was attached to single molecules of cAMP and data were collected on the behavior of each molecule. Previous evidence suggested that when four CNDBs join together to form a so-called tetramer complex, this affects the binding of cAMP. Using the DISC system, White et al. showed that individual cAMP molecules interact with all four domains in a similar way, suggesting that the binding of cAMP is not impacted by the formation of a tetramer complex.

Analyzing this data took DISC less than 20 minutes compared to existing algorithms which took anywhere between four hours and two weeks to complete. The enhanced speed of the DISC algorithm could make it easier to analyze much larger datasets from other techniques in addition to fluorescence. This means that a greater number of states can be sampled, providing a deeper insight into the inner workings of biological and chemical processes.

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<![CDATA[Comprehensive analysis of PPARγ agonist activities of stereo-, regio-, and enantio-isomers of hydroxyoctadecadienoic acids]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Ncba0b326-176f-4db2-bf87-2a3eba460f56 Hydroxyoctadecadienoic acids (HODEs) are produced by oxidation and reduction of linoleates. There are several regio- and stereo-isomers of HODE, and their concentrations in vivo are higher than those of other lipids. Although conformational isomers may have different biological activities, comparative analysis of intracellular function of HODE isomers has not yet been performed. We evaluated the transcriptional activity of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), a therapeutic target for diabetes, and analyzed PPARγ agonist activity of HODE isomers. The lowest scores for docking poses of 12 types of HODE isomers (9-, 10-, 12-, and 13-HODEs) were almost similar in docking simulation of HODEs into PPARγ ligand-binding domain (LBD). Direct binding of HODE isomers to PPARγ LBD was determined by water-ligand observed via gradient spectroscopy (WaterLOGSY) NMR experiments. In contrast, there were differences in PPARγ agonist activities among 9- and 13-HODE stereo-isomers and 12- and 13-HODE enantio-isomers in a dual-luciferase reporter assay. Interestingly, the activity of 9-HODEs was less than that of other regio-isomers, and 9-(E,E)-HODE tended to decrease PPARγ-target gene expression during the maturation of 3T3-L1 cells. In addition, 10- and 12-(Z,E)-HODEs, which we previously proposed as biomarkers for early-stage diabetes, exerted PPARγ agonist activity. These results indicate that all HODE isomers have PPARγ-binding affinity; however, they have different PPARγ agonist activity. Our findings may help to understand the biological function of lipid peroxidation products.

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<![CDATA[A Snu114–GTP–Prp8 module forms a relay station for efficient splicing in yeast]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N183db1dc-c666-4ced-a2e2-75b885a8b11e The single G protein of the spliceosome, Snu114, has been proposed to facilitate splicing as a molecular motor or as a regulatory G protein. However, available structures of spliceosomal complexes show Snu114 in the same GTP-bound state, and presently no Snu114 GTPase-regulatory protein is known. We determined a crystal structure of Snu114 with a Snu114-binding region of the Prp8 protein, in which Snu114 again adopts the same GTP-bound conformation seen in spliceosomes. Snu114 and the Snu114–Prp8 complex co-purified with endogenous GTP. Snu114 exhibited weak, intrinsic GTPase activity that was abolished by the Prp8 Snu114-binding region. Exchange of GTP-contacting residues in Snu114, or of Prp8 residues lining the Snu114 GTP-binding pocket, led to temperature-sensitive yeast growth and affected the same set of splicing events in vivo. Consistent with dynamic Snu114-mediated protein interactions during splicing, our results suggest that the Snu114–GTP–Prp8 module serves as a relay station during spliceosome activation and disassembly, but that GTPase activity may be dispensable for splicing.

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<![CDATA[Structural basis of G-quadruplex DNA recognition by the yeast telomeric protein Rap1]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N6229c9fe-19b3-44ba-876f-e67fc9da3c2b G-quadruplexes are four-stranded nucleic acid structures involved in multiple cellular pathways including DNA replication and telomere maintenance. Such structures are formed by G-rich DNA sequences typified by telomeric DNA repeats. Whilst there is evidence for proteins that bind and regulate G-quadruplex formation, the molecular basis for this remains poorly understood. The budding yeast telomeric protein Rap1, originally identified as a transcriptional regulator functioning by recognizing double-stranded DNA binding sites, was one of the first proteins to be discovered to also bind and promote G-quadruplex formation in vitro. Here, we present the 2.4 Å resolution crystal structure of the Rap1 DNA-binding domain in complex with a G-quadruplex. Our structure not only provides a detailed insight into the structural basis for G-quadruplex recognition by a protein, but also gives a mechanistic understanding of how the same DNA-binding domain adapts to specifically recognize different DNA structures. The key observation is the DNA-recognition helix functions in a bimodal manner: In double-stranded DNA recognition one helix face makes electrostatic interactions with the major groove of DNA, whereas in G-quadruplex recognition a different helix face is used to make primarily hydrophobic interactions with the planar face of a G-tetrad.

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<![CDATA[Enhanced affinity of racemic phosphorothioate DNA with transcription factor SATB1 arising from diastereomer-specific hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic contacts]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nf6d3ddbf-04f7-4076-9839-1f02269e9c6a Phosphorothioate modification is commonly introduced into therapeutic oligonucleotides, typically as a racemic mixture in which either of the two non-bridging phosphate oxygens is replaced by sulfur, which frequently increases affinities with proteins. Here, we used isothermal titration calorimetry and X-ray crystallography to investigate the thermodynamic and structural properties of the interaction between the primary DNA-binding domain (CUTr1) of transcription factor SATB1 and dodecamer DNAs with racemic phosphorothioate modifications at the six sites known to contact CUTr1 directly. For both the modified and unmodified DNAs, the binding reactions were enthalpy-driven at a moderate salt concentration (50 mM NaCl), while being entropy-driven at higher salt concentrations with reduced affinities. The phosphorothioate modifications lowered this susceptibility to salt, resulting in a significantly enhanced affinity at a higher salt concentration (200 mM NaCl), although only some DNA molecular species remained interacting with CUTr1. This was explained by unequal populations of the two diastereomers in the crystal structure of the complex of CUTr1 and the phosphorothioate-modified DNA. The preferred diastereomer formed more hydrogen bonds with the oxygen atoms and/or more hydrophobic contacts with the sulfur atoms than the other, revealing the origins of the enhanced affinity.

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<![CDATA[Tracking Ca2+ ATPase intermediates in real time by x-ray solution scattering]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N4a47091c-a8c0-4a0f-8a3b-b2ddc66a3821

We characterize thus-far elusive domain rearrangements of a calcium-transporting ATPase in the native membrane.

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<![CDATA[Atomistic simulations indicate the c-subunit ring of the F1Fo ATP synthase is not the mitochondrial permeability transition pore]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db59ab0ee8fa60bded5d

Pathological metabolic conditions such as ischemia induce the rupture of the mitochondrial envelope and the release of pro-apoptotic proteins, leading to cell death. At the onset of this process, the inner mitochondrial membrane becomes depolarized and permeable to osmolytes, proposedly due to the opening of a non-selective protein channel of unknown molecular identity. A recent study purports that this channel, referred to as Mitochondrial Permeability Transition Pore (MPTP), is formed within the c-subunit ring of the ATP synthase, upon its dissociation from the catalytic domain of the enzyme. Here, we examine this claim for two c-rings of different lumen width, through calculations of their ion conductance and selectivity based on all-atom molecular dynamics simulations. We also quantify the likelihood that the lumen of these c-rings is in a hydrated, potentially conducting state rather than empty or blocked by lipid molecules. These calculations demonstrate that the structure and biophysical properties of a correctly assembled c-ring are inconsistent with those attributed to the MPTP.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.23781.001

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<![CDATA[Three-dimensional model for the isolated recombinant influenza virus polymerase heterotrimer]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b7cbe92463d7e20df8e8385

The genome of influenza A virus is organized into eight ribonucleoprotein complexes (RNPs), each containing one RNA polymerase complex. This RNA polymerase has also been found non-associated to RNPs and is possibly involved in distinct functions in the infection cycle. We have expressed the virus RNA polymerase complex by co-tranfection of the PB1, PB2 and PA genes in mammalian cells and the heterotrimer was purified by the TAP tag procedure. Its 3D structure was determined by electron microscopy and single-particle image processing. The model obtained resembles the structure previously reported for the polymerase complex associated to viral RNPs but appears to be in a more open conformation. Detailed model comparison indicated that specific areas of the complex show important conformational changes as compared to the structure for the RNP-associated polymerase, particularly in regions known to interact with the adjacent NP monomers in the RNP. Also, the PB2 subunit seems to undergo a substantial displacement as a result of the association of the polymerase to RNPs. The structural model presented suggests that a core conformation of the polymerase in solution exists but the interaction with other partners, such as proteins or RNA, will trigger distinct conformational changes to activate new functional properties.

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<![CDATA[Sequence occurrence and structural uniqueness of a G-quadruplex in the human c-kit promoter]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b7d0a90463d7e30b734ccb5

The 22-nt c-kit87 promoter sequence is unique within the human genome. Its fold and tertiary structure have recently been determined by NMR methods [Phan,A.T., Kuryavyi,V., Burge,S., Neidle,S. and Patel,D.J. (2007) Structure of an unprecedented G-quadruplex scaffold in the c-kit promoter. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 129, 4386–4392], and does not have precedent among known DNA quadruplexes. We show here using bioinformatics and molecular dynamics simulations methods that (i) none of the closely related sequences (encompassing all nucleotides not involved in the maintenance of structural integrity) occur immediately upstream (<100 nt) of a transcription start site, and (ii) that all of these sequences correspond to the same stable tertiary structure. It is concluded that the c-kit87 tertiary structure may also be formed in a very small number of other loci in the human genome, but the likelihood of these playing a significant role in the expression of particular genes is very low. The c-kit87 quadruplex thus fulfils a fundamental criterion of a ‘good’ drug target, in that it possesses distinctive three-dimensional structural features that are only present in at most a handful of other genes.

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<![CDATA[Molecular basis of Diamond–Blackfan anemia: structure and function analysis of RPS19]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b7d0a8f463d7e30b734ccb4

Diamond–Blackfan anemia (DBA) is a rare congenital disease linked to mutations in the ribosomal protein genes rps19, rps24 and rps17. It belongs to the emerging class of ribosomal disorders. To understand the impact of DBA mutations on RPS19 function, we have solved the crystal structure of RPS19 from Pyrococcus abyssi. The protein forms a five α-helix bundle organized around a central amphipathic α-helix, which corresponds to the DBA mutation hot spot. From the structure, we classify DBA mutations relative to their respective impact on protein folding (class I) or on surface properties (class II). Class II mutations cluster into two conserved basic patches. In vivo analysis in yeast demonstrates an essential role for class II residues in the incorporation into pre-40S ribosomal particles. This data indicate that missense mutations in DBA primarily affect the capacity of the protein to be incorporated into pre-ribosomes, thus blocking maturation of the pre-40S particles.

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<![CDATA[Structural studies reveal a ring-shaped architecture of deep-sea vent phage NrS-1 polymerase]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N6fdf536d-f480-4df9-b353-cc31e9bf2397

Abstract

NrS-1 is the first known phage that can infect Epsilonproteobacteria, one of the predominant primary producers in the deep-sea hydrothermal vent ecosystems. NrS-1 polymerase is a multidomain enzyme and is one key component of the phage replisome. The N-terminal Prim/Pol and HBD domains are responsible for DNA polymerization and de novo primer synthesis activities of NrS-1 polymerase. However, the structure and function of the C-terminus (CTR) of NrS-1 polymerase are poorly understood. Here, we report two crystal structures, showing that NrS-1 CTR adopts one unique hexameric ring-shaped conformation. Although the central helicase domain of NrS-1 CTR shares structural similarity with the superfamily III helicases, the folds of the Head and Tail domains are completely novel. Via mutagenesis and in vitro biochemical analysis, we identified many residues important for the helicase and polymerization activities of NrS-1 polymerase. In addition to NrS-1 polymerase, our study may also help us identify and understand the functions of multidomain polymerases expressed by many NrS-1 related phages.

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<![CDATA[Structural basis of the fanconi anemia-associated mutations within the FANCA and FANCG complex]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Ne6452888-c162-4ff4-915d-967c8ac54cfb

Abstract

Monoubiquitination of the Fanconi anemia complementation group D2 (FANCD2) protein by the FA core ubiquitin ligase complex is the central event in the FA pathway. FANCA and FANCG play major roles in the nuclear localization of the FA core complex. Mutations of these two genes are the most frequently observed genetic alterations in FA patients, and most point mutations in FANCA are clustered in the C-terminal domain (CTD). To understand the basis of the FA-associated FANCA mutations, we determined the cryo-electron microscopy (EM) structures of Xenopus laevis FANCA alone at 3.35 Å and 3.46 Å resolution and two distinct FANCA–FANCG complexes at 4.59 and 4.84 Å resolution, respectively. The FANCA CTD adopts an arc-shaped solenoid structure that forms a pseudo-symmetric dimer through its outer surface. FA- and cancer-associated point mutations are widely distributed over the CTD. The two different complex structures capture independent interactions of FANCG with either FANCA C-terminal HEAT repeats, or the N-terminal region. We show that mutations that disturb either of these two interactions prevent the nuclear localization of FANCA, thereby leading to an FA pathway defect. The structure provides insights into the function of FANCA CTD, and provides a framework for understanding FA- and cancer-associated mutations.

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