ResearchPad - substance-related-disorders https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Risk of colorectal cancer in patients with alcoholism: A nationwide, population-based nested case-control study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7832 Colorectal cancer (CRC) is regarded as a multifactorial disease and shares many risk factors with alcoholism. However, the association between alcoholism and CRC remains controversial.ObjectivesIn this study, we aimed to evaluate the association between alcoholism and risk of CRC.MethodsWe performed a large-scale, population-based nested case-control study using the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2013, derived from Taiwan’s National Health Insurance Research Database, and collected data from 2000 to 2013. There were 49,095 diagnosed cases of CRC defined according to the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification. Each case was matched with three controls by sex, age, index date of CRC, and annual medical visits; a total of 147,285 controls were identified. Multiple risk factors of CRC in alcoholism cases were investigated using unconditional multiple logistic regression analysis.ResultsAmong 49,095 cases of CRC, alcoholism was associated with a significantly higher risk of CRC (adjusted odds ratio (OR), 1.631; 95% CI, 1.565–1.699) in multivariate logistic regression, after adjusting other CRC risk factors, and in stratified analysis with multivariate logistic regression. In addition, there was a time-dependent relationship between alcoholism duration and CRC risk in >1 year, > 2 years, >5 years, and > 11 years groups (adjusted ORs, 1.875, 2.050, 2.662 and 2.670; 95% CI, 1.788–1.967, 1.948–2.158, 2.498–2.835, and 2.511–2.989 respectively).ConclusionAn association between alcoholism and risk of CRC was found in this study. Furthermore, patients with longer alcoholism history showed higher likelihood of developing CRC, which indicates a time-dependent relationship between alcoholism exposure and CRC. Further research on colorectal tumorigenesis is needed. ]]> <![CDATA[Functional and structural consequences of epithelial cell invasion by <i>Bordetella pertussis</i> adenylate cyclase toxin]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7693 Bordetella pertussis, the causative agent of whopping cough, produces an adenylate cyclase toxin (CyaA) that plays a key role in the host colonization by targeting innate immune cells which express CD11b/CD18, the cellular receptor of CyaA. CyaA is also able to invade non-phagocytic cells, via a unique entry pathway consisting in a direct translocation of its catalytic domain across the cytoplasmic membrane of the cells. Within the cells, CyaA is activated by calmodulin to produce high levels of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and alter cellular physiology. In this study, we explored the effects of CyaA toxin on the cellular and molecular structure remodeling of A549 alveolar epithelial cells. Using classical imaging techniques, biochemical and functional tests, as well as advanced cell mechanics method, we quantify the structural and functional consequences of the massive increase of intracellular cyclic AMP induced by the toxin: cell shape rounding associated to adhesion weakening process, actin structure remodeling for the cortical and dense components, increase in cytoskeleton stiffness, and inhibition of migration and repair. We also show that, at low concentrations (0.5 nM), CyaA could significantly impair the migration and wound healing capacities of the intoxicated alveolar epithelial cells. As such concentrations might be reached locally during B. pertussis infection, our results suggest that the CyaA, beyond its major role in disabling innate immune cells, might also contribute to the local alteration of the epithelial barrier of the respiratory tract, a hallmark of pertussis.

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<![CDATA[Proteomic analysis of protein composition of rat hippocampus exposed to morphine for 10 days; comparison with animals after 20 days of morphine withdrawal]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N2838fdc6-dc33-429a-ba0d-e2e831e6a950

Opioid addiction is recognized as a chronic relapsing brain disease resulting from repeated exposure to opioid drugs. Cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the ability of organism to return back to the physiological norm after cessation of drug supply are not fully understood. The aim of this work was to extend our previous studies of morphine-induced alteration of rat forebrain cortex protein composition to the hippocampus. Rats were exposed to morphine for 10 days and sacrificed 24 h (groups +M10 and −M10) or 20 days after the last dose of morphine (groups +M10/−M20 and −M10/−M20). The six altered proteins (≥2-fold) were identified in group (+M10) when compared with group (−M10) by two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE). The number of differentially expressed proteins was increased to thirteen after 20 days of the drug withdrawal. Noticeably, the altered level of α-synuclein, β-synuclein, α-enolase and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) was also determined in both (±M10) and (±M10/−M20) samples of hippocampus. Immunoblot analysis of 2D gels by specific antibodies oriented against α/β-synucleins and GAPDH confirmed the data obtained by 2D-DIGE analysis. Label-free quantification identified nineteen differentially expressed proteins in group (+M10) when compared with group (−M10). After 20 days of morphine withdrawal (±M10/−M20), the number of altered proteins was increased to twenty. We conclude that the morphine-induced alteration of protein composition in rat hippocampus after cessation of drug supply proceeds in a different manner when compared with the forebrain cortex. In forebrain cortex, the total number of altered proteins was decreased after 20 days without morphine, whilst in hippocampus, it was increased.

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<![CDATA[Association between cigarette smoking and the risk of dysmenorrhea: A meta-analysis of observational studies]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N299c77b6-7bcf-4190-8f14-766ff39e61a2

Background

Emerging studies have found inconsistent results on the potential relationship between cigarette smoking and dysmenorrhea. Therefore, the aim of this study was to quantitatively synthesize the previous findings on the preceding relationship using meta-analysis.

Methods

Previous studies on the association between cigarette smoking and dysmenorrhea, published not later than November 2019, were systematically searched, using MeSH heading and/or relevant terms, in the electronic databases of PubMed, Medline, Web of Science and EMBASE. The I2 statistic was used to assess heterogeneity, whose source was explored using subgroup analysis. A pooled effect size was obtained using random effects model, and sensitivity analysis was performed to assess the consistency of the pooled effect size.

Results

After a rigorous screening process, 24 studies involving 27,091 participants were included in this meta-analysis. The results indicated that smokers were 1.45 times more likely to develop dysmenorrhea than non-smokers (odds ratio (OR) = 1.45, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.30–1.61). In addition, individuals classified as currently smoking were 1.50 times more likely to develop dysmenorrhea than those who were classified as never smoking (OR = 1.50, 95% CI: 1.33–1.70), whereas being a former smoker was 1.31 times more likely to develop dysmenorrhea than being a never smoker (OR = 1.31, 95% CI: 1.18–1.46). Sensitivity analysis showed that exclusion of any single study did not materially alter the overall combined effect.

Conclusion

The evidence from this meta-analysis indicated a significant association between cigarette smoking (both current and former smoking) and dysmenorrhea. The adverse effects of smoking provide further support for prevention of dysmenorrhea and emphasize the need to target women.

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<![CDATA[Consideration of substance use in compensation and pension examinations of veterans filing PTSD claims]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c648ce9d5eed0c484c81a8d

Veterans filing claims that service-induced PTSD impairs them worry that claims examiners may attribute their difficulties to conditions other than PTSD, such as substance use. Substance use commonly co-occurs with PTSD and complicates establishing a PTSD diagnosis because symptoms may be explained by PTSD alone, PTSD-induced substance use, or by a substance use condition independent of PTSD. These alternative explanations of symptoms lead to different conclusions about whether a PTSD diagnosis can be made. How substance use impacts an examiner’s diagnosis of PTSD in a Veteran’s service-connection claim has not been previously studied. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that mention of risky substance use in the Compensation & Pension (C&P) examination would result in a lower likelihood of service-connection award, presumably because substance use reflected an alternative explanation for symptoms. Data were analyzed from 208 Veterans’ C&P examinations, medical records, and confidentially-collected research assessments. In this sample, 165/208 (79%) Veterans’ claims were approved for a mental health condition; 70/83 (84%) with risky substance use mentioned and 95/125 (76%) without risky use mentioned (p = .02). Contrary to the a priori hypothesis, Veterans with risky substance use were more likely to get a service-connection award, even after controlling for baseline PTSD severity and other potential confounds. They had almost twice the odds of receiving any mental health award and 2.4 times greater odds of receiving an award for PTSD specifically. These data contradict assertions of bias against Veterans with risky substance use when their claims are reviewed. The data are more consistent with substance use often being judged as a symptom of PTSD. The more liberal granting of awards is consistent with literature concerning comorbid PTSD and substance use, and with claims procedures that make it more likely that substance use will be attributed to trauma exposure than to other causes.

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<![CDATA[Evaluation of self-deception: Factorial structure, reliability and validity of the SDQ-12 (self-deception questionnaire)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5b527cd5eed0c4842bc983

We all need to resort to deception, either with ourselves (denial, self-deception, mystification) or with others (with modalities, such as impression management, social desirability), to a greater or lesser extent. Lies, in their broader meaning, are interpreted as something rather adaptive, useful, and necessary in our socioaffective world. In particular, self-deception is a highly interesting psychological concept in the clinical population, namely, in drug dependents, as it serves as a mechanism for maintaining addiction. The objective of this study was to create and explore the validity and psychometric properties of a short self-deception scale (SDQ-12), derived from the IAM-40 and emphasizing the manipulation and mystification dimensions. Participants in this study included a group of drug dependents (alcoholics and drug abusers) under treatment (n = 417) as well as a group of adults from the general population (n = 124) (total N = 541), selected using simple random sampling. Across the sample, 63% of individuals were male, with a mean age of 38.65 years (S.D. = 10.61). Empirical exploration of the SDQ-12 items using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis revealed that the instrument has a clear structure matching the theoretically relevant proposed dimensions of mystification and manipulation. Internal consistency was verified (Cronbach’s alpha coefficient = .85), and confirmatory factor analysis revealed that the two-dimensional model provided an appropriate fit to the data. In addition, manipulation was greater in young male individuals, with significant differences found in mystification and manipulation between the general population and alcoholics and drug abusers. Our study supports the clinical and research importance of the SDQ-12 scale, due not only to its diagnostic efficacy but also to its novel nature, its importance, and its relevance. It could be particularly useful for evaluating the substantial components of self-deception in the addict population, thus guiding therapists in their diagnostic and interventional role.

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<![CDATA[Secondhand smoke knowledge, sources of information, and associated factors among hospital staff]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c50c474d5eed0c4845e87bc

Purpose

To evaluate knowledge of secondhand smoke (SHS) risks, sources of information, and associated factors and behaviors among hospital staff.

Methods

We conducted a cross-sectional survey using a 40-item self-administered questionnaire among 328 employees at a university hospital. The questions on representative diseases related to SHS were used to measure the degree of knowledge of SHS. Multiple regression analysis was used to determine the correlation between SHS knowledge scores and variables.

Results

Females had better SHS knowledge scores than males, regardless of smoking status (p<0.05). SHS knowledge was positively correlated with cessation education in males, non-smokers, and the total sample (β = 3.950, 2.356, and 2.684, respectively, p<0.05). It was correlated with the experience of any SHS exposure-related symptoms in males, non-smokers, and the total sample (β = 3.950, 2.356, and 2.684, respectively, p<0.05) and discomfort when exposed to SHS in non-smokers and the total sample (β = 0.670 and 0.821, respectively, p<0.05).

Conclusion

SHS knowledge is high among females, when hospital staff are educated about SHS risks, and when they have experienced any SHS exposure-related symptoms or felt uncomfortable when exposed to SHS. SHS risk education is an effective tool to increase SHS knowledge in hospital staff.

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<![CDATA[Efficacy of equine botulism antitoxin in botulism poisoning in a guinea pig model]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c424393d5eed0c4845e067e

Background

Botulism is a disease caused by neurogenic toxins that block acetylcholine release, resulting in potentially life threatening neuroparalysis. Seven distinct serotypes of botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) have been described and are found in nature world-wide. This, combined with ease of production, make BoNTs a significant bioweapon threat. An essential countermeasure to this threat is an antitoxin to remove circulating toxin. An antitoxin, tradename BAT (Botulism Antitoxin Heptavalent (A, B, C, D, E, F, G)–(Equine)), has been developed and its efficacy evaluated against all seven serotypes in guinea pigs.

Methods and findings

Studies were conducted to establish the lethal dose and clinical course of intoxication for all seven toxins, and post-exposure prophylactic efficacy of BAT product. Animals were monitored for signs of intoxication and mortality for 14 days. Guinea pig intramuscular LD50s (GPIMLD50) for all BoNTs ranged from 2.0 (serotype C) to 73.2 (serotype E) of mouse intraperitoneal LD50 units. A dose of 4x GPIMLD50 was identified as the appropriate toxin dose for use in subsequent efficacy and post-exposure prophylaxis studies. The main clinical signs observed included hind limb paralysis, weak limb, change in breathing rate/pattern, and forced abdominal respiration. Mean time to onset of clinical signs ranged from 12 hours (serotype E) to 39 hours (serotype G). Twelve hours post-intoxication was selected as the appropriate time point for intervention for all serotypes apart from E where 6 hours was selected because of the rapid onset and progression of clinical signs. Post-exposure treatment with BAT product resulted in a significantly (p<0.0001) higher survival at >0.008 scaled human dose for serotypes A, B, C, F and G, at >0.2x for serotype D and >0.04x for serotype E.

Conclusions

These studies confirm the efficacy of BAT as a post-exposure prophylactic therapy against all seven known BoNT serotypes.

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<![CDATA[Endoscopic screening using esophageal iodine staining and genotypes of ADH1B and ALDH2 in Japanese alcohol-dependent women]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c40f7b6d5eed0c4843866c9

Background

The presence of large or multiple esophageal distinct iodine-unstained lesions (DIULs) is a strong predictor of field cancerization in the upper aerodigestive tract. Several risk factors for DIULs, including genetic polymorphisms of alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenases (ADH1B, rs1229984; ALDH2, rs671), have been demonstrated in Japanese alcohol-dependent men. However, few evaluations of alcohol-dependent women have been conducted in this field.

Methods

Using multiple logistic regression models, we investigated the results of screening using esophageal iodine staining and the identification of determinants for esophageal DIULs in 472 Japanese alcohol-dependent women.

Results

DIULs ≥5 mm, multiple DILUs, and both characteristics were observed in 35 (7.4%), 31 (6.6%), and 16 (3.4%) patients, respectively. DIULs ≥5 mm were histologically diagnosed as low-grade intraepithelial neoplasia in 26 patients and superficial squamous cell carcinoma in 9 patients. Although the inactive heterozygous ALDH2*1/*2 genotype was more common (33.3% vs. 11.4%, p = 0.002) in the group with DIULs ≥5 mm than in the group without DIULs ≥5 mm, no significant differences in the results of a questionnaire asking about current and past facial flushing after a glass of beer were seen between the groups with and without DIULs ≥5 mm. When individuals with current or former flushing were assumed to have inactive ALDH2, the sensitivity and specificity of current or former flushing to identify the presence of inactive ALDH2 were 50.0% and 93.5%, respectively; these values were previously reported to be 88% and 92%, respectively, in a Japanese general female population. The low sensitivity in the present study suggests that a lack of alcohol flushing may play a crucial role in the development of alcohol dependence in women with inactive ALDH2. No significant differences in age, usual alcohol consumption, or smoking habits were observed according to ADH1B and ALDH2 genotypes. Multiple logistic regression analyses showed that the slow-metabolizing ADH1B*1/*1 genotype (odds ratio [95% confidence interval], 12.5 [4.82–32.4] and 9.89 [3.50–27.9]), the inactive heterozygous ALDH2*1/*2 genotype (2.94 [1.18–7.38] and 3.79 [1.40–10.3]), a lower body mass index per -1 kg/m2 (1.17 [1.02–1.35] and 1.38 [1.14–1.67]), and a mean corpuscular volume ≥106 fl (3.70 [1.56–8.81] and 3.27 [1.24–8.64]) increased the risk of DIULs ≥5 mm and multiple DIULs, respectively. The combination of ADH1B*1/*1 and ALDH2*1/*2 markedly increased the risk of esophageal DIULs ≥5 mm (39.3 [10.6–146]).

Conclusions

Japanese alcohol-dependent women shared several common risk factors for esophageal squamous cell neoplasia with alcohol-dependent men, but with considerably different magnitudes.

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<![CDATA[Carbon monoxide poisoning in Denmark with focus on mortality and factors contributing to mortality]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c605a02d5eed0c4847cc683

Introduction

Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is frequent worldwide but knowledge regarding the epidemiology is insufficient. The aim of this study was to clarify the extent of this intoxication, its mortality and factors associated with mortality.

Materials and methods

National databases from Statistics Denmark were used to identify individuals who suffered from CO-poisoning during 1995–2015, as well as information regarding co-morbidities, mortality and manner of death.

Results

During the period from 1995 to 2015, 22,930 patients suffered from CO-poisoning in Denmark, and 21,138 of these patients (92%) were hospitalized. A total of 2,102 patients died within the first 30 days after poisoning (9.2%). Among these, 1,792 (85% of 2,102) were declared dead at the scene and 310 (15% of 2,102) died during hospitalization. Deaths due to CO-poisoning from smoke were intentional in 6.3% of cases, whereas deaths due to CO containing gases were intentional in 98.0% of cases. Among patients who survived >30 days, there was no significant difference in survival when comparing hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO) treatment with no HBO treatment after adjustment for age and co-morbidities such as drug abuse, psychiatric disease, stroke, alcohol abuse, arterial embolism, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cerebrovascular disease and atrial fibrillation. Several co-morbidities predicted poorer outcomes for patients who survived the initial 30 days.

Conclusions

Poisoning from smoke and/or CO is a frequent incident in Denmark accounting for numerous contacts with hospitals and deaths. Both intoxication and mortality are highly associated with co-morbidities interfering with cognitive and physical function. Treatment with HBO was not seen to have an effect on survival.

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<![CDATA[Self-control, implicit alcohol associations, and the (lack of) prediction of consumption in an alcohol taste test with college student heavy episodic drinkers]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c3fa581d5eed0c484ca5274

The high levels of problematic drinking in college students make clear the need for improvement in the prediction of problematic drinking. We conducted a laboratory-based experiment that investigated whether implicit measures of alcohol-related associations, self-control, and their interaction predicted drinking. Although a few studies have evaluated self-control as a moderator of the relationship between implicit measures of alcohol-related associations and drinking, this study extended that work by using a previously-validated manipulation that included a more (vs. less) cognitively demanding task and incentive to restrain drinking and by evaluating multiple validated measures of alcohol-related associations. Experimental condition was expected to moderate the relationship between implicit measures of alcohol-related associations and drinking, with a more positive relationship between alcohol-related associations and drinking among participants who completed the more (vs. less) cognitive demanding task. Secondary aims were to evaluate how individual differences in control factors (implicit theories about willpower and working memory capacity) might further moderate those relationships. One hundred and five U.S. undergraduate heavy episodic drinkers completed baseline measures of: drinking patterns, three Implicit Association Tests (evaluating drinking identity, alcohol excite, alcohol approach associations) and their explicit measure counterparts, implicit theories about willpower, and working memory capacity. Participants were randomized to complete a task that was more (vs. less) cognitively demanding and were given an incentive to restrain their drinking. They then completed an alcohol taste test. Results were not consistent with expectations. Despite using a previously validated manipulation, there was no evidence that one condition was more demanding than the other, and none of the predicted interactions reached statistical significance. The findings raise questions about the relation between self-control, implicit measures of alcohol-related associations, and drinking, as well as the conditions under which implicit measures of alcohol-related associations predict alcohol consumption in the laboratory.

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<![CDATA[Measures of possible allostatic load in comorbid cocaine and alcohol use disorder: Brain white matter integrity, telomere length, and anti-saccade performance]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c3fa5b9d5eed0c484ca7cd8

Chronic cocaine and alcohol use impart significant stress on biological and cognitive systems, resulting in changes consistent with an allostatic load model of neurocognitive impairment.

The present study measured potential markers of allostatic load in individuals with comorbid cocaine/alcohol use disorders (CUD/AUD) and control subjects. Measures of brain white matter (WM), telomere length, and impulsivity/attentional bias were obtained. WM (CUD/AUD only) was indexed by diffusion tensor imaging metrics, including radial diffusivity (RD) and fractional anisotropy (FA). Telomere length was indexed by the telomere to single copy gene (T/S) ratio. Impulsivity and attentional bias to drug cues were measured via eye-tracking, and were also modeled using the Hierarchical Diffusion Drift Model (HDDM). Average whole-brain RD and FA were associated with years of cocaine use (R2 = 0.56 and 0.51, both p < .005) but not years of alcohol use. CUD/AUD subjects showed more anti-saccade errors (p < .01), greater attentional bias scores (p < .001), and higher HDDM drift rates on cocaine-cue trials (Bayesian probability CUD/AUD > control = p > 0.99). Telomere length was shorter in CUD/AUD, but the difference was not statistically significant. Within the CUD/AUD group, exploratory regression using an elastic-net model determined that more years of cocaine use, older age, larger HDDM drift rate differences and shorter telomere length were all predictive of WM as measured by RD (model R2 = 0.79). Collectively, the results provide modest support linking CUD/AUD to putative markers of allostatic load.

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<![CDATA[Attentional and working memory performance following alcohol and energy drink: A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, factorial design laboratory study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c3fa5c9d5eed0c484ca8872

Alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AMED) studies have typically not shown antagonism of acute alcohol effects by energy drink (ED), particularly over relatively short time frames. This study investigated the effects of alcohol, ED, and AMED on attentional and working memory processes over a 3 h period. Twenty-four young adults took part in a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, factorial, 4-arm study. They were administered 0.6g/kg alcohol and 250 ml ED (containing 80 mg caffeine), and matching placebos alone and in combination. A battery of attentional and working memory measures was completed at baseline then 45, 90 and 180 min post-treatment. Alcohol produced a characteristic shift in speed/accuracy trade-off, having little effect on reaction times while increasing errors on all attentional measures (4-choice Reaction Time, Number Pairs and Visual Search), as well as a composite Attentional error score and one working memory task (Serial Sevens). ED alone improved two working memory measures (Memory Scanning accuracy and Digit–Symbol reaction times) and improved speed of responding on a composite Working Memory score. There was no consistent pattern of AMED vs. alcohol effects; AMED produced more errors than alcohol alone on one attentional measure (Visual Search errors) at 45 min only whereas AMED resulted in fewer errors on the Serial Sevens task at 90 min and better Digit-Symbol accuracy and reaction time at 45 min. Alcohol consumption increases error rate across several attentional and working memory processes. Mutual antagonism between alcohol and ED showed no consistent pattern and likely reflects a complex interaction between caffeine and alcohol levels, phase of the blood alcohol limb, task domain and cognitive load.

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<![CDATA[Integrated treatment program for alcohol related problems in community hospitals, Songkhla province of Thailand: A social return on investment analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c3667d5d5eed0c4841a65e6

Objectives

To estimate the impacts and social value relative to the cost of the Integrated Management of Alcohol Intervention Program in the Health Care System (i-MAP) on direct beneficiaries, using a Social Return on Investment (SROI) analysis.

Method

A mixed-method approach was conducted among stakeholders and 113 drinkers (29 low-risk, 43 high-risk, and 41 dependent drinkers) who consecutively received i-MAP at four community hospitals in Songkhla province of Thailand. Resources for program implementation as well as drinking and a list of psychosocial outcomes, selected through stakeholder interviews, were measured among participants during and at the sixth month after participation, respectively. SROI (societal benefit-to-cost) ratio of i-MAP was estimated over a 5-year time horizon and shown in 2017 Thai baht, where US$1.00 = 33.1 baht. One-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses of key parameters were performed among treatment subgroups.

Results

Baseline estimates of the annual cost and 5-year social value of i-MAP were 25.5 and 51.0 million baht, respectively, yielding an estimated SROI ratio of 2.0, with a possible range of 1.3 to 2.4. Value created by the program was mostly attributed to broader gains to society (productivity gains and averted crime costs) and drinkers. Subgroup analyses suggested that the SROI ratio for high-risk drinkers was twice that for dependent drinkers (2.8 vs. 1.5). The probabilistic sensitivity analysis showed that more than 99% of the simulated treatments for both high-risk and dependent groups yielded benefits beyond the corresponding costs.

Conclusions

By considering societal perspective, the i-MAP program has demonstrated its social value is twice its investment cost and potential for the program to be implemented nationwide.

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<![CDATA[Effectiveness and treatment moderators of internet interventions for adult problem drinking: An individual patient data meta-analysis of 19 randomised controlled trials]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c22a0bad5eed0c4849ebeda

Background

Face-to-face brief interventions for problem drinking are effective, but they have found limited implementation in routine care and the community. Internet-based interventions could overcome this treatment gap. We investigated effectiveness and moderators of treatment outcomes in internet-based interventions for adult problem drinking (iAIs).

Methods and findings

Systematic searches were performed in medical and psychological databases to 31 December 2016. A one-stage individual patient data meta-analysis (IPDMA) was conducted with a linear mixed model complete-case approach, using baseline and first follow-up data. The primary outcome measure was mean weekly alcohol consumption in standard units (SUs, 10 grams of ethanol). Secondary outcome was treatment response (TR), defined as less than 14/21 SUs for women/men weekly. Putative participant, intervention, and study moderators were included. Robustness was verified in three sensitivity analyses: a two-stage IPDMA, a one-stage IPDMA using multiple imputation, and a missing-not-at-random (MNAR) analysis. We obtained baseline data for 14,198 adult participants (19 randomised controlled trials [RCTs], mean age 40.7 [SD = 13.2], 47.6% women). Their baseline mean weekly alcohol consumption was 38.1 SUs (SD = 26.9). Most were regular problem drinkers (80.1%, SUs 44.7, SD = 26.4) and 19.9% (SUs 11.9, SD = 4.1) were binge-only drinkers. About one third were heavy drinkers, meaning that women/men consumed, respectively, more than 35/50 SUs of alcohol at baseline (34.2%, SUs 65.9, SD = 27.1). Post-intervention data were available for 8,095 participants. Compared with controls, iAI participants showed a greater mean weekly decrease at follow-up of 5.02 SUs (95% CI −7.57 to −2.48, p < 0.001) and a higher rate of TR (odds ratio [OR] 2.20, 95% CI 1.63–2.95, p < 0.001, number needed to treat [NNT] = 4.15, 95% CI 3.06–6.62). Persons above age 55 showed higher TR than their younger counterparts (OR = 1.66, 95% CI 1.21–2.27, p = 0.002). Drinking profiles were not significantly associated with treatment outcomes. Human-supported interventions were superior to fully automated ones on both outcome measures (comparative reduction: −6.78 SUs, 95% CI −12.11 to −1.45, p = 0.013; TR: OR = 2.23, 95% CI 1.22–4.08, p = 0.009). Participants treated in iAIs based on personalised normative feedback (PNF) alone were significantly less likely to sustain low-risk drinking at follow-up than those in iAIs based on integrated therapeutic principles (OR = 0.52, 95% CI 0.29–0.93, p = 0.029). The use of waitlist control in RCTs was associated with significantly better treatment outcomes than the use of other types of control (comparative reduction: −9.27 SUs, 95% CI −13.97 to −4.57, p < 0.001; TR: OR = 3.74, 95% CI 2.13–6.53, p < 0.001). The overall quality of the RCTs was high; a major limitation included high study dropout (43%). Sensitivity analyses confirmed the robustness of our primary analyses.

Conclusion

To our knowledge, this is the first IPDMA on internet-based interventions that has shown them to be effective in curbing various patterns of adult problem drinking in both community and healthcare settings. Waitlist control may be conducive to inflation of treatment outcomes.

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<![CDATA[Changes over time in Lithuanian schoolchildren’s attitudes toward addictive behaviors: Promoting and preventing factors]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c117b39d5eed0c48469853d

Background

Concern is growing about the high prevalence of traditional and new forms of addictive behaviors among young people due to the health risks and a better understanding of the factors causing these behaviors is needed.

Aim

To evaluate tendencies in the attitudes of Lithuanian schoolchildren toward addictive behaviors over a three year period and to ascertain the promoting and preventing factors of such behaviors.

Methods

The researchers developed a survey which was conducted twice over a three year period. The sample consisted of pupils in the 5th, 9th and 12th grades (N = 1590, age range 11–19 years) from both urban and rural areas.

Results

Both the recognition of and involvement in addictive behaviors significantly increased with age. Motivation to abstain due to internal factors decreased with age and increased among pupils already involved in addictive behaviors. Time- and age-related differences were found regarding substance abuse and behavioral addictions. Whilst betting adverts were increasingly noticed over time, smoking adverts were decreasingly noticed over the three year period and it was concomitant with inconsistent changes in self-reported involvement in these behaviors.

Conclusions

Most significant changes in the attitudes of Lithuanian pupils toward addictive behaviors occur between the ages of 11 and 15 years. However, age-related changes differ for the pupils’ attitudes toward substance abuse and behavioral addictions. Increasing awareness of the potential risk of addictive behaviors does not prevent their increasing prevalence with age. Increased risk of involvement in addictive behavior correlates with decreased internal motivation to abstain from addictive behavior and decreased recognition of its potential risks. No clear correlation was found between significant changes in noticing adverts and involvement in addictive behaviors.

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<![CDATA[Days Out of Role Due to Mental and Physical Conditions: Results from the Singapore Mental Health Study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db0aab0ee8fa60bc9c69

Objective

The aim of the current study was to evaluate the relative contributions of mental and physical conditions to days out of role among adults aged 18 years and above in Singapore.

Methods

The Singapore Mental Health Study was a cross-sectional epidemiological survey of a nationally representative sample of residents aged 18 years or older. Diagnosis of mental disorders was established using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview; while chronic physical conditions were established using a checklist. Days out of role were assessed using a WHO Disability Assessment Schedule item. Multivariate regression analyses were used to estimate individual-level and societal-level effects of disorders.

Results

Overall, 8.7% of respondents reported at least one day out of role, with a mean of 5.8 days. The most disabling conditions at the individual level were cancer (118.9 additional days), cardiovascular diseases (93.5), and bipolar disorder (71.0). At the societal level, cardiovascular diseases contributed the highest population attributable risk proportion (45%), followed by cancer (39.3%), and hypertension (13.5%).

Conclusions

Mental and physical conditions are linked to significant losses in productivity for society as well as role disability for individuals, underscoring the need to enhance prevention and intervention efforts to increase overall productivity and improve individual functioning.

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<![CDATA[Creating a Powerful Platform to Explore Health in a Correctional Population: A Record Linkage Study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989daa3ab0ee8fa60ba671b

We used record linkage to create a data repository of health information of persons who were federally incarcerated in Ontario and Canada. We obtained records from 56,867 adults who were federally incarcerated between January 1, 1998 and December 31, 2011 from the Correctional Service of Canada; 15,248 records belonged to individuals residing in Ontario, Canada. We linked these records to the Registered Persons Database (RPDB) which contained records from 18,116,996 individuals eligible for health care in Ontario. Out of 56,867 OMS records, 22,844 (40.2%) were linked to the RPDB. Looking only at those incarcerated in Ontario, 98%, (14 953 of 15248) records were linked to RPDB. Most records of persons in Ontario-based facilities were linked deterministically. Linkage rates were lower for women, minority groups, and substance users. In conclusion, record linkage enabled the creation of a valuable data repository: there are no electronic medical records for correctional populations in Canada, making it more difficult to profile their health.

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<![CDATA[How Much Can the USA Reduce Health Care Costs by Reducing Smoking?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da94ab0ee8fa60ba1263

In this Perspective, Wayne Hall and Chris Doran discuss Lightwood and Glantz’s findings and the implications for tobacco control programs in the US, which are currently poorly funded.

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<![CDATA[High mortality among male HIV-infected patients after prison release: ART is not enough after incarceration with HIV]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db59ab0ee8fa60bdf156

Context

French Guiana is a South American French territory, where HIV prevalence consistently exceeds 1% in the adult population. In the only correctional facility, HIV prevalence fluctuates at around 4%.

Aims

After describing the population of HIV-positive inmates, we aimed to evaluate mortality after release from the correctional facility, and to identify its predictive factors.

Rationale

Outside North American settings, data on treatment outcome and vital status of HIV-positive former inmates are scarce. There were no data in French Guiana. Filling this gap represents a basis for potential improvements.

Methods

All HIV-infected adults released from an incarceration of 30 days or more, between 2007 and 2013, were enrolled in a retrospective cohort study. Mortality was described over time, one to seven years following release, using Kaplan-Meier estimates. Factors associated with mortality were identified through a non-parametric survival regression model.

Results

147 former inmates were included. The male to female ratio was 4.4. The median age was 37.3 years. The majority were migrants, 25.8% were homeless, 70.1% suffered from substance abuse, with 34.0% of crack-cocaine users. On admission, 78.1% had an early HIV-stage infection (CDC-stage A), with a median CD4 count of 397.5/mm3, 34.0% had one comorbidity, mainly hypertension. Upon release, 50.3% were on ART. Reasons for not being treated were not fulfilling the criteria for 74.6%, and refusing for 15.1%. Before release, 84.5% of the patients on ART had a viral load≤200cp/ml. After release, 8.2% of the cohort had died, with a crude incidence of 33.8/1000 person-years. All recorded deaths were males, with an incidence of 42.2/1000 person-years. Comparing with the age-specific mortality rates for males in French Guiana, the standardized mortality ratio was 14.8. In multivariate analysis, factors associated with death were age and CD4 count before release.

Conclusion

Despite access to ART while incarcerated, with good virological outcome, the post-release mortality was very high for males, almost 15 times what is observed in the general male population living in French Guiana, after age standardization. Access to ART in correctional facilities may be a necessary, but not sufficient condition to protect male inmates from death after release.

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