ResearchPad - sudan https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Cost and logistics implications of a nationwide survey of schistosomiasis and other intestinal helminthiases in Sudan: Key activities and cost components]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_15719 It is vital to share details of concrete experiences of conducting a nationwide disease survey. By doing so, the global health community could adapt previous experiences to expand geographic mapping programs, eventually contributing to the development of disease control and elimination strategies. A nationwide survey of schistosomiasis and intestinal helminthiases was conducted from December 2016 to March 2017 in Sudan. We aimed to describe details of the key activities and cost components required for the nationwide survey. We investigated which activities were necessary to prepare and conduct a nationwide survey of schistosomiasis and intestinal helminthiases, and the types and amounts of transportation, personnel, survey equipment, and consumables that were required. In addition, we estimated financial and economic costs from the perspectives of the donor and the Ministry of Health. Cash expenditures incurred to implement the survey were defined as financial costs. For economic costs, we considered the true value for society as a whole, and this category therefore accounted for the costs of all goods and services used for the project, including those that were not sold in the market and therefore had no market price (e.g., time spent by head teachers and teachers). We organized costs into capital and recurrent items. We ran one-way sensitivity and probabilistic analyses using Monte-Carlo methods with 10,000 draws to examine the robustness of the primary analysis results. A total of USD 1,465,902 and USD 1,516,238 was incurred for the financial and economic costs, respectively. The key cost drivers of the nationwide survey were personnel and transportation, for both financial and economic costs. Personnel and transportation accounted for around 64% and 18% of financial costs, respectively. If a government finds a way to mobilize existing government officials with no additional payments using the health system already in place, the cost of a nationwide survey could be remarkably reduced.

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<![CDATA[The One Health approach to identify knowledge, attitudes and practices that affect community involvement in the control of Rift Valley fever outbreaks]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db53ab0ee8fa60bdcf2c

Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a viral mosquito-borne disease with the potential for global expansion, causes hemorrhagic fever, and has a high case fatality rate in young animals and in humans.

Using a cross-sectional community-based study design, we investigated the knowledge, attitudes and practices of people living in small village in Sudan with respect to RVF outbreaks. A special One Health questionnaire was developed to compile data from 235 heads of household concerning their knowledge, attitudes, and practices with regard to controlling RVF. Although the 2007 RVF outbreak in Sudan had negatively affected the participants’ food availability and livestock income, the participants did not fully understand how to identify RVF symptoms and risk factors for both humans and livestock. For example, the participants mistakenly believed that avoiding livestock that had suffered spontaneous abortions was the least important risk factor for RVF. Although the majority noticed an increase in mosquito population during the 2007 RVF outbreak, few used impregnated bed nets as preventive measures. The community was reluctant to notify the authorities about RVF suspicion in livestock, a sentinel for human RVF infection. Almost all the respondents stressed that they would not receive any compensation for their dead livestock if they notified the authorities. In addition, the participants believed that controlling RVF outbreaks was mainly the responsibility of human health authorities rather than veterinary authorities. The majority of the participants were aware that RVF could spread from one region to another within the country. Participants received most their information about RVF from social networks and the mass media, rather than the health system or veterinarians. Because the perceived role of the community in controlling RVF was fragmented, the probability of RVF spread increased.

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<![CDATA[The Challenges of Conducting Clinical Research on Neglected Tropical Diseases in Remote Endemic Areas in Sudan]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dac2ab0ee8fa60bb0fcc ]]> <![CDATA[Hepatitis C Virus Epidemiology in Djibouti, Somalia, Sudan, and Yemen: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9d3ab0ee8fa60b64e74

Objectives

To characterize hepatitis C virus (HCV) epidemiology and assess country-specific population-level HCV prevalence in four countries in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region: Djibouti, Somalia, Sudan, and Yemen.

Methods

Reports of HCV prevalence were systematically reviewed as per PRISMA guidelines. Pooled HCV prevalence estimates in different risk populations were conducted when the number of measures per risk category was at least five.

Results

We identified 101 prevalence estimates. Pooled HCV antibody prevalence in the general population in Somalia, Sudan and Yemen was 0.9% (95% confidence interval [95%CI]: 0.3%–1.9%), 1.0% (95%CI: 0.3%–1.9%) and 1.9% (95%CI: 1.4%–2.6%), respectively. The only general population study from Djibouti reported a prevalence of 0.3% (CI: 0.2%–0.4%) in blood donors. In high-risk populations (e.g., haemodialysis and haemophilia patients), pooled HCV prevalence was 17.3% (95%CI: 8.6%–28.2%) in Sudan. In Yemen, three studies of haemodialysis patients reported HCV prevalence between 40.0%-62.7%. In intermediate-risk populations (e.g.. healthcare workers, in patients and men who have sex with men), pooled HCV prevalence was 1.7% (95%CI: 0.0%–4.9%) in Somalia and 0.6% (95%CI: 0.4%–0.8%) in Sudan.

Conclusion

National HCV prevalence in Yemen appears to be higher than in Djibouti, Somalia, and Sudan as well as most other MENA countries; but otherwise prevalence levels in this subregion are comparable to global levels. The high HCV prevalence in patients who have undergone clinical care appears to reflect ongoing transmission in clinical settings. HCV prevalence in people who inject drugs remains unknown.

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<![CDATA[Oral Cholera Vaccination Delivery Cost in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: An Analysis Based on Systematic Review]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db0cab0ee8fa60bcaac2

Background

Use of the oral cholera vaccine (OCV) is a vital short-term strategy to control cholera in endemic areas with poor water and sanitation infrastructure. Identifying, estimating, and categorizing the delivery costs of OCV campaigns are useful in analyzing cost-effectiveness, understanding vaccine affordability, and in planning and decision making by program managers and policy makers.

Objectives

To review and re-estimate oral cholera vaccination program costs and propose a new standardized categorization that can help in collation, analysis, and comparison of delivery costs across countries.

Data sources

Peer reviewed publications listed in PubMed database, Google Scholar and World Health Organization (WHO) websites and unpublished data from organizations involved in oral cholera vaccination.

Study eligibility criteria

The publications and reports containing oral cholera vaccination delivery costs, conducted in low- and middle-income countries based on World Bank Classification. Limits are humans and publication date before December 31st, 2014.

Participants

No participants are involved, only costs are collected.

Intervention

Oral cholera vaccination and cost estimation.

Study appraisal and synthesis method

A systematic review was conducted using pre-defined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Cost items were categorized into four main cost groups: vaccination program preparation, vaccine administration, adverse events following immunization and vaccine procurement; the first three groups constituting the vaccine delivery costs. The costs were re-estimated in 2014 US dollars (US$) and in international dollar (I$).

Results

Ten studies were identified and included in the analysis. The vaccine delivery costs ranged from US$0.36 to US$ 6.32 (in US$2014) which was equivalent to I$ 0.99 to I$ 16.81 (in I$2014). The vaccine procurement costs ranged from US$ 0.29 to US$ 29.70 (in US$2014), which was equivalent to I$ 0.72 to I$ 78.96 (in I$2014). The delivery costs in routine immunization systems were lowest from US$ 0.36 (in US$2014) equivalent to I$ 0.99 (in I$2014).

Limitations

The reported cost categories are not standardized at collection point and may lead to misclassification. Costs for some OCV campaigns are not available and analysis does not include direct and indirect costs to vaccine recipients.

Conclusions and implications of key findings

Vaccine delivery cost estimation is needed for budgeting and economic analysis of vaccination programs. The cost categorization methodology presented in this study is helpful in collecting OCV delivery costs in a standardized manner, comparing delivery costs, planning vaccination campaigns and informing decision-making.

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<![CDATA[The Saleema initiative in Sudan to abandon female genital mutilation: Outcomes and dose response effects]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c915f56d5eed0c48420a64a

Purpose

The overall goal of the Saleema Initiative in Sudan is to promote long-term abandonment of female genital mutilation and cutting (FGM) through a contribution to changing social norms, attitudes, and intentions related to the practice. The initiative aims to create positive cultural associations with a girl remaining uncut, a new social norm. Saleema hypothesizes that branding the alternative to FGM (abandonment) will promote social norms change. In 2014, the lead author designed a monitoring and evaluation framework for Saleema in partnership with UNICEF, the National Council for Child Welfare (NCCW), and local organizations.

Methods

The Saleema evaluation aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the campaign in reducing pro-FGM social norms. A quasi-experimental design controlled for dosage of campaign messages delivered across the 18 states in Sudan to measure a dose-response effect. We operationalized social norms through a 4-item scale validated in previous research.

Results

This paper reports on quantitative evaluation findings based on data gathered in from 2015–2017 and focuses on the dose-response relationship between Saleema exposure and changes in FGM social norms. We found that self-reported exposure was associated with reduced pro-FGM social norms (coeff. = -0.329, p < .001). Additionally, higher doses of Saleema, measured through an exogenous measure of campaign event exposure from an independent monitoring system was associated with reduced pro-FGM social norms (coeff. = -0.146, p < .001).

Conclusions

Saleema was effective in reducing pro-FGM social norms. It is a promising strategy and findings contribute to the growing literature on social norms approaches to behavior change.

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<![CDATA[Seasonal Variation in Biting Rates of Simulium damnosum sensu lato, Vector of Onchocerca volvulus, in Two Sudanese Foci]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dabbab0ee8fa60baeddf

Background

The abundance of onchocerciasis vectors affects the epidemiology of disease in Sudan, therefore, studies of vector dynamics are crucial for onchocerciasis control/elimination programs. This study aims to compare the relative abundance, monthly biting-rates (MBR) and hourly-based distribution of onchocerciasis vectors in Abu-Hamed and Galabat foci. These seasonally-based factors can be used to structure vector control efforts to reduce fly-biting rates as a component of onchocerciasis elimination programs.

Methods

A cross-sectional study was conducted in four endemic villages in Abu-Hamed and Galabat foci during two non-consecutive years (2007–2008 and 2009–2010). Both adults and aquatic stages of the potential onchocerciasis vector Simulium damnosum sensu lato were collected following standard procedures during wet and dry seasons. Adult flies were collected using human landing capture for 5 days/month. The data was recorded on handheld data collection sheets to calculate the relative abundance, MBR, and hourly-based distribution associated with climatic factors. The data analysis was carried out using ANOVA and Spearman rank correlation tests.

Results

Data on vector surveillance revealed higher relative abundance of S. damnosum s.l. in Abu- Hamed (39,934 flies) than Galabat (8,202 flies). In Abu-Hamed, vector populations increased in January-April then declined in June-July until they disappeared in August-October. Highest black fly density and MBR were found in March 2007 (N = 9,444, MBR = 58,552.8 bites/person/month), and March 2010 (N = 2,603, MBR = 16,138.6 bites/person/month) while none of flies were collected in August-October (MBR = 0 bites/person/month). In Galabat, vectors increased in September-December, then decreased in February-June. The highest vector density and MBR were recorded in September 2007 (N = 1,138, MBR = 6,828 bites/person/month) and September 2010 (N = 1,163, MBR = 6,978 bites/person/month), whereas, none appeared in collection from April to June. There was a significant difference in mean monthly density of S. damnosum s.l. across the two foci in 2007–2008 (df = 3, F = 3.91, P = 0.011). Minimum temperature showed significant correlation with adult flies counts in four areas sampled; the adult counts were increased in Nady village (rs = 0.799) and were decreased in Kalasecal (rs = - 0.676), Gumaiza (rs = - 0.585), and Hilat Khateir (rs = - 0.496). Maximum temperature showed positive correlation with black fly counts only in Galabat focus. Precipitation was significantly correlated with adult flies counts in Nady village, Abu-Hamed, but no significance was found in the rest of the sampled villages in both foci. Hourly-based distribution of black flies showed a unimodal pattern in Abu-Hamed with one peak (10:00–18:00), while a bimodal pattern with two peaks (07:00–10:00) and (14:00–18:00) was exhibited in Galabat.

Conclusion

Transmission of onchocerciasis in both foci showed marked differences in seasonality, which may be attributed to ecology, microclimate and proximity of breeding sites to collection sites. The seasonal shifts between the two foci might be related to variations in climate zones. This information on black fly vector seasonality, ecology, distribution and biting activity has obvious implications in monitoring transmission levels to guide the national and regional onchocerciasis elimination programs in Sudan.

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<![CDATA[Barriers to Institutional Childbirth in Rumbek North County, South Sudan: A Qualitative Study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da29ab0ee8fa60b81ba4

Background

South Sudan has one of the world’s poorest health indicators due to a fragile health system and a combination of socio-cultural, economic and political factors. This study was conducted to identify barriers to utilisation of institutional childbirth services in Rumbek North County.

Methods

Data were collected through 14 focus group discussions with 169 women and 45 men, and 18 key informant interviews with community leaders, staff working in health facilities, traditional birth attendants, and the staff of the County Health Department. Data were analysed using inductive content analysis.

Results

The barriers to institutional childbirth were categorised under four main themes: 1) Issues related to access and lack of resources: long distance to health facilities, lack of transportation means, referral problems, flooding and poor roads, and payments in health facilities; 2) Issues related to the socio-cultural context and conflict: insecurity, influence of the husband, lack of birth preparedness, domestic chores of women, influence of culture; 3) Perceptions about pregnancy and childbirth: perceived benefit of institutional childbirth, low childbirth risk perception, and medicalisation of childbirth including birth being perceived to be natural, undesirable birth practices, privacy concerns, and fear of caesarean section; and 4) Perceptions about the quality of care: inadequate health facility infrastructure and perceived neglect during admission.

Conclusions

Multiple factors hinder institutional childbirth in Rumbek North. Some of the factors such as insecurity and poor roads are outside the scope of the health sector and will require a multi-sectoral approach if childbirth services are to be made accessible to women. Detailed recommendations to increase utilisation of childbirth services in the county have been suggested.

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<![CDATA[Urban Chikungunya in the Middle East and North Africa: A systematic review]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db5fab0ee8fa60be13eb

Background

The epidemiology of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) is not well characterized despite increasing recognition of its expanding infection and disease burden in recent years.

Methodology / Principal findings

Following Cochrane Collaboration guidelines and reporting our findings following PRISMA guidelines, we systematically reviewed records describing the human prevalence and incidence, CHIKV prevalence/infection rates in vectors, outbreaks, and reported cases for CHIKV across the MENA region. We identified 29 human seroprevalence measures, one human incidence study, one study reporting CHIKV infection rates in Aedes, and nine outbreaks and case reports/series reported in the MENA from 1970–2015. Overall, anti-CHIKV antibody or reports of autochthonous transmission were identified from 10 of 23 countries in the MENA region (Djibouti, Egypt, Iraq, Iran, Kuwait, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, and Yemen), with seroprevalence measures among general populations (median 1.0%, range 0–43%) and acute febrile illness populations (median 9.8%, range 0–30%). Sudan reported the highest number of studies (n = 11) and the highest seroprevalence among general populations (median 12%, range 0–43%) and undifferentiated acute febrile illness populations (median 18%, range 10–23%). CHIKV outbreaks were reported from Djibouti, Pakistan, Sudan, and Yemen.

Conclusions / Significance

Seroprevalence studies and outbreak reports suggest endemic transmission of urban cycle CHIKV in at least the Red Sea region and Pakistan. However, indications of seroprevalence despite a low quantity of CHIKV epidemiologic research from the region suggests that CHIKV transmission is currently underrecognized.

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<![CDATA[Genes encoding two Theileria parva antigens recognized by CD8+ T-cells exhibit sequence diversity in South Sudanese cattle populations but the majority of alleles are similar to the Muguga component of the live vaccine cocktail]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db4fab0ee8fa60bdbb54

East Coast fever (ECF), caused by Theileria parva infection, is a frequently fatal disease of cattle in eastern, central and southern Africa, and an emerging disease in South Sudan. Immunization using the infection and treatment method (ITM) is increasingly being used for control in countries affected by ECF, but not yet in South Sudan. It has been reported that CD8+ T-cell lymphocytes specific for parasitized cells play a central role in the immunity induced by ITM and a number of T. parva antigens recognized by parasite-specific CD8+ T-cells have been identified. In this study we determined the sequence diversity among two of these antigens, Tp1 and Tp2, which are under evaluation as candidates for inclusion in a sub-unit vaccine. T. parva samples (n = 81) obtained from cattle in four geographical regions of South Sudan were studied for sequence polymorphism in partial sequences of the Tp1 and Tp2 genes. Eight positions (1.97%) in Tp1 and 78 positions (15.48%) in Tp2 were shown to be polymorphic, giving rise to four and 14 antigen variants in Tp1 and Tp2, respectively. The overall nucleotide diversity in the Tp1 and Tp2 genes was π = 1.65% and π = 4.76%, respectively. The parasites were sampled from regions approximately 300 km apart, but there was limited evidence for genetic differentiation between populations. Analyses of the sequences revealed limited numbers of amino acid polymorphisms both overall and in residues within the mapped CD8+ T-cell epitopes. Although novel epitopes were identified in the samples from South Sudan, a large number of the samples harboured several epitopes in both antigens that were similar to those in the T. parva Muguga reference stock, which is a key component in the widely used live vaccine cocktail.

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<![CDATA[Mycetoma Pulmonary Secondaries from a Gluteal Eumycetoma: An Unusual Presentation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da82ab0ee8fa60b9b044 ]]> <![CDATA[Dengue in the Middle East and North Africa: A Systematic Review]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dae5ab0ee8fa60bbd1d6

Background

Dengue virus (DENV) infection is widespread and its disease burden has increased in past decades. However, little is known about the epidemiology of dengue in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA).

Methodology / Principal Findings

Following Cochrane Collaboration guidelines and reporting our findings following PRISMA guidelines, we systematically reviewed available records across MENA describing dengue occurrence in humans (prevalence studies, incidence studies, and outbreak reports), occurrence of suitable vectors (Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus), and DENV vector infection rates. We identified 105 human prevalence measures in 13 of 24 MENA countries; 81 outbreaks reported from 9 countries from 1941–2015; and reports of Ae. aegypti and/or Ae. albopictus occurrence in 15 countries. The majority of seroprevalence studies were reported from the Red Sea region and Pakistan, with multiple studies indicating >20% DENV seroprevalence in general populations (median 25%, range 0–62%) in these subregions. Fifty percent of these studies were conducted prior to 1990. Multiple studies utilized assays susceptible to serologic cross-reactions and 5% of seroprevalence studies utilized viral neutralization testing. There was considerable heterogeneity in study design and outbreak reporting, as well as variability in subregional study coverage, study populations, and laboratory methods used for diagnosis.

Conclusions / Significance

DENV seroprevalence in the MENA is high among some populations in the Red Sea region and Pakistan, while recent outbreaks in these subregions suggest increasing incidence of DENV which may be driven by a variety of ecologic and social factors. However, there is insufficient study coverage to draw conclusions about Aedes or DENV presence in multiple MENA countries. These findings illustrate the epidemiology of DENV in the MENA while revealing priorities for DENV surveillance and Aedes control.

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