ResearchPad - sumoylation https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Revisiting promyelocytic leukemia protein targeting by human cytomegalovirus immediate-early protein 1]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14655 Promyelocytic leukemia (PML) bodies are liquid droplet-like structures organized by the eponymous PML proteins in the nuclei of our cells. PML bodies have been implicated in the antiviral host cell response to infection. Consequently, viruses have evolved mechanisms that target the proteins composing PML bodies. Immediate-early protein 1 (IE1) is considered the principal antagonist of PML bodies produced by the human cytomegalovirus, one of eight human herpesviruses. Previous work suggested that the interaction between IE1 and PML and the consequent disruption of PML bodies serves a critical role in viral replication by counteracting the cellular antiviral response. However, this picture has emerged largely from studying mutant IE1 proteins known or predicted to be unstable. We systematically screened for stable IE1 variants and identified a mutant protein selectively defective for PML interaction. Unexpectedly, the IE1 mutant supported viral replication almost as efficiently as the wild-type protein. Moreover, lower instead of higher (as expected) levels of antiviral gene expression were observed with the mutant compared to the wild-type. These results suggest that disruption of PML bodies is linked to the induction rather than inhibition of antiviral gene expression. Our findings challenge current views regarding the role of PML bodies in viral infection.

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<![CDATA[SUMO modification of LBD30 by SIZ1 regulates secondary cell wall formation in Arabidopsis thaliana]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c4b7f29d5eed0c484840ad2

A wide range of biological processes are regulated by sumoylation, a post-translational modification involving the conjugation of SUMO (Small Ubiquitin-Like Modifier) to protein. In Arabidopsis thaliana, AtSIZ1 encodes a SUMO E3 ligase for SUMO modification. siz1 mutants displayed defective secondary cell walls (SCWs) in inflorescence fiber cells. Such defects were caused by repression of SND1/NST1-mediated transcriptional networks. Yeast two-hybrid assay indicated that SIZ1 interacts with the LBD30 C-terminal domain, which was further confirmed using bimolecular fluorescence complementation and immunoprecipitation. Mass spectrometry and co-immunoprecipitation indicated that SIZ1 mediates SUMO conjugation to LBD30 at the K226 residue. Genes controlling SCW formation were activated by the overexpression of LBD30, but not in the LBD30(K226R) mutant. LBD30 enhancement of SCW formation resulted from upregulation of SND1/NST1-mediated transcriptional networks. This study presents a mechanism by which sumoylation of LBD30, mediated by SIZ1, regulates SCW formation in A. thaliana.

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<![CDATA[SENP3-mediated host defense response contains HBV replication and restores protein synthesis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c466562d5eed0c484518e5e

Certain organs are capable of containing the replication of various types of viruses. In the liver, infection of Hepatitis B virus (HBV), the etiological factor of Hepatitis B and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), often remains asymptomatic and leads to a chronic carrier state. Here we investigated how hepatocytes contain HBV replication and promote their own survival by orchestrating a translational defense mechanism via the stress-sensitive SUMO-2/3-specific peptidase SENP3. We found that SENP3 expression level decreased in HBV-infected hepatocytes in various models including HepG2-NTCP cell lines and a humanized mouse model. Downregulation of SENP3 reduced HBV replication and boosted host protein translation. We also discovered that IQGAP2, a Ras GTPase-activating-like protein, is a key substrate for SENP3-mediated de-SUMOylation. Downregulation of SENP3 in HBV infected cells facilitated IQGAP2 SUMOylation and degradation, which leads to suppression of HBV gene expression and restoration of global translation of host genes via modulation of AKT phosphorylation. Thus, The SENP3-IQGAP2 de-SUMOylation axis is a host defense mechanism of hepatocytes that restores host protein translation and suppresses HBV gene expression.

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<![CDATA[Flu’s cues: Exploiting host post-translational modifications to direct the influenza virus replication cycle]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c0e98a5d5eed0c484eaaed3 ]]> <![CDATA[Chronic Inhibition of STAT3/STAT5 in Treatment-Resistant Human Breast Cancer Cell Subtypes: Convergence on the ROS/SUMO Pathway and Its Effects on xCT Expression and System xc- Activity]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9f7ab0ee8fa60b70c99

Pharmacologically targeting activated STAT3 and/or STAT5 has been an active area of cancer research. The cystine/glutamate antiporter, system xc-, contributes to redox balance and export of intracellularly produced glutamate in response to up-regulated glutaminolysis in cancer cells. We have previously shown that blocking STAT3/5 using the small molecule inhibitor, SH-4-54, which targets the SH2 domains of both proteins, increases xCT expression, thereby increasing system xc- activity in human breast cancer cells. The current investigation demonstrates that chronic SH-4-54 administration, followed by clonal selection of treatment-resistant MDA-MB-231 and T47D breast cancer cells, elicits distinct subtype-dependent effects. xCT mRNA and protein levels, glutamate release, and cystine uptake are decreased relative to untreated passage-matched controls in triple-negative MDA-MB-231 cells, with the inverse occurring in estrogen-responsive T47D cells. This “ying-yang” effect is linked with a shifted balance between the phosphorylation status of STAT3 and STAT5, intracellular ROS levels, and STAT5 SUMOylation/de-SUMOylation. STAT5 emerged as a definitive negative regulator of xCT at the transcriptional level, while STAT3 activation is coupled with increased system xc- activity. We propose that careful classification of a patient’s breast cancer subtype is central to effectively targeting STAT3/5 as a therapeutic means of treating breast cancer, particularly given that xCT is emerging as an important biomarker of aggressive cancers.

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<![CDATA[SENP7 Potentiates cGAS Activation by Relieving SUMO-Mediated Inhibition of Cytosolic DNA Sensing]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db54ab0ee8fa60bdd09a

Cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP) synthase (cGAS, a.k.a. MB21D1), a cytosolic DNA sensor, catalyzes formation of the second messenger 2’3’-cGAMP that activates the stimulator of interferon genes (STING) signaling. How the cGAS activity is modulated remains largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that sentrin/SUMO-specific protease 7 (SENP7) interacted with and potentiated cGAS activation. The small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) was conjugated onto the lysine residues 335, 372 and 382 of cGAS, which suppressed its DNA-binding, oligomerization and nucleotidyl-transferase activities. SENP7 reversed this inhibition via catalyzing the cGAS de-SUMOylation. Consistently, silencing of SENP7 markedly impaired the IRF3-responsive gene expression induced by cGAS-STING axis. SENP7-knockdown mice were more susceptible to herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infection. SENP7 was significantly up-regulated in patients with SLE. Our study highlights the temporal modulation of the cGAS activity via dynamic SUMOylation, uncovering a novel mechanism for fine-tuning the STING signaling in innate immunity.

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<![CDATA[Functional Crosstalk between the PP2A and SUMO Pathways Revealed by Analysis of STUbL Suppressor, razor 1-1]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989daf9ab0ee8fa60bc3f35

Posttranslational modifications (PTMs) provide dynamic regulation of the cellular proteome, which is critical for both normal cell growth and for orchestrating rapid responses to environmental stresses, e.g. genotoxins. Key PTMs include ubiquitin, the Small Ubiquitin-like MOdifier SUMO, and phosphorylation. Recently, SUMO-targeted ubiquitin ligases (STUbLs) were found to integrate signaling through the SUMO and ubiquitin pathways. In general, STUbLs are recruited to target proteins decorated with poly-SUMO chains to ubiquitinate them and drive either their extraction from protein complexes, and/or their degradation at the proteasome. In fission yeast, reducing or preventing the formation of SUMO chains can circumvent the essential and DNA damage response functions of STUbL. This result indicates that whilst some STUbL "targets" have been identified, the crucial function of STUbL is to antagonize SUMO chain formation. Herein, by screening for additional STUbL suppressors, we reveal crosstalk between the serine/threonine phosphatase PP2A-Pab1B55 and the SUMO pathway. A hypomorphic Pab1B55 mutant not only suppresses STUbL dysfunction, but also mitigates the phenotypes associated with deletion of the SUMO protease Ulp2, or mutation of the STUbL cofactor Rad60. Together, our results reveal a novel role for PP2A-Pab1B55 in modulating SUMO pathway output, acting in parallel to known critical regulators of SUMOylation homeostasis. Given the broad evolutionary functional conservation of the PP2A and SUMO pathways, our results could be relevant to the ongoing attempts to therapeutically target these factors.

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<![CDATA[SUMO regulates p21Cip1 intracellular distribution and with p21Cip1 facilitates multiprotein complex formation in the nucleolus upon DNA damage]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db5cab0ee8fa60be033c

We previously showed that p21Cip1 transits through the nucleolus on its way from the nucleus to the cytoplasm and that DNA damage inhibits this transit and induces the formation of p21Cip1-containing intranucleolar bodies (INoBs). Here, we demonstrate that these INoBs also contain SUMO-1 and UBC9, the E2 SUMO-conjugating enzyme. Furthermore, whereas wild type SUMO-1 localized in INoBs, a SUMO-1 mutant, which is unable to conjugate with proteins, does not, suggesting the presence of SUMOylated proteins at INoBs. Moreover, depletion of the SUMO-conjugating enzyme UBC9 or the sumo hydrolase SENP2 changed p21Cip1 intracellular distribution. In addition to SUMO-1 and p21Cip1, cell cycle regulators and DNA damage checkpoint proteins, including Cdk2, Cyclin E, PCNA, p53 and Mdm2, and PML were also detected in INoBs. Importantly, depletion of UBC9 or p21Cip1 impacted INoB biogenesis and the nucleolar accumulation of the cell cycle regulators and DNA damage checkpoint proteins following DNA damage. The impact of p21Cip1 and SUMO-1 on the accumulation of proteins in INoBs extends also to CRM1, a nuclear exportin that is also important for protein translocation from the cytoplasm to the nucleolus. Thus, SUMO and p21Cip1 regulate the transit of proteins through the nucleolus, and that disruption of nucleolar export by DNA damage induces SUMO and p21Cip1 to act as hub proteins to form a multiprotein complex in the nucleolus.

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<![CDATA[SUMO modification of a heterochromatin histone demethylase JMJD2A enables viral gene transactivation and viral replication]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db54ab0ee8fa60bdd105

Small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) modification of chromatin has profound effects on transcription regulation. By using Kaposi’s sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV) as a model, we recently demonstrated that epigenetic modification of viral chromatin by SUMO-2/3 is involved in regulating gene expression and viral reactivation. However, how this modification orchestrates transcription reprogramming through targeting histone modifying enzymes remains largely unknown. Here we show that JMJD2A, the first identified Jumonji C domain-containing histone demethylase, is the histone demethylase responsible for SUMO-2/3 enrichment on the KSHV genome during viral reactivation. Using in vitro and in vivo SUMOylation assays, we found that JMJD2A is SUMOylated on lysine 471 by KSHV K-bZIP, a viral SUMO-2/3-specific E3 ligase, in a SUMO-interacting motif (SIM)-dependent manner. SUMOylation is required for stabilizing chromatin association and gene transactivation by JMJD2A. These finding suggest that SUMO-2/3 modification plays an essential role in the epigenetic regulatory function of JMJD2A. Consistently, hierarchical clustering analysis of RNA-seq data showed that a SUMO-deficient mutant of JMJD2A was more closely related to JMJD2A knockdown than to wild-type. Our previous report demonstrated that JMJD2A coated and maintained the “ready to activate” status of the viral genome. Consistent with our previous report, a SUMO-deficient mutant of JMJD2A reduced viral gene expression and virion production. Importantly, JMJD2A has been implicated as an oncogene in various cancers by regulating proliferation. We therefore further analyzed the role of SUMO modification of JMJD2A in regulating cell proliferation. Interestingly, the SUMO-deficient mutant of JMJD2A failed to rescue the proliferation defect of JMJD2A knockdown cells. Emerging specific inhibitors of JMJD2A have been generated for evaluation in cancer studies. Our results revealed that SUMO conjugation mediates an epigenetic regulatory function of JMJD2A and suggests that inhibiting JMJD2A SUMOylation may be a novel avenue for anti-cancer therapy.

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<![CDATA[Cardiac Glycosides Activate the Tumor Suppressor and Viral Restriction Factor Promyelocytic Leukemia Protein (PML)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dab7ab0ee8fa60bad26a

Cardiac glycosides (CGs), inhibitors of Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA), used clinically to treat heart failure, have garnered recent attention as potential anti-cancer and anti-viral agents. A high-throughput phenotypic screen designed to identify modulators of promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML) nuclear body (NB) formation revealed the CG gitoxigenin as a potent activator of PML. We demonstrate that multiple structurally distinct CGs activate the formation of PML NBs and induce PML protein SUMOylation in an NKA-dependent fashion. CG effects on PML occur at the post-transcriptional level, mechanistically distinct from previously described PML activators and are mediated through signaling events downstream of NKA. Curiously, genomic deletion of PML in human cancer cells failed to abrogate the cytotoxic effects of CGs and other apoptotic stimuli such as ceramide and arsenic trioxide that were previously shown to function through PML in mice. These findings suggest that alternative pathways can compensate for PML loss to mediate apoptosis in response to CGs and other apoptotic stimuli.

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<![CDATA[An Arabidopsis SUMO E3 Ligase, SIZ1, Negatively Regulates Photomorphogenesis by Promoting COP1 Activity]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9e4ab0ee8fa60b6ab45

COP1 (CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENIC 1), a ubiquitin E3 ligase, is a central negative regulator of photomorphogenesis. However, how COP1 activity is regulated by post-translational modifications remains largely unknown. Here we show that SUMO (small ubiquitin-like modifier) modification enhances COP1 activity. Loss-of-function siz1 mutant seedlings exhibit a weak constitutive photomorphogenic phenotype. SIZ1 physically interacts with COP1 and mediates the sumoylation of COP1. A K193R substitution in COP1 blocks its SUMO modification and reduces COP1 activity in vitro and in planta. Consistently, COP1 activity is reduced in siz1 and the level of HY5, a COP1 target protein, is increased in siz1. Sumoylated COP1 may exhibits higher transubiquitination activity than does non-sumoylated COP1, but SIZ1-mediated SUMO modification does not affect COP1 dimerization, COP1-HY5 interaction, and nuclear accumulation of COP1. Interestingly, prolonged light exposure reduces the sumoylation level of COP1, and COP1 mediates the ubiquitination and degradation of SIZ1. These regulatory mechanisms may maintain the homeostasis of COP1 activity, ensuing proper photomorphogenic development in changing light environment. Our genetic and biochemical studies identify a function for SIZ1 in photomorphogenesis and reveal a novel SUMO-regulated ubiquitin ligase, COP1, in plants.

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<![CDATA[Irisin Ameliorates Hypoxia/Reoxygenation-Induced Injury through Modulation of Histone Deacetylase 4]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db0eab0ee8fa60bcb536

Irisin is a recently identified myokine which brings increases in energy expenditure and contributes to the beneficial effects of exercise through the browning of white adipose tissues. However, its effects in the heart remains unknown. This study sought to determine the effects of irisin on hypoxia/reoxygenation injury and its relationship with HDAC4. Wild type and stable HDAC4-overexpression cells were generated from H9c2 cardiomyoblasts. HDAC4 overexpression cells and wild type H9c2 cells were exposed to 24 hours of hypoxia followed by one hour of reoxygenation in vitro in the presence or absence of irisin (5 ng/ml). Cell cytotoxicity, apoptosis, mitochondrial respiration, and mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) were determined. Western blotting was employed to determine active-caspase 3, annexin V, and HDAC4 expression. As compared to wild type H9c2 group, HDAC4 overexpression remarkably led to a great increase in cell death as evident by the increased lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage, ratio of caspase-3-positive cells as well as the upregulated levels of active-caspase 3 and annexin V shown by western blot analysis. In addition, HDAC4 overexpression also induced much severe mitochondrial dysfunction, as indicated by apoptotic mitochondria and increased mPTP. However, irisin treatment significantly attenuated all of these effects. Though irisin treatment did not influence the expression of HDAC4 at the transcriptional level, western blot analysis showed that HDAC4 protein levels decreased in a time-dependent way after administration of irisin, which is associated with the degradation of HDAC4 mediated by small ubiquitin-like modification (SUMO). Our results are the first to demonstrate that the protective effects of irisin in cardiomyoblasts exposed to hypoxia/reoxygenation might be associated with HDAC4 degradation.

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<![CDATA[Discriminating between Lysine Sumoylation and Lysine Acetylation Using mRMR Feature Selection and Analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db00ab0ee8fa60bc6508

Post-translational modifications (PTMs) are crucial steps in protein synthesis and are important factors contributing to protein diversity. PTMs play important roles in the regulation of gene expression, protein stability and metabolism. Lysine residues in protein sequences have been found to be targeted for both types of PTMs: sumoylations and acetylations; however, each PTM has a different cellular role. As experimental approaches are often laborious and time consuming, it is challenging to distinguish the two types of PTMs on lysine residues using computational methods. In this study, we developed a method to discriminate between sumoylated lysine residues and acetylated residues. The method incorporated several features: PSSM conservation scores, amino acid factors, secondary structures, solvent accessibilities and disorder scores. By using the mRMR (Maximum Relevance Minimum Redundancy) method and the IFS (Incremental Feature Selection) method, an optimal feature set was selected from all of the incorporated features, with which the classifier achieved 92.14% accuracy with an MCC value of 0.7322. Analysis of the optimal feature set revealed some differences between acetylation and sumoylation. The results from our study also supported the previous finding that there exist different consensus motifs for the two types of PTMs. The results could suggest possible dominant factors governing the acetylation and sumoylation of lysine residues, shedding some light on the modification dynamics and molecular mechanisms of the two types of PTMs, and provide guidelines for experimental validations.

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<![CDATA[TOPORS, a Dual E3 Ubiquitin and Sumo1 Ligase, Interacts with 26 S Protease Regulatory Subunit 4, Encoded by the PSMC1 Gene]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989daffab0ee8fa60bc60b5

The significance of the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) for protein degradation has been highlighted in the context of neurodegenerative diseases, including retinal dystrophies. TOPORS, a dual E3 ubiquitin and SUMO1 ligase, forms a component of the UPS and selected substrates for its enzymatic activities, such as DJ-1/PARK7 and APOBEC2, are important for neuronal as well as retinal homeostasis, respectively. TOPORS is ubiquitously expressed, yet its mutations are only known to result in autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa. We performed a yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) screen of a human retinal cDNA library in order to identify interacting protein partners of TOPORS from the retina, and thus begin delineating the putative disease mechanism(s) associated with the retina-specific phenotype resulting from mutations in TOPORS. The screen led to isolation of the 26 S protease regulatory subunit 4 (P26s4/ PSMC1), an ATPase indispensable for correct functioning of UPS-mediated proteostasis. The interaction between endogenous TOPORS and P26s4 proteins was validated by co-immuno-precipitation from mammalian cell extracts and further characterised by immunofluorescent co-localisation studies in cell lines and retinal sections. Findings from hTERT-RPE1 and 661W cells demonstrated that TOPORS and P26s4 co-localise at the centrosome in cultured cells. Immunofluorescent staining of mouse retinae revealed a strong P26s4 reactivity at the interface between retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) layer and the photoreceptors outer segments (OS). This finding leads us to speculate that P26s4, along with TOPORS, may have a role(s) in RPE phagocytosis, in addition to contributing to the overall photoreceptor and retinal homeostasis via the UPS.

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<![CDATA[SUMO-targeted ubiquitin ligase activity can either suppress or promote genome instability, depending on the nature of the DNA lesion]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db5cab0ee8fa60be01f1

The posttranslational modifiers SUMO and ubiquitin critically regulate the DNA damage response (DDR). Important crosstalk between these modifiers at DNA lesions is mediated by the SUMO-targeted ubiquitin ligase (STUbL), which ubiquitinates SUMO chains to generate SUMO-ubiquitin hybrids. These SUMO-ubiquitin hybrids attract DDR proteins able to bind both modifiers, and/or are degraded at the proteasome. Despite these insights, specific roles for SUMO chains and STUbL in the DDR remain poorly defined. Notably, fission yeast defective in SUMO chain formation exhibit near wild-type resistance to genotoxins and moreover, have a greatly reduced dependency on STUbL activity for DNA repair. Based on these and other data, we propose that a critical role of STUbL is to antagonize DDR-inhibitory SUMO chain formation at DNA lesions. In this regard, we identify a SUMO-binding Swi2/Snf2 translocase called Rrp2 (ScUls1) as a mediator of the DDR defects in STUbL mutant cells. Therefore, in support of our proposal, SUMO chains attract activities that can antagonize STUbL and other DNA repair factors. Finally, we find that Taz1TRF1/TRF2-deficiency triggers extensive telomeric poly-SUMOylation. In this setting STUbL, together with its cofactor Cdc48p97, actually promotes genomic instability caused by the aberrant processing of taz1Δ telomeres by DNA repair factors. In summary, depending on the nature of the initiating DNA lesion, STUbL activity can either be beneficial or harmful.

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<![CDATA[Posttranslational Modifications of NPR1: A Single Protein Playing Multiple Roles in Plant Immunity and Physiology]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da92ab0ee8fa60ba08db ]]> <![CDATA[SUMO-Modification of the La Protein Facilitates Binding to mRNA In Vitro and in Cells]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989daf2ab0ee8fa60bc188c

The RNA-binding protein La is involved in several aspects of RNA metabolism including the translational regulation of mRNAs and processing of pre-tRNAs. Besides its well-described phosphorylation by Casein kinase 2, the La protein is also posttranslationally modified by the Small Ubiquitin-like MOdifier (SUMO), but the functional outcome of this modification has not been defined. The objective of this study was to test whether sumoylation changes the RNA-binding activity of La. Therefore, we established an in vitro sumoylation assay for recombinant human La and analyzed its RNA-binding activity by electrophoretic mobility shift assays. We identified two novel SUMO-acceptor sites within the La protein located between the RNA recognition motif 1 and 2 and we demonstrate for the first time that sumoylation facilitates the RNA-binding of La to small RNA oligonucleotides representing the oligopyrimidine tract (TOP) elements from the 5’ untranslated regions (UTR) of mRNAs encoding ribosomal protein L22 and L37 and to a longer RNA element from the 5’ UTR of cyclin D1 (CCND1) mRNA in vitro. Furthermore, we show by RNA immunoprecipitation experiments that a La mutant deficient in sumoylation has impaired RNA-binding activity in cells. These data suggest that modulating the RNA-binding activity of La by sumoylation has important consequences on its functionality.

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<![CDATA[A high throughput mutagenic analysis of yeast sumo structure and function]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db54ab0ee8fa60bdd076

Sumoylation regulates a wide range of essential cellular functions through diverse mechanisms that remain to be fully understood. Using S. cerevisiae, a model organism with a single essential SUMO gene (SMT3), we developed a library of >250 mutant strains with single or multiple amino acid substitutions of surface or core residues in the Smt3 protein. By screening this library using plate-based assays, we have generated a comprehensive structure-function based map of Smt3, revealing essential amino acid residues and residues critical for function under a variety of genotoxic and proteotoxic stress conditions. Functionally important residues mapped to surfaces affecting Smt3 precursor processing and deconjugation from protein substrates, covalent conjugation to protein substrates, and non-covalent interactions with E3 ligases and downstream effector proteins containing SUMO-interacting motifs. Lysine residues potentially involved in formation of polymeric chains were also investigated, revealing critical roles for polymeric chains, but redundancy in specific chain linkages. Collectively, our findings provide important insights into the molecular basis of signaling through sumoylation. Moreover, the library of Smt3 mutants represents a valuable resource for further exploring the functions of sumoylation in cellular stress response and other SUMO-dependent pathways.

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<![CDATA[Insight into glucocorticoid receptor signalling through interactome model analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5ab18489463d7e5ca175d917

Glucocorticoid hormones (GCs) are used to treat a variety of diseases because of their potent anti-inflammatory effect and their ability to induce apoptosis in lymphoid malignancies through the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). Despite ongoing research, high glucocorticoid efficacy and widespread usage in medicine, resistance, disease relapse and toxicity remain factors that need addressing. Understanding the mechanisms of glucocorticoid signalling and how resistance may arise is highly important towards improving therapy. To gain insight into this we undertook a systems biology approach, aiming to generate a Boolean model of the glucocorticoid receptor protein interaction network that encapsulates functional relationships between the GR, its target genes or genes that target GR, and the interactions between the genes that interact with the GR. This model named GEB052 consists of 52 nodes representing genes or proteins, the model input (GC) and model outputs (cell death and inflammation), connected by 241 logical interactions of activation or inhibition. 323 changes in the relationships between model constituents following in silico knockouts were uncovered, and steady-state analysis followed by cell-based microarray genome-wide model validation led to an average of 57% correct predictions, which was taken further by assessment of model predictions against patient microarray data. Lastly, semi-quantitative model analysis via microarray data superimposed onto the model with a score flow algorithm has also been performed, which demonstrated significantly higher correct prediction ratios (average of 80%), and the model has been assessed as a predictive clinical tool using published patient microarray data. In summary we present an in silico simulation of the glucocorticoid receptor interaction network, linked to downstream biological processes that can be analysed to uncover relationships between GR and its interactants. Ultimately the model provides a platform for future development both by directing laboratory research and allowing for incorporation of further components, encapsulating more interactions/genes involved in glucocorticoid receptor signalling.

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<![CDATA[Identification of the SUMO E3 ligase PIAS1 as a potential survival biomarker in breast cancer]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db5aab0ee8fa60bdf74d

Metastasis is the ultimate cause of breast cancer related mortality. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is thought to play a crucial role in the metastatic potential of breast cancer. Growing evidence has implicated the SUMO E3 ligase PIAS1 in the regulation of EMT in mammary epithelial cells and breast cancer metastasis. However, the relevance of PIAS1 in human cancer and mechanisms by which PIAS1 might regulate breast cancer metastasis remain to be elucidated. Using tissue-microarray analysis (TMA), we report that the protein abundance and subcellular localization of PIAS1 correlate with disease specific overall survival of a cohort of breast cancer patients. In mechanistic studies, we find that PIAS1 acts via sumoylation of the transcriptional regulator SnoN to suppress invasive growth of MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cell-derived organoids. Our studies thus identify the SUMO E3 ligase PIAS1 as a prognostic biomarker in breast cancer, and suggest a potential role for the PIAS1-SnoN sumoylation pathway in controlling breast cancer metastasis.

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