ResearchPad - supervisors https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Cost and logistics implications of a nationwide survey of schistosomiasis and other intestinal helminthiases in Sudan: Key activities and cost components]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_15719 It is vital to share details of concrete experiences of conducting a nationwide disease survey. By doing so, the global health community could adapt previous experiences to expand geographic mapping programs, eventually contributing to the development of disease control and elimination strategies. A nationwide survey of schistosomiasis and intestinal helminthiases was conducted from December 2016 to March 2017 in Sudan. We aimed to describe details of the key activities and cost components required for the nationwide survey. We investigated which activities were necessary to prepare and conduct a nationwide survey of schistosomiasis and intestinal helminthiases, and the types and amounts of transportation, personnel, survey equipment, and consumables that were required. In addition, we estimated financial and economic costs from the perspectives of the donor and the Ministry of Health. Cash expenditures incurred to implement the survey were defined as financial costs. For economic costs, we considered the true value for society as a whole, and this category therefore accounted for the costs of all goods and services used for the project, including those that were not sold in the market and therefore had no market price (e.g., time spent by head teachers and teachers). We organized costs into capital and recurrent items. We ran one-way sensitivity and probabilistic analyses using Monte-Carlo methods with 10,000 draws to examine the robustness of the primary analysis results. A total of USD 1,465,902 and USD 1,516,238 was incurred for the financial and economic costs, respectively. The key cost drivers of the nationwide survey were personnel and transportation, for both financial and economic costs. Personnel and transportation accounted for around 64% and 18% of financial costs, respectively. If a government finds a way to mobilize existing government officials with no additional payments using the health system already in place, the cost of a nationwide survey could be remarkably reduced.

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<![CDATA[Kala-azar elimination in a highly-endemic district of Bihar, India: A success story]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14634 The World Health Organization (WHO) has set a target to eliminate visceral leishmaniasis (VL), commonly known as “Kala-azar,” as a public health problem in India by 2020. The elimination target is defined as achieving less than 1 case per 10,000 people at the block level. Although India has made substantial progress in the elimination of the disease since 2012, VL remains a stable public health problem in four middle-eastern states including Bihar. Bihar contributes >61% of the total Indian cases annually, and a few districts of the state have reported more than 600 cases annually. In this study, the results indicate that an intensive integrated VL control strategy including epidemiological analysis based on a geographical information system (GIS), hot-spot mapping, active case detection, vector control using the indoor residual spraying (IRS) of chemical insecticides, awareness campaigns, human resource development, the close monitoring of control activities, and active epidemiological surveillance and entomological monitoring can achieve the elimination target in the highly endemic region of Bihar. The elimination of VL from highly endemic zones is urgently required to control any new outbreak. Therefore, the implementation of the Vaishali VL control strategy is strongly recommended in all highly endemic districts of Bihar, India.

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<![CDATA[Usefulness of C-MAC video laryngoscope in direct laryngoscopy training in the emergency department: A propensity score matching analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c1ab86dd5eed0c48402800d

Objectives

We determined the usefulness of C-MAC video laryngoscope (C-MAC) as a safe training tool for the direct laryngoscopy technique in the emergency department.

Methods

We retrospectively analyzed an institutional airway registry of adult (≥18 years old) patients from April 2014 through October 2016. In this study, the operator used C-MAC as a direct laryngoscope (DL) with limited access to the screen, and the supervisor instructed the operator via verbal feedback while watching the screen. Patients were categorized into the DL group if a conventional DL was used and the C-DL group if a C-MAC used as a DL.

Results

Of 744 endotracheal intubations, 163 propensity score-matched pairs were generated (1-to-n matching: C-DL group, 163 vs. DL group, 428). For the propensity-matched groups, the overall first pass success rate was 69%, while those in the C-DL and DL groups were 79% and 65%, respectively. Overall, multiple attempts were required in 8% of patients, with 4% in the C-DL group and 9% in the DL group. The overall complication rate was 11%, with 4% in the C-DL group and 14% in the DL group. In multivariable analysis, the adjusted odds ratios of C-DL use for first pass success, multiple attempts, and complications were 2.05 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.18–2.87, p < 0.01), 0.38 (95% CI 0.15–0.94; p < 0.01), and 0.28 (95% CI 0.12–0.63; p < 0.01), respectively.

Conclusions

Our study suggests that the C-MAC could be useful for training residents in the direct laryngoscopy while ensuring patient safety in the emergency department.

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<![CDATA[Evaluation of a call center to assess post-discharge maternal and early neonatal outcomes of facility-based childbirth in Uttar Pradesh, India]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c06f050d5eed0c484c6d6b9

Background

Maternal and neonatal outcomes in the immediate post-delivery period are critical indicators of quality of care. Data on childbirth outcomes in low-income settings usually require home visits, which can be constrained by cost and access. We report on the use of a call center to measure post-discharge outcomes within a multi-site improvement study of facility-based childbirth in Uttar Pradesh, India.

Methods

Of women delivering at study sites eligible for inclusion, 97.9% (n = 157,689) consented to follow-up. All consenting women delivering at study facilities were eligible to receive a phone call between days eight and 42 post-partum to obtain outcomes for the seven-day period after birth. Women unable to be contacted via phone were visited at home. Outcomes, including maternal and early neonatal mortality and maternal morbidity, were ascertained using a standardized script developed from validated survey questions. Data Quality Assurance (DQA) included accuracy (double coding of calls) and validity (consistency between two calls to the same household). Regression models were used to identify factors associated with inconsistency.

Findings

Over 23 months, outcomes were obtained by the call center for 98.0% (154,494/157,689) consenting women and their neonates. 87.9% of call center-obtained outcomes were captured by phone call alone and 12.1% required the assistance of a field worker. An additional 1.7% were obtained only by a field worker, 0.3% were lost-to-follow-up, and only 0.1% retracted consent. The call center captured outcomes with a median of 1 call (IQR 1–2). DQA found 98.0% accuracy; data validation demonstrated 93.7% consistency between the first and second call. In a regression model, significant predictors of inconsistency included cases with adverse outcomes (p<0.001), and different respondents on the first and validation call (p<0.001).

Conclusions

In areas with widespread mobile cell phone access and coverage, a call center is a viable and efficient approach for measurement of post-discharge childbirth outcomes.

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<![CDATA[Provision of Oral Health Care to Children under Seven Covered by Bolsa Família Program. Is This a Reality?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989daccab0ee8fa60bb4ad7

Over the last decade, there has been a great improvement in the oral health of Brazilians. However, such a trend was not observed among five-year-old children. Dental caries are determined by the interplay between biological and behavioral factors that are shaped by broader socioeconomic determinants. It is well established that dental disease is concentrated in socially disadvantaged populations. To reduce social and health inequalities, the Brazilian government created Family Health Program (ESF), and the Bolsa Família Program, the Brazilian conditional cash transfer program (Bolsa Família Program). The aim of this study was to examine the oral health care and promotion provided by the Family Health Teams to children and caregivers covered by the Bolsa Família Program. Data was collected through interviews with three groups of participants: 1) dentists working for the Family Health Program; 2) Family Health Program professionals supervising the Bolsa Família Program health conditionalities (Bolsa Família Program supervisors); and 3) parents/caregivers of children covered by the Bolsa Família Program. A pretested questionnaire included sociodemographic, Bolsa Família Program, oral health promotion, dental prevention and dental treatment questions. The results showed that most dentists performed no systematic efforts to promote oral health care to children covered by the Bolsa Família Program (93.3%; n = 69) or to their parents/caregivers (74.3%; n = 55). Many dentists (33.8%) did not provide oral health care to children covered by the Bolsa Família Program because they felt it was beyond their responsibilities. Nearly all Bolsa Família Program supervisors (97.3%; n = 72) supported the inclusion of oral health care in the health conditionality of the Bolsa Família Program, but 82.4% (n = 61) stated they did not promote oral health activities to children covered by the Bolsa Família Program. Children in the routine care setting were more often referred to dentists than children covered by the Bolsa Familia Program (p≤0.001). Parents/caregivers (99.2%; n = 381) agreed that oral health care is important and 99.5% (n = 382) would like their children to be seen regularly. Conclusions: No collaboration was observed between the Bolsa Família Program and the Family Health Program with regard to the provision of oral health care. Making oral health care a Bolsa Família Program conditionality may reduce oral health care inequalities for extreme poor children under seven in Brazil.

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<![CDATA[Antecedents of Psychological Contract Breach: The Role of Job Demands, Job Resources, and Affect]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da16ab0ee8fa60b7b564

While it has been shown that psychological contract breach leads to detrimental outcomes, relatively little is known about factors leading to perceptions of breach. We examine if job demands and resources predict breach perceptions. We argue that perceiving high demands elicits negative affect, while perceiving high resources stimulates positive affect. Positive and negative affect, in turn, influence the likelihood that psychological contract breaches are perceived. We conducted two experience sampling studies to test our hypotheses: the first using daily surveys in a sample of volunteers, the second using weekly surveys in samples of volunteers and paid employees. Our results confirm that job demands and resources are associated with negative and positive affect respectively. Mediation analyses revealed that people who experienced high job resources were less likely to report psychological contract breach, because they experienced high levels of positive affect. The mediating role of negative affect was more complex, as it increased the likelihood to perceive psychological contract breach, but only in the short-term.

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<![CDATA[An evidence-based decision assistance model for predicting training outcome in juvenile guide dogs]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db5fab0ee8fa60be107c

Working dog organisations, such as Guide Dogs, need to regularly assess the behaviour of the dogs they train. In this study we developed a questionnaire-style behaviour assessment completed by training supervisors of juvenile guide dogs aged 5, 8 and 12 months old (n = 1,401), and evaluated aspects of its reliability and validity. Specifically, internal reliability, temporal consistency, construct validity, predictive criterion validity (comparing against later training outcome) and concurrent criterion validity (comparing against a standardised behaviour test) were evaluated. Thirty-nine questions were sourced either from previously published literature or created to meet requirements identified via Guide Dogs staff surveys and staff feedback. Internal reliability analyses revealed seven reliable and interpretable trait scales named according to the questions within them as: Adaptability; Body Sensitivity; Distractibility; Excitability; General Anxiety; Trainability and Stair Anxiety. Intra-individual temporal consistency of the scale scores between 5–8, 8–12 and 5–12 months was high. All scales excepting Body Sensitivity showed some degree of concurrent criterion validity. Predictive criterion validity was supported for all seven scales, since associations were found with training outcome, at at-least one age. Thresholds of z-scores on the scales were identified that were able to distinguish later training outcome by identifying 8.4% of all dogs withdrawn for behaviour and 8.5% of all qualified dogs, with 84% and 85% specificity. The questionnaire assessment was reliable and could detect traits that are consistent within individuals over time, despite juvenile dogs undergoing development during the study period. By applying thresholds to scores produced from the questionnaire this assessment could prove to be a highly valuable decision-making tool for Guide Dogs. This is the first questionnaire-style assessment of juvenile dogs that has shown value in predicting the training outcome of individual working dogs.

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<![CDATA[Effectiveness of a brief behavioural intervention on psychological distress among women with a history of gender-based violence in urban Kenya: A randomised clinical trial]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5aafc796463d7e7d7e2e8775

Background

Gender-based violence (GBV) represents a major cause of psychological morbidity worldwide, and particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Although there are effective treatments for common mental disorders associated with GBV, they typically require lengthy treatment programs that may limit scaling up in LMICs. The aim of this study was to test the effectiveness of a new 5-session behavioural treatment called Problem Management Plus (PM+) that lay community workers can be taught to deliver.

Methods and findings

In this single-blind, parallel, randomised controlled trial, adult women who had experienced GBV were identified through community screening for psychological distress and impaired functioning in Nairobi, Kenya. Participants were randomly allocated in a 1:1 ratio either to PM+ delivered in the community by lay community health workers provided with 8 days of training or to facility-based enhanced usual care (EUC) provided by community nurses. Participants were aware of treatment allocation, but research assessors were blinded. The primary outcome was psychological distress as measured by the total score on the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) assessed at 3 months after treatment. Secondary outcomes were impaired functioning (measured by the WHO Disability Adjustment Schedule [WHODAS]), symptoms of posttraumatic stress (measured by the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist [PCL]), personally identified problems (measured by Psychological Outcome Profiles [PSYCHLOPS]), stressful life events (measured by the Life Events Checklist [LEC]), and health service utilisation. Between 15 April 2015 and 20 August 2015, 1,393 women were screened for eligibility on the basis of psychological distress and impaired functioning. Of these, 518 women (37%) screened positive, of whom 421 (81%) were women who had experienced GBV. Of these 421 women, 209 were assigned to PM+ and 212 to EUC. Follow-up assessments were completed on 16 January 2016. The primary analysis was intention to treat and included 53 women in PM+ (25%) and 49 women in EUC (23%) lost to follow-up. The difference between PM+ and EUC in the change from baseline to 3 months on the GHQ-12 was 3.33 (95% CI 1.86–4.79, P = 0.001) in favour of PM+. In terms of secondary outcomes, for WHODAS the difference between PM+ and EUC in the change from baseline to 3-month follow-up was 1.96 (95% CI 0.21–3.71, P = 0.03), for PCL it was 3.95 (95% CI 0.06–7.83, P = 0.05), and for PSYCHLOPS it was 2.15 (95% CI 0.98–3.32, P = 0.001), all in favour of PM+. These estimated differences correspond to moderate effect sizes in favour of PM+ for GHQ-12 score (0.57, 95% CI 0.32–0.83) and PSYCHLOPS (0.67, 95% CI 0.31–1.03), and small effect sizes for WHODAS (0.26, 95% CI 0.02–0.50) and PCL (0.21, 95% CI 0.00–0.41). Twelve adverse events were reported, all of which were suicidal risks detected during screening. No adverse events were attributable to the interventions or the trial. Limitations of the study include no long-term follow-up, reliance on self-report rather than structured interview data, and lack of an attention control condition.

Conclusions

Among a community sample of women in urban Kenya with a history of GBV, a brief, lay-administered behavioural intervention, compared with EUC, resulted in moderate reductions in psychological distress at 3-month follow-up.

Trial registration

Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12614001291673

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<![CDATA[Providers' Perspectives on Case Management of a Healthy Start Program: A Qualitative Study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9efab0ee8fa60b6dc14

Although Healthy Start case managers recognized the benefits of case management for facilitating optimal service delivery to women and their families, structural factors impact effective implementation. This study investigated case managers' views of 1) the structural challenges faced in implementing case management for program participants, and 2) possible strategies to enhance case management in medical home settings. Two focus groups were conducted separately with case managers from the four program service sites to gain insight into these issues noted above. Each group was co-facilitated by two evaluators using a previously developed semi-structured interview guide. The group discussions were audio recorded and the case managers' comments were transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were analyzed using thematic analysis, a deductive approach. Data were collected in 2013 and analyzed in 2015. Case managers are challenged by externalities (demographic shifts in target populations, poverty); contractual requirements (predefined catchment neighborhoods, caseload); limited support (client incentives, tailored training, and a high staff turnover rate); and logistic difficulties (organizational issues). Their approach to case management tends to be focused on linking Although Healthy Start case managers recognized the benefits of case management for facilitating optimal service delivery to women and their families, structural factors impact effective implementation. This study investigated case managers' views of 1) the structural challenges faced in implementing case management for program participants, and 2) possible strategies to enhance case management in medical home settings. Two focus groups were conducted separately with case managers from the four program service sites to gain insight into these issues noted above. Each group was co-facilitated by two evaluators using a previously developed semi-structured interview guide. The group discussions were audio recorded and the case managers' comments were transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were analyzed using thematic analysis, a deductive approach. Data were collected in 2013 and analyzed in 2015. Case managers are challenged by externalities (demographic shifts in target populations, poverty); contractual requirements (predefined catchment neighborhoods, caseload); limited support (client incentives, tailored training, and a high staff turnover rate); and logistic difficulties (organizational issues). Their approach to case management tends to be focused on linking clients to adequate services rather than reporting performance. Case managers favored measurable deliverables rather than operational work products. A proposed solution to current challenges emphasizes and encourages the iterative learning process and shared decision making between program targets, funders and providers. Case managers are aware of the challenging environment in which they operate for their clients and for themselves. However, future interventions will require clearly identified performance measures and increased systems support.

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<![CDATA[Debriefing about the challenges of working in a remote area: A qualitative study of Australian allied health professionals’ perspectives on clinical supervision]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c9405dad5eed0c484539372

Background

The benefits of clinical supervision are more pronounced for health professionals in rural and remote areas. Most clinical supervision studies to date have occurred in metropolitan centres and have used the survey methodology to capture participant experiences. There is a lack of qualitative research that captures participants’ lived experiences with clinical supervision at the frontline.

Methods

Participants were recruited from rural and remote sites of two Australian states using a purposive maximum variation sampling strategy. Data were collected through individual, semi-structured interviews with participants. Data were analysed using content analysis and themes were developed. Sixteen participants from six professions completed the interviews.

Results

Eight themes were developed including the content of supervision, context of supervision, value of supervision, increased need for professional support and unique characteristics of rural and remote clinical supervision.

Conclusions

This study has highlighted the value of clinical supervision for the rural and remote health professional workforce. Furthermore, it has shed light on the unique characteristics of clinical supervision in this population. This information can be used by organisations and health professionals to ensure clinical supervision partnerships are effective thereby enhancing rural and remote workforce recruitment and retention.

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<![CDATA[The Ethiopian Health Extension Program and Variation in Health Systems Performance: What Matters?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da2dab0ee8fa60b82ffe

Background

Primary health care services are fundamental to improving health and health equity, particularly in the context of low and middle-income settings where resources are scarce. During the past decade, Ethiopia undertook an ambitious investment in primary health care known as the Ethiopian Health Extension Program that recorded impressive gains in several health outcomes. Despite this progress, substantial disparities in health outcomes persist across the country. The objective of this study was to understand how variation in the implementation of the primary health care efforts may explain differences in key health outcomes.

Methods and Findings

We conducted a qualitative study of higher-performing and lower-performing woredas using site visits and in-depth interviews undertaken in 7 woredas. We classified woredas as higher-performing or lower-performing based on data on 5 indicators. We conducted a total of 94 open-ended interviews; 12–15 from each woreda. The data were analyzed using the constant comparative method of qualitative data analysis. Substantial contrasts were apparent between higher-performing and lower-performing woredas in use of data for problem solving and performance improvement; collaboration and respectful relationships among health extension workers, community members, and health center staff; and coordination between the woreda health office and higher-level regulatory and financing bodies at the zonal and regional levels. We found similarities in what was reported to motivate or demotivate health extension workers and other staff. Additionally, higher-performing and lower-performing woredas shared concerns about hospitals being isolated from health centers and health posts. Participants from both woredas also highlighted a mismatch between the urban health extension program design and the urban-dwelling communities’ expectations for primary health care.

Conclusions

Data-informed problem solving, respectful and supportive relationships with the community, and strong support from zonal and regional health bureaus contributed to woreda performance, suggesting avenues for achieving higher performance in primary health care.

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<![CDATA[Using a Mixed Model to Evaluate Job Satisfaction in High-Tech Industries]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dac4ab0ee8fa60bb1f3f

R&D professionals are the impetus behind technological innovation, and their competitiveness and capability drive the growth of a company. However, high-tech industries have a chronic shortage of such indispensable professionals. Accordingly, reducing R&D personnel turnover has become a major human resource management challenge facing innovative companies. This study combined importance–performance analysis (IPA) with the decision-making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL) method to propose an IPA–DEMATEL model. Establishing this model involved three steps. First, an IPA was conducted to measure the importance of and satisfaction gained from job satisfaction criteria. Second, the DEMATEL method was used to determine the causal relationships of and interactive influence among the criteria. Third, a criteria model was constructed to evaluate job satisfaction of high-tech R&D personnel. On the basis of the findings, managerial suggestions are proposed.

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<![CDATA[The Usefulness of Assessing and Identifying Workers’ Temperaments and Their Effects on Occupational Stress in the Workplace]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9ddab0ee8fa60b68200

The relationship between temperaments and mental disorders has been reported in previous studies, but there has been little attention to temperaments in the occupational safety and health research. The aim of this study was to clarify the effects of temperaments on occupational stress among local government employees. The subjects were 145 Japanese daytime workers in local government. Temperaments were assessed by the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego-Auto questionnaire (TEMPS-A). Occupational stress was assessed using the Generic Job Stress Questionnaire (GJSQ). Hierarchical multiple linear regression analysis was used. Hyperthymic temperament predicted a higher level of job control, and a lower level of role ambiguity and job future ambiguity. Irritable temperament predicted a lower level of social support from supervisors and a higher level of role conflict, variance in workload and intragroup conflict. Anxious temperament predicted a lower level of social support from coworkers and a higher level of job future ambiguity. The sample size was small. Only Japanese local government employees were surveyed. Hyperthymic temperament played a protective role, and irritable, anxious temperament played a vulnerable role against one’s own occupational stress and recognizing the roles they play in work life would lead to self-insight. Additionally, recognition of the temperaments and temperament-related stressors by one’s supervisors or coworkers would facilitate provision of social support.

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<![CDATA[The Separate Spheres Model of Gendered Inequality]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dae3ab0ee8fa60bbc4f4

Research on role congruity theory and descriptive and prescriptive stereotypes has established that when men and women violate gender stereotypes by crossing spheres, with women pursuing career success and men contributing to domestic labor, they face backlash and economic penalties. Less is known, however, about the types of individuals who are most likely to engage in these forms of discrimination and the types of situations in which this is most likely to occur. We propose that psychological research will benefit from supplementing existing research approaches with an individual differences model of support for separate spheres for men and women. This model allows psychologists to examine individual differences in support for separate spheres as they interact with situational and contextual forces. The separate spheres ideology (SSI) has existed as a cultural idea for many years but has not been operationalized or modeled in social psychology. The Separate Spheres Model presents the SSI as a new psychological construct characterized by individual differences and a motivated system-justifying function, operationalizes the ideology with a new scale measure, and models the ideology as a predictor of some important gendered outcomes in society. As a first step toward developing the Separate Spheres Model, we develop a new measure of individuals’ endorsement of the SSI and demonstrate its reliability, convergent validity, and incremental predictive validity. We provide support for the novel hypotheses that the SSI predicts attitudes regarding workplace flexibility accommodations, income distribution within families between male and female partners, distribution of labor between work and family spheres, and discriminatory workplace behaviors. Finally, we provide experimental support for the hypothesis that the SSI is a motivated, system-justifying ideology.

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<![CDATA[Investigation on law and economics of listed companies’ financing preference based on complex network theory]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db50ab0ee8fa60bdc00d

In this paper, complex network theory is used to make time-series analysis of key indicators of governance structure and financing data. We analyze scientific listed companies’ governance data from 2010 to 2014 and divide them into groups in accordance with the similarity they share. Then we select sample companies to analyze their financing data and explore the influence of governance structure on financing decision and the financing preference they display. This paper reviews relevant laws and regulations of financing from the perspective of law and economics, then proposes reasonable suggestions to consummate the law for the purpose of regulating listed companies’ financing. The research provides a reference for making qualitative analysis on companies’ financing.

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<![CDATA[Snowball Vs. House-to-House Technique for Measuring Annual Incidence of Kala-azar in the Higher Endemic Blocks of Bihar, India: A Comparison]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9e5ab0ee8fa60b6aee4

Background

Visceral Leishmaniasis, commonly known as kala-azar, is widely prevalent in Bihar. The National Kala-azar Control Program has applied house-to-house survey approach several times for estimating Kala-azar incidence in the past. However, this approach includes huge logistics and operational cost, as occurrence of kala-azar is clustered in nature. The present study aims to compare efficiency, cost and feasibility of snowball sampling approach to house-to-house survey approach in capturing kala-azar cases in two endemic districts of Bihar, India.

Methodology/Principal findings

A community based cross-sectional study was conducted in two highly endemic Primary Health Centre (PHC) areas, each from two endemic districts of Bihar, India. Snowball technique (used to locate potential subjects with help of key informants where subjects are hard to locate) and house-to-house survey technique were applied to detect all the new cases of Kala-azar during a defined reference period of one year i.e. June, 2010 to May, 2011. The study covered a total of 105,035 households with 537,153 populations. Out of total 561 cases and 17 deaths probably due to kala-azar, identified by the study, snowball sampling approach captured only 221 cases and 13 deaths, whereas 489 cases and 17 deaths were detected by house-to-house survey approach. Higher value of McNemar’s χ² statistics (64; p<0.0001) for house-to-house survey approach than snowball sampling and relative difference (>1) indicates that most of the kala-azar cases missed by snowball sampling were captured by house-to-house approach with 13% of omission.

Conclusion/Significance

Snowball sampling was not found sensitive enough as it captured only about 50% of VL cases. However, it captured about 77% of the deaths probably due to kala-azar and was found more cost-effective than house-to-house approach. Standardization of snowball approach with improved procedure, training and logistics may enhance the sensitivity of snowball sampling and its application in national Kala-azar elimination programme as cost-effective approach for estimation of kala-azar burden.

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<![CDATA[Relationships between temperaments, occupational stress, and insomnia among Japanese workers]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db52ab0ee8fa60bdc5fd

Insomnia among workers reduces the quality of life, contributes toward the economic burden of healthcare costs and losses in work performance. The relationship between occupational stress and insomnia has been reported in previous studies, but there has been little attention to temperament in occupational safety and health research. The aim of this study was to clarify the relationships between temperament, occupational stress, and insomnia. The subjects were 133 Japanese daytime local government employees. Temperament was assessed using the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego-Auto questionnaire (TEMPS-A). Occupational stress was assessed using the Generic Job Stress Questionnaire (GJSQ). Insomnia was assessed using the Athens Insomnia Scale (AIS). Stepwise multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted. In a stepwise multivariate logistic regression analysis, it was found that the higher subdivided stress group by “role conflict” (OR = 5.29, 95% CI, 1.61–17.32) and anxious temperament score (OR = 1.33; 95% CI, 1.19–1.49) was associated with the presence of insomnia using an adjusted model, whereas other factors were excluded from the model. The study limitations were the sample size and the fact that only Japanese local government employees were surveyed. This study demonstrated the relationships between workers’ anxious temperament, role conflict, and insomnia. Recognizing one’s own anxious temperament would lead to self-insight, and the recognition of anxious temperament and reduction of role conflict by their supervisors or coworkers would reduce the prevalence of insomnia among workers in the workplace.

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<![CDATA[“When Treatment Is More Challenging than the Disease”: A Qualitative Study of MDR-TB Patient Retention]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da16ab0ee8fa60b7b6d7

Background

One-fifth of the patients on multidrug-resistant tuberculosis treatment at the Drug-Resistant-TB (DR-TB) Site in Gujarat are lost-to-follow-up(LFU).

Objective

To understand patients’ and providers' perspectives on reasons for LFU and their suggestions to improve retention-in-care.

Design

Qualitative study conducted between December 2013-March 2014, including in-depth interviews with LFU patients and DOT-providers, and a focus group discussion with DR-TB site supervisors. A thematic-network analysis approach was utilised.

Results

Three sub-themes emerged: (i) Struggle with prolonged treatment; (ii) Strive against stigma and toward support; (iii) Divergent perceptions and practices. Daily injections, pill burden, DOT, migratory work, social problems, prior TB treatment, and adverse drugs effects were reported as major barriers to treatment adherence and retention-in-care by patients and providers. Some providers felt that despite their best efforts, LFU patients remain. Patient movements between private practitioners and traditional healers further influenced LFU.

Conclusion

The study points to a need for repeated patient counselling and education, improved co-ordination between various tiers of providers engaged in DR-TB care, collaboration between the public, private and traditional practitioners, and promotion of social and economic support to help patients adhere to MDR-TB treatment and avoid LFU.

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<![CDATA[Work-Related Factors Considered by Sickness-Absent Employees When Estimating Timeframes for Returning to Work]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989daf4ab0ee8fa60bc2325

Introduction

Work-related factors have been found to be influential in shaping a number of return-to-work outcomes including return-to-work expectations. Based on the idea that work-related factors have the potential for modification through workplace-based initiatives, this study involved a detailed examination of work-related factors referenced by workers as being taken into consideration when estimating timeframes for returning to work.

Methods

Focus groups were conducted with 30 employees, currently off work (≤ 3 months) due to a musculoskeletal condition. During the focus groups, participants wrote and spoke about the factors that they considered when forming their expectations for returning to work. Data were subjected to thematic content analysis.

Results

Discussions revealed that participants’ considerations tended to differ depending on whether or not they had a job to return to. Those with jobs (n = 23) referenced specific influences such as working relationships, accommodations, physical and practical limitations, as well as concerns about their ability to do their job. Those without a job to return to (n = 7) talked about the ways they would go about finding work, and how long they thought this would take. Both groups mentioned the influence of wanting to find the “right” job, retraining and being limited due to the need for income.

Conclusion

Findings indicate that employees reference numerous work-related factors when estimating their timeframes for returning to work, and that many of these have been previously identified as relating to other return-to-work outcomes. Findings suggest the potential to improve return-to-work expectation through addressing work-related influences, and helping people work through the tasks they need to complete in order to move forward in the return-to-work process.

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<![CDATA[Perceived enablers and constraints of motivation to conduct undergraduate research in a Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences: What role does choice play?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c92b3c6d5eed0c4843a4825

Background

Enhancing evidence-based practice and improving locally driven research begins with fostering the research skills of undergraduate students in the medical and health sciences. Research as a core component of undergraduate curricula can be facilitated or constrained by various programmatic and institutional factors, including that of choice. Self-Determination Theory (SDT) provides a framework for understanding the influence of choice on student motivation to engage in research.

Aim

This study aimed to document the enablers and constraints of undergraduate research at a South African Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences (FMHS) and to explore how the presence or absence of choice influenced students’ engagement with research in this context.

Methods

An exploratory descriptive design was adopted. Undergraduate students who had conducted research and undergraduate programme staff were recruited through purposive sampling. Semi-structured interviews were transcribed and thematically analysed. Findings were interpreted using SDT, focusing on how choice at various levels affects motivation and influences research experiences.

Results

Many of the programmatic and institutional enablers and constraints–such as time and supervisory availability–were consistent with those previously identified in the literature, regardless of whether research was compulsory or elective. Choice itself seemed to operate as both an enabler and a constraint, highlighting the complexity of choice as an influence on student motivation. SDT provided insight into how programmatic and institutional factors–and in particular choice–supported or suppressed students’ needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness, thereby influencing their motivation to engage in research.

Conclusion

While programmatic and institutional factors may enable or constrain undergraduate research, individual-level factors such as the influence of choice on students’ motivation play a critical role. The implication for curriculum development is that research engagement might be enhanced if levels of choice are structured into the curriculum such that students’ needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness are met.

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