ResearchPad - surgeons https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Factors associated with visual outcomes after cataract surgery: A cross-sectional or retrospective study in Liberia]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_15712 To report the initial outcomes and associated risk factors for poor outcome of cataract surgery performed in LiberiaMethods and analysisLV Prasad Eye Institute (LVPEI), Hyderabad, started providing eye care in Liberia since July 2017. Electronic Medical Records of 573 patients operated for age-related cataract from July 2017 to January 2019 were reviewed. One eye per patient was included for analysis. All patients underwent either phacoemulsification or manual small incision cataract surgery (MSICS). Pre and postoperative uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA) and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) were recorded at one day, 1–3 weeks and 4–11 weeks. Main outcome measure was BCVA at 4–11 weeks; Intraoperative complications and preoperative ocular comorbidities (POC) were noted. BCVA less than 6/12 was classified as visual impairment (VI). Risk factor for VI was analysed using the logistic regression model.ResultsOf the 573 patients, 288 were males and 285 were females (49.7%). Mean age was 65.9±10.9 years; 14.3% had POC. The surgical technique was mainly MSICS (94.59%, n = 542). At 4–11 weeks, good outcome of 6/12 or better was noted in 38.55% (UCVA) and 82.54% (BCVA). Visual acuity (VA) of 6/18 or better as UCVA and BCVA was noted in 63.5% and 88% eyes respectively. Poor outcome of less than 6/60 was noted as UCVA (11.11%) and BCVA (5.22%). Multivariable analysis showed poor visual outcomes significantly higher in patients with POC (odds ratio 3.28; 95% CI: 1.70, 6.34).ConclusionThe cataract surgical outcomes in Liberia were good; with ocular comorbidities as the only risk factor. ]]> <![CDATA[Remote monitoring of clubfoot treatment with digital photographs in low resource settings: Is it accurate?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14742 Clinical examination and functional assessment are often the first steps to assess outcome of clubfoot treatment. Clinical photographs may be an adjunct used to assess treatment outcomes in lower resourced settings where physical review by a specialist is limited. We aimed to evaluate the diagnostic performance of photographic images of patients with clubfoot in assessing outcome following treatment.MethodsIn this single-centre diagnostic accuracy study, we included all children with clubfoot from a cohort treated between 2011 and 2013, in 2017. Two physiotherapists trained in clubfoot management calculated the Assessing Clubfoot Treatment (ACT) score for each child to decide if treatment was successful or if further treatment was required. Photographic images were then taken of 79 feet. Two blinded orthopaedic surgeons assessed three sets of images of each foot (n = 237 in total) at two time points (two months apart). Treatment for each foot was rated as ‘success’, ‘borderline’ or ‘failure’. Intra- and inter-observer variation for the photographic image was assessed. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were calculated for the photographic image compared to the ACT score.ResultsThere was perfect correlation between clinical assessment and photographic evaluation of both raters at both time-points in 38 (48%) feet. The raters demonstrated acceptable reliability with re-scoring photographs (rater 1, k = 0.55; rater 2, k = 0.88). Thirty percent (n = 71) of photographs were assessed as poor quality image or sub-optimal patient position. Sensitivity of outcome with photograph compared to ACT score was 83.3%–88.3% and specificity ranged from 57.9%–73.3%.ConclusionDigital photography may help to confirm, but not exclude, success of clubfoot treatment. Future work to establish photographic parameters as an adjunct to assessing treatment outcomes, and guidance on a standardised protocol for photographs, may be beneficial in the follow up of children who have treated clubfoot in isolated communities or lower resourced settings. ]]> <![CDATA[A new simple brain segmentation method for extracerebral intracranial tumors]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nb837d809-9647-425d-8dfd-2c3174a6dd80

Normal brain segmentation is available via FreeSurfer, Vbm, and Ibaspm software. However, these software packages cannot perform segmentation of the brain for patients with brain tumors. As we know, damage from extracerebral tumors to the brain occurs mainly by way of pushing and compressing while leaving the structure of the brain intact. Three-dimensional (3D) imaging, augmented reality (AR), and virtual reality (VR) technology have begun to be applied in clinical practice. The free medical open-source software 3D Slicer allows us to perform 3D simulations on a computer and requires little user interaction. Moreover, 3D Slicer can integrate with the third-party software mentioned above. The relationship between the tumor and surrounding brain tissue can be judged, but accurate brain segmentation cannot be performed using 3D Slicer. In this study, we combine 3D Slicer and FreeSurfer to provide a novel brain segmentation method for extracerebral tumors. This method can help surgeons identify the “real” relationship between the lesion and adjacent brain tissue before surgery and improve preoperative planning.

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<![CDATA[Incarcerated hernia after internal hemipelvectomy for G2 chondrosarcoma: a preventable complication?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N4a8c08aa-aeae-4923-a6cb-d6327fa4f0f4 ]]> <![CDATA[Carpal tunnel release with versus without flexor retinaculum reconstruction for carpal tunnel syndrome at short- and long-term follow up—A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c58d617d5eed0c4840315cb

Background

Carpal tunnel syndrome is a common neuropathy disorder for which surgical treatment consists of release and reconstruction of the flexor retinaculum. Reports of postoperative clinical outcomes after carpal tunnel release with or without flexor retinaculum reconstruction in several studies are controversial. This meta-analysis aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of carpal tunnel release with or without flexor retinaculum reconstruction.

Methods

The PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Ovid, Cochrane Library and Clinical Tri Org databases were searched for randomized controlled trials that compared carpal release with and without transverse carpal ligament reconstruction for carpal tunnel syndrome. Outcomes included postoperative Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire Symptom Severity Scale (SSS), Functional Status Scale (FSS), grip strength and complications. The follow-up time was categorized into short-term (0-3mon) and long-term(>3mon).

Results

A total of 7 studies with 613 patients met the inclusion criteria and were analyzed in detail. Statistical analysis showed no significant difference between two groups on postoperative long-term grip strength (MD 5.85, 95% CI -1.05 to 12.76) long-term SSS (MD -0.31, 95% CI -0.75 to 0.13) and occurrence of complications (RR 1.14, 95% CI 0.84 to 1.54), whereas statistically significant difference was found between groups regarding short-term grip strength (MD 1.51, 95% CI 0.86 to 2.17) and long-term FSS (MD -0.34, 95% CI -0.47 to -0.21).

Conclusion

Carpal tunnel release with flexor retinaculum reconstruction for carpal tunnel syndrome may result in improved long-term functional status while there’s no advantage regarding grip strength, symptom severity and safety over individual carpal tunnel release in short- and long-term outcomes.

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<![CDATA[Defining displacement thresholds for surgical intervention for distal radius fractures – A Delphi study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c3e4f09d5eed0c484d70d2b

Distal radius fractures are very common yet controversy exists regarding which require treatment and is reflected by significant variation in surgical intervention rate. Evidence regarding which fractures would benefit from intervention is varied and largely poor quality. This study had three aims; identify which radiographic parameters are clinically important; quantify the threshold of displacement at which intervention should occur and investigate which patient factors influence the decision to intervene. A modified three round Delphi study was carried out and responses were qualitatively analysed. The Delphi panel was composed of three groups of national and international expert surgeons: hand and wrist surgeons, trauma surgeons, and international researchers. 46 participants initially agreed to take part. 43 completed the first round and all then completed three rounds. Participants were asked questions based around case vignettes in patients of three ages (38, 58, 75 years). For all age groups ulnar variance was ranked as the most important extra-articular parameter, step was ranked as the most important intra-articular parameter. Agreed thresholds were the same for all parameters for patients aged 38 and 58. Surgeons would intervene with +2 mm ulnar variance, 10 degrees dorsal tilt, 2mm step and 3mm gap. In patients aged 75 the agreed thresholds were 20 degrees dorsal tilt, 3mm step and 4mm gap, consensus was not achieved for ulnar variance.

Mental capacity, pre-injury functional level and medical co-morbidities were ranked as the most important factors influencing the decision to intervene. Qualitative analysis suggested that pre-injury function was the main theme within these factors. Our findings provide useful advice about which parameters should be measured and radiographic thresholds for intervention. These thresholds may then be modified depending on important patient factors. This information can help guide clinicians with management decisions and reduce variation.

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<![CDATA[Relationship between the extent of aortic replacement and stent graft for acute DeBakey type I aortic dissection and outcomes: Results from a medical center in Taiwan]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c390bbcd5eed0c48491e113

Background

Total arch replacement (TAR) and/or stent graft implantation has been proposed as the primary surgical treatment for acute DeBakey type I aortic dissection. However, the suggestion was based on excellent outcomes of high-volume or aortic centers. How about the real results in most places around the world? The purpose of this study was intended to compared in-hospital mortality, major complications, and aortic remodeling between TAR and/or stent graft implantation in a medical center of northern Taiwan.

Methods

Between January 2008 and August 2017, 156 patients with acute type I aortic dissection underwent surgery at our institution, including proximal aortic replacement only (Group I, n = 72), concomitant TAR (Group II, n = 23), concomitant TAR extended with stent grafting (Group III, n = 45), and proximal aortic replacement with descending aortic stent grafting (Group IV, n = 16).

Results

No significant differences were found in underlying disease and preoperative presentations, including operative risk among four groups. Overall in-hospital mortality was 22.4% (13 patients in Group I, 9 in Group II, 12 in Group III, and 1 in Group IV). New-onset stroke occurred in 15 patients postoperatively (3 patients [5.2%] in Group I, 3 [21.4%] in Group II, and 9 [26.5%] in Group III after excluding 36 patients with documented preoperative cerebrovascular accident or cerebral malperfusion). Root reconstruction and TAR were significantly associated with in-hospital mortality. TAR was significantly associated with surgery-related stroke. Compared to those in Group I, true lumen expansion and false lumen shrinkage during 1-year aortic remodeling were significantly higher in Groups III and IV. Both TAR and descending aorta stent grafting were significantly associated with decreased risk of patent false lumen.

Conclusions

Proximal aortic replacement remains the preferred surgical strategy for acute type I aortic dissection, with lower mortality and neurological complications. Proximal descending aorta stent grafting may benefit aortic remodeling, even without TAR.

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<![CDATA[Are multiple views superior to a single view when teaching hip surgery? A single-blinded randomized controlled trial of technical skill acquisition]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c3fa5e9d5eed0c484caa022

Purpose

Surgical education videos currently all use a single point of view (POV) with the trainee locked onto a fixed viewpoint, which may not deliver sufficient information for complex procedures. We developed a novel multiple POV video system and evaluated its training outcome compared with traditional single POV.

Methods

We filmed a hip resurfacing procedure performed by an expert attending using 8 cameras in theatre. 30 medical students were randomly and equally allocated to learn the procedure using the multiple POV (experiment group [EG]) versus single POV system (control group [CG]). Participants advanced a pin into the femoral head as demonstrated in the video. We measured the drilling trajectories and compared it with pre-operative plan to evaluate distance of the pin insertion and angular deviations. Two orthopedic attendings expertly evaluated the participants’ performance using a modified global rating scale (GRS). There was a pre-video knowledge test that was repeated post-simulation alongside a Likert-scale questionnaire.

Results

The angular deviation of the pin in EG was significantly less by 29% compared to CG (p = 0.037), with no significant difference in the entry point’s distance between groups (p = 0.204). The GRS scores for EG were 3.5% higher than CG (p = 0.046). There was a 32% higher overall knowledge test score (p<0.001) and 21% improved Likert-scale questionnaire score (p = 0.002) after video-learning in EG than CG, albeit no significant difference in the knowledge test score before video-learning (p = 0.721).

Conclusion

The novel multiple POV provided significant objective and subjective advantages over single POV for acquisition of technical skills in hip surgery.

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<![CDATA[Surgeons are deeply affected when patients are diagnosed with prosthetic joint infection]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c08422ed5eed0c484fcc16c

Knee replacement is a common preference sensitive quality-of-life procedure that can reduce pain and improve function for people with advanced knee arthritis. While most patients improve, knee replacement surgery has the potential for serious complications. Prosthetic knee infection is an uncommon but serious complication. This study explored the impact of cases of prosthetic knee infection on surgeons’ personal and professional wellbeing. Qualitative telephone interviews were conducted with consultant orthopaedic surgeons who treated patients for prosthetic knee infection in one of six high-volume NHS orthopaedic departments. Data was audio-recorded, transcribed and analysed thematically. Eleven surgeons took part. Analysis identified three overarching themes: (i) At some point infection is inevitable but surgeons still feel accountable; (ii) A profound emotional impact and (iii) Supporting each other. The occurrence of prosthetic joint infection has a significant emotional impact on surgeons who report a collective sense of devastation and personal ownership, even though prosthetic joint infection cannot be fully controlled for. Surgeons stressed the importance of openly discussing the management of prosthetic joint infection with a supportive multidisciplinary team and this has implications for the ways in which orthopaedic surgeons may be best supported to manage this complication. This article also acknowledges that surgeons are not alone in experiencing personal impact when patients have infection.

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<![CDATA[Deep-learning-assisted diagnosis for knee magnetic resonance imaging: Development and retrospective validation of MRNet]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c06f02bd5eed0c484c6d281

Background

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the knee is the preferred method for diagnosing knee injuries. However, interpretation of knee MRI is time-intensive and subject to diagnostic error and variability. An automated system for interpreting knee MRI could prioritize high-risk patients and assist clinicians in making diagnoses. Deep learning methods, in being able to automatically learn layers of features, are well suited for modeling the complex relationships between medical images and their interpretations. In this study we developed a deep learning model for detecting general abnormalities and specific diagnoses (anterior cruciate ligament [ACL] tears and meniscal tears) on knee MRI exams. We then measured the effect of providing the model’s predictions to clinical experts during interpretation.

Methods and findings

Our dataset consisted of 1,370 knee MRI exams performed at Stanford University Medical Center between January 1, 2001, and December 31, 2012 (mean age 38.0 years; 569 [41.5%] female patients). The majority vote of 3 musculoskeletal radiologists established reference standard labels on an internal validation set of 120 exams. We developed MRNet, a convolutional neural network for classifying MRI series and combined predictions from 3 series per exam using logistic regression. In detecting abnormalities, ACL tears, and meniscal tears, this model achieved area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) values of 0.937 (95% CI 0.895, 0.980), 0.965 (95% CI 0.938, 0.993), and 0.847 (95% CI 0.780, 0.914), respectively, on the internal validation set. We also obtained a public dataset of 917 exams with sagittal T1-weighted series and labels for ACL injury from Clinical Hospital Centre Rijeka, Croatia. On the external validation set of 183 exams, the MRNet trained on Stanford sagittal T2-weighted series achieved an AUC of 0.824 (95% CI 0.757, 0.892) in the detection of ACL injuries with no additional training, while an MRNet trained on the rest of the external data achieved an AUC of 0.911 (95% CI 0.864, 0.958). We additionally measured the specificity, sensitivity, and accuracy of 9 clinical experts (7 board-certified general radiologists and 2 orthopedic surgeons) on the internal validation set both with and without model assistance. Using a 2-sided Pearson’s chi-squared test with adjustment for multiple comparisons, we found no significant differences between the performance of the model and that of unassisted general radiologists in detecting abnormalities. General radiologists achieved significantly higher sensitivity in detecting ACL tears (p-value = 0.002; q-value = 0.019) and significantly higher specificity in detecting meniscal tears (p-value = 0.003; q-value = 0.019). Using a 1-tailed t test on the change in performance metrics, we found that providing model predictions significantly increased clinical experts’ specificity in identifying ACL tears (p-value < 0.001; q-value = 0.006). The primary limitations of our study include lack of surgical ground truth and the small size of the panel of clinical experts.

Conclusions

Our deep learning model can rapidly generate accurate clinical pathology classifications of knee MRI exams from both internal and external datasets. Moreover, our results support the assertion that deep learning models can improve the performance of clinical experts during medical imaging interpretation. Further research is needed to validate the model prospectively and to determine its utility in the clinical setting.

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<![CDATA[Surgical outcomes of unilateral recession and resection in intermittent exotropia according to forced duction test results]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b694666463d7e3867f4ad0a

Purpose

To compare the surgical outcomes of unilateral lateral rectus recession–medial rectus resection (RR) according to forced duction test (FDT) results with those of conventional RR in intermittent exotropia.

Methods

A total of 129 patients aged 3 to 10 years with intermittent exotropia who underwent RR between 2006 and 2011 were included. The operator compared the tension of the lateral rectus (LR) between both eyes. When FDT results were asymmetric, RR was performed on the eye with more LR tension. RR was performed on the nondominant eye when FDT results were symmetric. Patients were divided into two groups; one group (n = 64) underwent RR without FDT (RR group) and the other group (n = 65) underwent RR considering FDT results (RR-FDT group). Success, recurrence, reoperation rates and cumulative probabilities of success were evaluated in both groups. Surgical outcome was considered satisfactory if the distance deviation in the primary position was between ≤ 10 PD of exophoria/tropia and ≤ 10 PD of esophoria/tropia. Recurrence was defined as an alignment of > 10 PD of exophoria/tropia, and overcorrection defined as > 10 PD of esophoria/tropia. Reoperation for recurrence was recommended for constant exotropia ≥ 14 PD at distance.

Results

The total follow-up periods were 4.4±2.3 years in the RR group, and 3.9±2.0 years in the RR-FDT group (P = .310). In the RR group, 50 patients (78.1%) were successful, 13 patients (20.3%) had recurrence, and 1 patient (1.6%) had overcorrection at 2 years after surgery. In the RR-FDT group, 58 patients (89.2%) were successful, 5 patients (7.7%) had recurrence, and 2 patients (3.1%) were overcorrected. The recurrence rate at 2 years after operation was significantly lower in the RR-FDT group (P = .045). Recurrence rates during the follow-up period were 5.6% per person-year in the RR group and 2.7% per person-year in the RR-FDT group. Reoperation for recurrence was performed on 7 patients (10.8%) in the RR-FDT group and 16 patients (25.0%) in the RR group (P = .035). Postoperative sensory outcomes were similar between both groups.

Conclusions

The forced duction test was useful in reducing the risk of recurrence at 2 years after surgery when RR was performed on the eye with more passive tension of the LR. Intraoperative FDT may be considered to choose which eye to operate on when planning RR in intermittent exotropia.

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<![CDATA[Objective assessment of flap volume changes and aesthetic results after adjuvant radiation therapy in patients undergoing immediate autologous breast reconstruction]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b0e53c2463d7e030321d29f

Background

The use of immediate breast reconstruction and adjuvant radiation therapy is increasing in breast cancer patients. This study aimed to analyze the aesthetic outcome and changes in flap volume in patients with breast cancer undergoing radiation therapy of the surgical site after immediate autologous tissue reconstruction.

Methods

Immediate abdominal free flap breast reconstruction following unilateral mastectomy was performed in 42 patients; 21 patients received adjuvant radiation (study group) and 21 patients did not (control group). To compare flap volume, three-dimensional computed tomography (CT) was performed before and after radiation. Also, aesthetic analysis was performed in both groups to evaluate shape changes.

Results

There was a 12.3% flap volume reduction after the completion of radiation in the experimental group that was significantly greater than the 2.6% volume reduction observed in the non-radiation group (P<0.01). There was no significant difference in the short- and long-term aesthetic results between the groups.

Conclusions

When performing immediate autologous breast reconstruction, 14% volume overcorrection is recommended for patients in whom adjuvant radiation therapy is anticipated to improve aesthetic outcomes.

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<![CDATA[Evaluation of stiffness feedback for hard nodule identification on a phantom silicone model]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db4fab0ee8fa60bdbc2f

Haptic information in robotic surgery can significantly improve clinical outcomes and help detect hard soft-tissue inclusions that indicate potential abnormalities. Visual representation of tissue stiffness information is a cost-effective technique. Meanwhile, direct force feedback, although considerably more expensive than visual representation, is an intuitive method of conveying information regarding tissue stiffness to surgeons. In this study, real-time visual stiffness feedback by sliding indentation palpation is proposed, validated, and compared with force feedback involving human subjects. In an experimental tele-manipulation environment, a dynamically updated color map depicting the stiffness of probed soft tissue is presented via a graphical interface. The force feedback is provided, aided by a master haptic device. The haptic device uses data acquired from an F/T sensor attached to the end-effector of a tele-manipulated robot. Hard nodule detection performance is evaluated for 2 modes (force feedback and visual stiffness feedback) of stiffness feedback on an artificial organ containing buried stiff nodules. From this artificial organ, a virtual-environment tissue model is generated based on sliding indentation measurements. Employing this virtual-environment tissue model, we compare the performance of human participants in distinguishing differently sized hard nodules by force feedback and visual stiffness feedback. Results indicate that the proposed distributed visual representation of tissue stiffness can be used effectively for hard nodule identification. The representation can also be used as a sufficient substitute for force feedback in tissue palpation.

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<![CDATA[Randomized blinded trial of standardized written patient information before total knee arthroplasty]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db5fab0ee8fa60be143a

Background

The effect of patient education before total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is controversial. No consensus exists about the optimal content of educational interventions. In a previous study, we developed and validated an educational booklet on the peri-TKA management of knee osteoarthritis.

Purposes

Our primary purpose was to evaluate the impact of the educational booklet on knowledge among patients awaiting TKA.

Patients and methods

This randomized controlled single-blind trial evaluated standard information by the surgeon with or without delivery of the educational booklet 4–6 weeks before primary noncomplex TKA in patients aged 55–75 years with incapacitating knee osteoarthritis. Patients were enrolled at a French surgical center between June 2011 and January 2012. A patient knowledge score was determined at baseline, on the day before TKA, and 3–6 weeks after TKA, using a self-administered questionnaire developed for our previous study. The assessor was blinded to group assignment.

Results

Of 44 eligible patients, 42 were randomized, 22 to the intervention and 20 to the control group, all of whom were included in the analysis. The groups were comparable at baseline. The intervention was associated with significantly better patient knowledge scores.

Conclusions

An educational booklet improves knowledge among patients awaiting TKA. A study assessing the impact of the booklet combined with a exercise program would be helpful.

Level of evidence

Level I, randomized controlled double-blind trial; see S1 CONSORT Checklist.

Trial registration

clinicaltrials.gov #NCT01747759

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<![CDATA[A Patient Registry to Improve Patient Safety: Recording General Neurosurgery Complications]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db0aab0ee8fa60bc9e89

Background

To improve the transparency of the local health care system, treatment cost was recently referenced to disease related groups. Treatment quality must be legally documented in a patient registry, in particular for the highly specialized treatments provided by neurosurgery departments.

Methods

In 2013 we have installed a patient registry focused on cranial neurosurgery. Surgeries are characterized by indication, treatment, location and other specific neurosurgical parameters. Preoperative state and postoperative outcome are recorded prospectively using neurological and sociological scales. Complications are graded by their severity in a therapy-oriented complication score system (Clavien-Dindo-Grading system, CDG). Results are presented at the monthly clinical staff meeting.

Results

Data acquisition compatible with the clinic workflow permitted to include all eligible patients into the registry. Until December 2015, we have registered 2880 patients that were treated in 3959 surgeries and 8528 consultations. Since the registry is fully operational (August 2014), we have registered 325 complications on 1341 patient discharge forms (24%). In 64% of these complications, no or only pharmacological treatment was required. At discharge, there was a clear correlation of the severity of the complication and the Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS, ρ = -0.3, slope -6 KPS percentage points per increment of CDG) and the length of stay (ρ = 0.4, slope 1.5 days per increment of CDG).

Conclusions

While the therapy-oriented complication scores correlate reasonably well with outcome and length of stay, they do not account for new deficits that cannot be treated. Outcome grading and complication severity grading thus serve a complimentary purpose. Overall, the registry serves to streamline and to complete information flow in the clinic, to identify complication rates and trends early for the internal quality monitoring and communication with patients. Conversely, the registry influences clinical practice in that it demands rigorous documentation and standard operating procedures.

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<![CDATA[The Oropharyngeal Airway in Young Adults with Skeletal Class II and Class III Deformities: A 3-D Morphometric Analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dab5ab0ee8fa60bac959

Objectives

1) To determine the accuracy and reliability of an automated anthropometric measurement software for the oropharyngeal airway and 2) To compare the anthropometric dimensions of the oropharyngeal airway in skeletal class II and III deformity patients.

Methods

Cone-beam CT (CBCT) scans of 62 patients with skeletal class II or III deformities were used for this study. Volumetric, linear and surface area measurements retroglossal (RG) and retropalatal (RP) compartments of the oropharyngeal airway was measured with the 3dMDVultus software. Accuracy of automated anthropometric pharyngeal airway measurements was assessed using an airway phantom.

Results

The software was found to be reasonably accurate for measuring dimensions of air passages. The total oropharyngeal volume was significantly greater in the skeletal class III deformity group (16.7 ± 9.04 mm3) compared with class II subjects (11.87 ± 4.01 mm3). The average surface area of both the RG and RP compartments were significantly larger in the class III deformity group. The most constricted area in the RG and RP airway was significantly larger in individuals with skeletal class III deformity. The anterior-posterior (AP) length of this constriction was significantly greater in skeletal class III individuals in both compartments, whereas the width of the constriction was not significantly different between the two groups in both compartments. The RP compartment was larger but less uniform than the RG compartment in both skeletal deformities.

Conclusion

Significant differences were observed in morphological characteristics of the oropharyngeal airway in individuals with skeletal class II and III deformities. This information may be valuable for surgeons in orthognathic treatment planning, especially for mandibular setback surgery that might compromise the oropharyngeal patency.

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<![CDATA[Increasing Capacity for the Treatment of Common Musculoskeletal Problems: A Non-Inferiority RCT and Economic Analysis of Corticosteroid Injection for Shoulder Pain Comparing a Physiotherapist and Orthopaedic Surgeon]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dadfab0ee8fa60bbb412

Background

Role substitution is a strategy employed to assist health services manage the growing demand for musculoskeletal care. Corticosteroid injection is a common treatment in this population but the efficacy of its prescription and delivery by physiotherapists has not been established against orthopaedic standards. This paper investigates whether corticosteroid injection given by a physiotherapist for shoulder pain is as clinically and cost effective as that from an orthopaedic surgeon.

Methods

A double blind non-inferiority randomized controlled trial was conducted in an Australian public hospital orthopaedic outpatient service, from January 2013 to June 2014. Adults with a General Practitioner referral to Orthopaedics for shoulder pain received subacromial corticosteroid and local anaesthetic injection prescribed and delivered independently by a physiotherapist or a consultant orthopaedic surgeon. The main outcome measure was total Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI) score at baseline, six and 12 weeks, applying a non-inferiority margin of 15 points. Secondary outcomes tested for superiority included pain, shoulder movement, perceived improvement, adverse events, satisfaction, quality of life and costs.

Results

278 participants were independently assessed by the physiotherapist and the orthopaedic surgeon, with 64 randomised (physiotherapist 33, orthopaedic surgeon 31). There were no significant differences in baseline characteristics between groups. Non-inferiority of injection by the physiotherapist was declared from total SPADI scores at 6 and 12 weeks (upper limit of the 95% one-sided confidence interval 13.34 and 7.17 at 6 and 12 weeks, respectively). There were no statistically significant differences between groups on any outcome measures at 6 or 12 weeks. From the perspective of the health funder, the physiotherapist was less expensive.

Conclusions

Corticosteroid injection for shoulder pain, provided by a suitably qualified physiotherapist is at least as clinically effective, and less expensive, compared with similar care delivered by an orthopaedic surgeon. Policy makers and service providers should consider implementing this model of care.

Trial Registration

Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry 12612000532808

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<![CDATA[Positioning Accuracy in Otosurgery Measured with Optical Tracking]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9e5ab0ee8fa60b6b191

Objectives

To assess positioning accuracy in otosurgery and to test the impact of the two-handed instrument holding technique and the instrument support technique on surgical precision. To test an otologic training model with optical tracking.

Study Design

In total, 14 ENT surgeons in the same department with different levels of surgical experience performed static and dynamic tasks with otologic microinstruments under simulated otosurgical conditions.

Methods

Tip motion of the microinstrument was registered in three dimensions by optical tracking during 10 different tasks simulating surgical steps such as prosthesis crimping and dissection of the middle ear using formalin-fixed temporal bone. Instrument marker trajectories were compared within groups of experienced and less experienced surgeons performing uncompensated or compensated exercises.

Results

Experienced surgeons have significantly better positioning accuracy than novice ear surgeons in terms of mean displacement values of marker trajectories. The instrument support and the two-handed instrument holding techniques significantly reduce surgeons’ tremor. The laboratory set-up presented in this study provides precise feedback for otosurgeons about their surgical skills and proved to be a useful device for otosurgical training.

Conclusions

Simple tremor compensation techniques may offer trainees the potential to improve their positioning accuracy to the level of more experienced surgeons. Training in an experimental otologic environment with optical tracking may aid acquisition of technical skills in middle ear surgery and potentially shorten the learning curve. Thus, simulated exercises of surgical steps should be integrated into the training of otosurgeons.

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<![CDATA[Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Surgical Zipper Technique versus Intracutaneous Sutures for the Closing of Surgical Incision]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db02ab0ee8fa60bc7009

Background

It is controversial whether surgical zipper technique (SZT), a non-invasive method of surgical wound closure, achieves a better outcome of incision healing than intracutaneous sutures (IS) in the surgery. This meta-analysis was performed to systematically analyze whether surgical zipper is superior to suture material for the incision closure.

Methods

Databases and reference lists were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing SZT with IS for the incision closure.

Results

Four RCTs with 678 patients were identified and analyzed. Compared with IS, SZT achieved similar incidence of postoperative complications, less time for incision closure, less cost of both surgeons’ time and operating room time, no need for removing sutures and more comfort for the patients. Besides, SZT achieved perfect aesthetic results in various types of incisions with the exception of those with substantial curvatures, those with secretions, in obese patients or those under high tension.

Conclusion

The non-invasive zipper technique may be a more attractive option of incision closure in a wide spectrum of surgical areas.

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<![CDATA[Enhanced Zone II Flexor Tendon Repair through a New Half Hitch Loop Suture Configuration]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da96ab0ee8fa60ba1c30

This study evaluated the impact of a new half hitch loop suture configuration on flexor tendon repair mechanics. Cadaver canine flexor digitorum profundus tendons were repaired with 4- or 8-strands, 4–0 or 3–0 suture, with and without half hitch loops. An additional group underwent repair with half hitch loops but without the terminal knot. Half hitch loops improved the strength of 8-strand repairs by 21% when 4–0, and 33% when 3–0 suture was used, and caused a shift in failure mode from suture pullout to suture breakage. 8-strand repairs with half hitch loops but without a terminal knot produced equivalent mechanical properties to those without half hitch loops but with a terminal knot. 4-strand repairs were limited by the strength of the suture in all groups and, as a result, the presence of half hitch loops did not alter the mechanical properties. Overall, half hitch loops improved repair mechanics, allowing failure strength to reach the full capability of suture strength. Improving the mechanical properties of flexor tendon repair with half hitch loops has the potential to reduce the postoperative risk of gap formation and catastrophic rupture in the early postoperative period.

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