ResearchPad - surgical-resection https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Survival of glioblastoma treated with a moderately escalated radiation dose—Results of a retrospective analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14700 Glioblastoma (GBM) has the highest fatality rate among primary malignant brain tumors and typically tends to recur locally just adjacent to the original tumor site following surgical resection and adjuvant radiotherapy. We conducted a study to evaluate the survival outcomes between a standard dose (≤ 60 Gy) and moderate radiation dose escalation (>60 Gy), and to identify prognostic factors for GBM. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of primary GBM patients diagnosed between 2005 and 2016 in two referral hospitals in Taiwan. They were identified from the cancer registry database and followed up from the date of diagnosis to October 2018. The progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were compared between the two dose groups, and independent factors for survival were analyzed through Cox proportional hazard model. We also affirmed the results using Cox regression with least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) approach. From our cancer registry database, 142 GBM patients were identified, and 84 of them fit the inclusion criteria. Of the 84 patients, 52 (62%) were males. The radiation dose ranged from 50.0 Gy to 66.6 Gy, but their treatment volumes were similar to the others. Fifteen (18%) patients received an escalated dose boost >60.0 Gy. The escalated group had a longer median PFS (15.4 vs. 7.9 months, p = 0.01 for log-rank test), and a longer median OS was also longer in the escalation group (33.8 vs. 12.5 months, p <0.001) than the reference group. Following a multivariate analysis, the escalated dose was identified as a significant predictor for good prognosis (PFS: hazard ratio [HR] = 0.48, 95% confidence interval [95%CI]: 0.23–0.98; OS: HR = 0.40, 95%CI: 0.21–0.78). Using the LASSO approach, we found age > 70 (HR = 1.55), diagnosis after 2010 (HR = 1.42), and a larger radiation volume (≥ 250ml; HR = 0.81) were predictors of PFS. The escalated dose (HR = 0.47) and a larger radiation volume (HR = 0.76) were identified as predictors for better OS. Following detailed statistical analysis, a moderate radiation dose escalation (> 60 Gy) was found as an independent factor affecting OS in GBM patients. In conclusion, a moderate radiation dose escalation (> 60 Gy) was an independent predictor for longer OS in GBM patients. However, prospective studies including more patients with more information, such as molecular markers and completeness of resection, are needed to confirm our findings.

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<![CDATA[Role of intraoperative oliguria in risk stratification for postoperative acute kidney injury in patients undergoing colorectal surgery with an enhanced recovery protocol: A propensity score matching analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N90678846-11a4-456d-84dc-7e3677d2f27e

Background

The enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) protocol for colorectal cancer resection recommends balanced perioperative fluid therapy. According to recent guidelines, zero-balance fluid therapy is recommended in low-risk patients, and immediate correction of low urine output during surgery is discouraged. However, several reports have indicated an association of intraoperative oliguria with postoperative acute kidney injury (AKI). We investigated the impact of intraoperative oliguria in the colorectal ERAS setting on the incidence of postoperative AKI.

Patients and methods

From January 2017 to August 2019, a total of 453 patients underwent laparoscopic colorectal cancer resection with the ERAS protocol. Among them, 125 patients met the criteria for oliguria and were propensity score (PS) matched to 328 patients without intraoperative oliguria. After PS matching had been performed, 125 patients from each group were selected and the incidences of AKI were compared between the two groups. Postoperative kidney function and surgical outcomes were also evaluated.

Results

The incidence of AKI was significantly higher in the intraoperative oliguria group than in the non-intraoperative oliguria group (26.4% vs. 11.2%, respectively, P = 0.002). Also, the eGFR reduction on postoperative day 0 was significantly greater in the intraoperative oliguria than non-intraoperative oliguria group (−9.02 vs. −1.24 mL/min/1.73 m2 respectively, P < 0.001). In addition, the surgical complication rate was higher in the intraoperative oliguria group than in the non-intraoperative oliguria group (18.4% vs. 9.6%, respectively, P = 0.045).

Conclusions

Despite the proven benefits of perioperative care with the ERAS protocol, caution is required in patients with intraoperative oliguria to prevent postoperative AKI. Further studies regarding appropriate management of intraoperative oliguria in association with long-term prognosis are needed in the colorectal ERAS setting.

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<![CDATA[Long-term visual acuity in patients with optic pathway glioma treated during childhood with up-front BB-SFOP chemotherapy—Analysis of a French pediatric historical cohort]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c8c1959d5eed0c484b4d486

Background

Visual outcome is one of the main issues in the treatment of optic pathway glioma in childhood. Although the prognostic factors of low vision have been discussed extensively, no reliable indicators for visual loss exist. Therefore, we aimed to define initial and evolving factors associated with long-term vision loss.

Methods

We conducted a multicenter historical cohort study of children treated in France with up-front BB-SFOP chemotherapy between 1990 and 2004. Visual acuity performed at the long-term follow-up visit or within 6 months prior was analyzed. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the effects of clinical and radiological factors on long-term visual outcome.

Findings

Of the 180 patients in the cohort, long-term visual acuity data were available for 132 (73.3%) patients (median follow-up: 14.2 years; range: 6.1–25.6). At the last follow-up, 61/132 patients (46.2%) had impaired vision, and 35 of these patients (57.3%) were partially sighted or blind. Multivariate analysis showed that factors associated with a worse prognosis for long-term visual acuity were an age at diagnosis of < 1 year (OR 3.5 [95% CI: 1.1–11.2], p = 0.04), tumor extent (OR 4.7 [95% CI: 1.2–19.9], p = 0.03), intracranial hypertension requiring one or more surgical procedures (OR 5.6 [95% CI: 1.8–18.4], p = 0.003), and the need for additional treatment after initial BB-SFOP chemotherapy (OR 3.5 [95% CI: 1.1–11.9], p = 0.04). NF1 status did not appear as a prognostic factor, but in non-NF1 patients, a decrease in tumor volume with contrast enhancement after BB-SFOP chemotherapy was directly associated with a better visual prognosis (OR 0.8 [95% CI: 0.8–0.9], p = 0.04).

Interpretation

Our study confirms that a large proportion of children with optic pathway glioma have poor long-term outcomes of visual acuity. These data suggest new prognostic factors for visual acuity, but these results need to be confirmed further by large- and international-scale studies.

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<![CDATA[Controlling seizure propagation in large-scale brain networks]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c7d95e6d5eed0c484734f24

Information transmission in the human brain is a fundamentally dynamic network process. In partial epilepsy, this process is perturbed and highly synchronous seizures originate in a local network, the so-called epileptogenic zone (EZ), before recruiting other close or distant brain regions. We studied patient-specific brain network models of 15 drug-resistant epilepsy patients with implanted stereotactic electroencephalography (SEEG) electrodes. Each personalized brain model was derived from structural data of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion tensor weighted imaging (DTI), comprising 88 nodes equipped with region specific neural mass models capable of demonstrating a range of epileptiform discharges. Each patient’s virtual brain was further personalized through the integration of the clinically hypothesized EZ. Subsequent simulations and connectivity modulations were performed and uncovered a finite repertoire of seizure propagation patterns. Across patients, we found that (i) patient-specific network connectivity is predictive for the subsequent seizure propagation pattern; (ii) seizure propagation is characterized by a systematic sequence of brain states; (iii) propagation can be controlled by an optimal intervention on the connectivity matrix; (iv) the degree of invasiveness can be significantly reduced via the proposed seizure control as compared to traditional resective surgery. To stop seizures, neurosurgeons typically resect the EZ completely. We showed that stability analysis of the network dynamics, employing structural and dynamical information, estimates reliably the spatiotemporal properties of seizure propagation. This suggests novel less invasive paradigms of surgical interventions to treat and manage partial epilepsy.

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<![CDATA[The usefulness of wire-guided endoscopic snare papillectomy for tumors of the major duodenal papilla]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5217dfd5eed0c484794a8a

Objectives

Although endoscopic papillectomy is useful for treating papillary tumors, it is associated with a high rate of complications including pancreatitis; therefore, safer treatment options are needed. We examined the utility of wire-guided endoscopic papillectomy by comparing the pancreatic duct stenting and pancreatitis rates before and after wire-guided endoscopic papillectomy was introduced at our institution.

Methods

We retrospectively examined the data from 16 consecutive patients who underwent conventional endoscopic papillectomy between November 1995 and July 2005 and the data from 33 patients in whom wire-guided endoscopic papillectomy was first attempted at our institution between August 2005 and April 2017. We compared the pancreatic duct stenting and pancreatitis rates between the two groups.

Results

Of the 33 patients in whom wire-guided endoscopic papillectomy was first attempted, the procedure was completed in 21. Pancreatic duct stenting was possible in 30 of the 33 patients in whom wire-guided endoscopic papillectomy was attempted (91%), and this rate was significantly higher than that before the introduction of wire-guided endoscopic papillectomy (68.8%). The incidence of pancreatitis before the introduction of wire-guided endoscopic papillectomy was 12.5%, but after August 2005, the incidence was reduced by half to 6.1%, which includes those patients in whom wire-guided endoscopic papillectomy could not be completed.

Conclusions

Although wire-guided endoscopic papillectomy cannot be completed in some patients, we believe that this method shows some potential for reducing the total incidence of post-endoscopic papillectomy pancreatitis owing to more successful pancreatic duct stenting.

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<![CDATA[A new formula to calculate the resection limit in hepatectomy based on Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c644885d5eed0c484c2e84f

Background and aim

Dynamic magnetic resonance imaging with gadolinium-ethoxybenzyl-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (EOB-MRI) can be used not only to detect liver tumors but also to estimate liver function. The aim of this study was to establish a new EOB-MRI-based formula to determine the resection limit in patients undergoing hepatectomy.

Methods

Twenty-eight patients with a normal liver (NL group) and five with an unresectable cirrhotic liver (UL group) who underwent EOB-MRI were included. Standardized liver function (SLF) was calculated based on the signal intensity (SI), the volume of each subsegment (S1–S8), and body surface area. A formula defining the resection limit was devised based on the difference in the SLF values of patients in the NL and UL groups. The formula was validated in 50 patients who underwent EOB-MRI and hepatectomy.

Results

The average SLF value in the NL and UL groups was 2038 and 962 FV/m2, respectively. The difference (1076 FV/m2) was consistent with a 70% in resection volume. Thus, the resection limit for hepatectomy was calculated as a proportion of 70%: 70×(SLF−962)/1076 (%). The one patient who underwent hepatectomy over the resection limit died due to liver failure. In other 49 patients, in whom the resection volume was less than the resection limit, procedures were safely performed.

Conclusions

Our formula for resection limit based on EOB-MRI can improve the safety of hepatectomy.

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<![CDATA[A novel radiological classification system for cerebral gliomas: The Brain-Grid]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c536b82d5eed0c484a48bc8

Purpose

Standard radiological/topographical classifications of gliomas often do not reflect the real extension of the tumor within the lobar-cortical anatomy. Furthermore, these systems do not provide information on the relationship between tumor growth and the subcortical white matter architecture. We propose the use of an anatomically standardized grid system (the Brain-Grid) to merge serial morphological magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans with a representative tractographic atlas. Two illustrative cases are presented to show the potential advantages of this classification system.

Methods

MRI scans of 39 patients (WHO grade II and III gliomas) were analyzed with a standardized grid created by intersecting longitudinal lines on the axial, sagittal, and coronal planes. The anatomical landmarks were chosen from an average brain, spatially normalized to the Montreal Neurological Institute (MNI) space and the Talairach space. Major white matter pathways were reconstructed with a deterministic tracking algorithm on a reference atlas and analyzed using the Brain-Grid system.

Results

In all, 48 brain grid voxels (areas defined by 3 coordinates, axial (A), coronal (C), sagittal (S) and numbers from 1 to 4) were delineated in each MRI sequence and on the tractographic atlas. The number of grid voxels infiltrated was consistent, also in the MNI space. The sub-cortical insula/basal ganglia (A3-C2-S2) and the fronto-insular region (A3-C2-S1) were most frequently involved. The inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, anterior thalamic radiation, uncinate fasciculus, and external capsule were the most frequently associated pathways in both hemispheres.

Conclusions

The Brain-Grid based classification system provides an accurate observational tool in all patients with suspected gliomas, based on the comparison of grid voxels on a morphological MRI and segmented white matter atlas. Important biological information on tumor kinetics including extension, speed, and preferential direction of progression can be observed and even predicted with this system. This novel classification can easily be applied to both prospective and retrospective cohorts of patients and increase our comprehension of glioma behavior.

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<![CDATA[Multidisciplinary approach is associated with improved survival of hepatocellular carcinoma patients]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c46651bd5eed0c484517768

Background

Given the complexity of managing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), a multidisciplinary approach (MDT) is recommended to optimize management of HCC patients. However, evidence suggesting that MDT improves patient outcome is limited.

Methods

We performed a retrospective cohort study of all patients newly-diagnosed with HCC between 2005 and 2013 (n = 6,619). The overall survival (OS) rates between the patients who were and were not managed via MDT were compared in the entire cohort (n = 6,619), and in the exactly matched cohort (n = 1,396).

Results

In the entire cohort, the 5-year survival rate was significantly higher in the patients who were managed via MDT compared to that of the patients who were not (71.2% vs. 49.4%, P < 0.001), with an adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of 0.47 (95% confidence interval [CI]; 0.41–0.53). In the exactly matched cohort, the 5-year survival rate was higher in patients who were managed via MDT (71.4% vs. 58.7%, P < 0.001; HR [95% CI] = 0.67 [0.56–0.80]). The survival benefit of MDT management was observed in most pre-defined subgroups, and was especially significant in patients with poor liver function (ALBI grade 2 or 3), intermediate or advanced tumor stage (BCLC stage B or C), or high alphafetoprotein levels (≥200 ng/ml).

Conclusion

MDT management was associated with improved overall survival in HCC patients, indicating that MDT management can be a valuable option to improve outcome of HCC patients. This warrants prospective evaluations.

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<![CDATA[Serum levels of miR-29, miR-122, miR-155 and miR-192 are elevated in patients with cholangiocarcinoma]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c605a57d5eed0c4847cced3

Objectives

Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) represents the second most common primary hepatic malignancy. Despite tremendous research activities, the prognosis for the majority of patients is still poor. Only in case of early diagnosis, liver resection might potentially lead to long-term survival. However, it is still unclear which patients benefit most from extensive liver surgery, highlighting the need for new diagnostic and prognostic stratification strategies.

Methods

Serum concentrations of a 4 miRNA panel (miR-122, miR-192, miR-29b and miR-155) were analyzed using semi-quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR in serum samples from 94 patients with cholangiocarcinoma undergoing tumour resection and 40 healthy controls. Results were correlated with clinical data.

Results

Serum concentrations of miR-122, miR-192, miR-29b and miR-155 were significantly elevated in patients with CCA compared to healthy controls or patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis without malignant transformation. Although preoperative levels of these miRNAs were unsuitable as a prognostic marker of survival, a strong postoperative decline of miR-122 serum levels was significantly associated with a favorable patients’ prognosis.

Conclusions

Analysis of circulating miRNAs represents a promising tool for the diagnosis of even early stage CCA. A postoperative decline in miRNA serum concentrations might be indicative for a favorable patients’ outcome and helpful to identify patients with a good prognosis after extended liver surgery.

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<![CDATA[Clinical utility of MRI in the decision-making process before radical prostatectomy: Systematic review and meta-analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c3d0118d5eed0c484038457

Context

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is currently the most accurate imaging modality to assess local prostate cancer stage. Despite a growing body of evidence, incorporation of MRI images into decision-making process concerning surgical template of radical prostatectomy, is complex and still poorly understood.

Objective

We sought to determine the value of MRI in preoperative planning before radical prostatectomy.

Materials and methods

Systematic search through electronic PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases from 2000 up to April 2018 was performed. Only studies that used preoperative MRI in decision-making process regarding extension of resection in patients with prostate cancer, in whom radical prostatectomy was an initial form of treatment were included into analysis. Their quality was scored by Risk Of Bias In Non-Randomized Studies of Interventions system. Meta-analysis was performed to calculate the weighted summary proportion under the fixed or random effects model as appropriate and pooled effects were depicted on forest plots.

Results

The results showed that the preoperative MRI led to the modification of initial surgical template in one third of cases (35%). This occurred increasingly with the rising prostate cancer-risk category: 28%, 33%, 52% in low-, intermediate- and high-risk group, respectively. Modification of neurovascular bundle-sparing surgery based on MRI appeared to have no impact on the positive surgical margin rate. The decision based on MRI was correct on average in 77% of cases and differed across prostate cancer-risk categories: 63%, 75% and 91% in low-, intermediate- and high-risk group, accordingly.

Conclusions

In summary, MRI has a considerable impact on the decision-making process regarding the extent of resection during radical prostatectomy. Adaptation of MRI images by operating surgeons has at worst no significant impact on surgical margin status, however its ability to decrease the positive surgical margin rates remains unconfirmed.

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<![CDATA[Post-chemoradiotherapy FDG PET with qualitative interpretation criteria for outcome stratification in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c3d0175d5eed0c48403b89e

Objectives

Post-chemoradiotherapy (CRT) FDG PET is a useful prognosticator of esophageal cancer. However, debate on the diverse criteria of previous publications preclude worldwide multicenter comparisons, and even a universal practice guide. We aimed to validate a simple qualitative interpretation criterion of post-CRT FDG PET for outcome stratification and compare it with other criteria.

Methods

The post-CRT FDG PET of 114 patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) were independently interpreted using a qualitative 4-point scale (Qual4PS) that identified focal esophageal FDG uptake greater than liver uptake as residual tumor. Cohen’s κ coefficient (κ) was used to measure interobserver agreement of Qual4PS. The Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were used for survival analysis. Other criteria included a different qualitative approach (QualBK), maximal standardized uptake values (SUVmax3.4, SUVmax2.5), relative change of SUVmax between pre- and post-CRT FDG PET (ΔSUVmax), mean standardized uptake values (SUVmean), metabolic volume (MV) and total lesion glycolysis (TLG).

Results

Overall interobserver agreement on the Qual4PS criterion was excellent (κ: 0.95). Except the QualBK, SUVmax2.5, and TLG, all the other criteria were significant predictors for overall survival (OS). Multivariable analysis showed only Qual4PS (HR: 15.41; P = 0.005) and AJCC stage (HR: 2.47; P = 0.007) were significant independent variables. The 2-year OS rates of Qual4PS(‒) patients undergoing CRT alone (68.4%) and patients undergoing trimodality therapy (62.5%) were not significant different, but the 2-year OS rates of Qual4PS(+) patients undergoing CRT alone (10.0%) were significantly lower than in patients undergoing trimodality therapy (42.1%).

Conclusions

The Qual4PS criterion is reproducible for assessing the response of ESCC to CRT, and valuable for predicting survival. It may add value to response-adapted treatment for ESCC patients, and help to decide whether surgery is warranted after CRT.

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<![CDATA[Cost-effectiveness of mini-laparotomy in patients with colorectal cancers: A propensity scoring matching approach]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c3fa59cd5eed0c484ca6752

Objective

Surgical technique process innovations are expected to generally incur no additional cost but gain better quality. Whether a mini-laparotomy surgery (MLS) in the treatment of colorectal cancer (CRC) is more cost effective than conventional open surgery had not been well examined. The objective of this study was to apply cost-effectiveness approaches to investigate the cost effectiveness of adopting MLS compared with open surgery 1 year following resection in CRC patients.

Research design

A prospective non-randomized cohort study design

Setting

An academic medical center

Participants

A total of 224 patients who received elective MLS and 339 who received conventional surgery; after propensity score matching, 212 pairs were included for analysis.

Intervention

None

Main outcome measures

Cost measures were hospital-index cost and outpatient and inpatient costs within 1 year after discharge. Effectiveness measures were life-years (LYs) gained and quality-adjusted life-year (QALYs) gained.

Statistical methods

We calculated incremental costs and effectiveness by differences in these values between MLS and conventional surgery using adjusted predicted estimates.

Results

MLS patients had lower rates of blood transfusions, less complication, and shorter post-surgical lengths of stay and more medical cost savings. One-year overall medical costs for MLS patients were TWD 748,269 (USD 24,942) per QALY gained, significant lower than for the comparison group (p-value = 0.045).

Conclusion

Our findings supported that the less invasive surgical process through MLS not only saved medical costs, but also increased QALYs for surgical treatment in CRC patients.

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<![CDATA[Borderline-resectable pancreatic adenocarcinoma: Contour irregularity of the venous confluence in pre-operative computed tomography predicts histopathological infiltration]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c3667fcd5eed0c4841a6c6c

Purpose

The purpose of the current study was to compare CT-signs of portal venous confluence infiltration for actual histopathological infiltration of the vein or the tumor/vein interface (TVI) in borderline resectable pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC).

Methods and materials

101 patients with therapy-naïve, primarily resected PDAC of the pancreatic head without arterial involvement were evaluated. The portal venous confluence was assessed for contour irregularity (defined as infiltration) and degree of contact. The sensitivity and specificity of contour irregularity versus tumor to vein contact >180° as well as the combination of the signs for tumor cell infiltration of the vessel wall or TVI was calculated. Overall survival (OS) was compared between groups.

Results

Sensitivity and specificity of contour irregularity for identification of tumor infiltration of the portal venous confluence or the TVI was higher compared to tumor to vessel contact >180° for tumor cell infiltration (96%/79% vs. 91%/38% respectively, p<0.001). The combination of the signs increased specificity to 92% (sensitivity 88%). Patients with contour irregularity/ tumor to vein contact >180°/ both signs had significantly worse overall survival (16.2 vs. 26.5 months/ 17.9 vs. 37.4 months/ 18.5 vs. 26.5 months respectively, all p<0.05).

Conclusion

Portal venous confluence contour irregularity is a strong predictor of actual tumor cell infiltration of the vessel wall or the TVI and should be noted as such in radiological reports.

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<![CDATA[Use of C-reactive protein for the early prediction of anastomotic leak after esophagectomy: Systematic review and Bayesian meta-analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c2151bfd5eed0c4843fbb68

Background

Early suspicion, diagnosis, and timely treatment of anastomotic leak after esophagectomy is essential. Retrospective studies have investigated the role of C-reactive protein (CRP) as early marker of anastomotic leakage. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the predictive value of CRP after esophageal resection.

Methods

A literature search was conducted to identify all reports including serial postoperative CRP measurements to predict anastomotic leakage after elective open or minimally invasive esophagectomy. Fully Bayesian meta-analysis was carried out using random-effects model for pooling diagnostic accuracy measures along with CRP cut-off values at different postoperative day.

Results

Five studies published between 2012 and 2018 met the inclusion criteria. Overall, 850 patients were included. Ivor-Lewis esophagectomy was the most common surgical procedure (72.3%) and half of the patients had squamous-cell carcinoma (50.4%). The estimated pooled prevalence of anastomotic leak was 11% (95% CI = 8–14%). The serum CRP level on POD3 and POD5 had comparable diagnostic accuracy with a pooled area under the curve of 0.80 (95% CIs 0.77–0.92) and 0.83 (95% CIs 0.61–0.96), respectively. The derived pooled CRP cut-off values were 17.6 mg/dl on POD 3 and 13.2 mg/dl on POD 5; the negative likelihood ratio were 0.35 (95% CIs 0.096–0.62) and 0.195 (95% CIs 0.04–0.52).

Conclusion

After esophagectomy, a CRP value lower than 17.6 mg/dl on POD3 and 13.2 mg/dl on POD5 combined with reassuring clinical and radiological signs may be useful to rule-out leakage. In the context of ERAS protocols, this may help to avoid contrast radiological studies, anticipate oral feeding, accelerate hospital discharge, and reduce costs.

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<![CDATA[Surgery and protontherapy in Grade I and II skull base chondrosarcoma: A comparative retrospective study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c21515cd5eed0c4843f9db2

Objective

Skull base chondrosarcoma is a rare tumour usually treated by surgery and proton therapy. However, as mortality rate is very low and treatment complications are frequent, a less aggressive therapeutic strategy could be considered. The objective of this study was to compare the results of surgery only vs surgery and adjuvant proton therapy, in terms of survival and treatment adverse effects, based on a retrospective series.

Methods

Monocentric retrospective study at a tertiary care centre. All patients treated for a skull base grade I and II chondrosarcoma were included. We collected data concerning surgical and proton therapy treatment and up-to-date follow-up, including Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) scores.

Results

47 patients (23M/24F) were operated on between 2002 and 2015; mean age at diagnosis was 47 years-old (10–85). Petroclival and anterior skull base locations were found in 34 and 13 patients, respectively. Gross total resection was achieved in 17 cases (36%) and partial in 30 (64%). Adjuvant proton therapy (mean total dose 70 GyRBE,1.8 GyRBE/day) was administered in 23 cases. Overall mean follow-up was 91 months (7–182). Of the patients treated by surgery only, 8 (34%) experienced residual tumour progression (mean delay 51 months) and 5 received second-line proton therapy. Adjuvant proton therapy was associated with a significantly lower rate of relapse (11%; p = 0.01). There was no significant difference in 10-year disease specific survival between patients initially treated with or without adjuvant proton therapy (100% vs 89.8%, p = 0.14). Difference in high-grade toxicity was not statistically significant between patients in both groups (25% (7) vs 11% (5), p = 0.10). The most frequent adverse effect of proton therapy was sensorineural hearing loss (39%).

Conclusion

Long-term disease specific survival was not significantly lower in patients without adjuvant proton therapy, but they experienced less adverse effects. We believe a surgery only strategy could be discussed, delaying as much as possible proton therapy in cases of relapse. Further prospective studies are needed to validate this more conservative strategy in skull base chondrosarcoma.

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<![CDATA[Clinical utility of FDG uptake within reticuloendothelial system on F-18 FDG PET/CT for prediction of tumor recurrence in breast cancer]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c141e80d5eed0c484d26e70

Background

The aim of this study was to investigate the metabolism of the spleen, bone marrow (BM), and liver from preoperative F-18 FDG PET/CT scans for the prediction of recurrence in breast cancer.

Methods

We retrospectively included 153 patients diagnosed with invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) of the breast who underwent preoperative F-18 FDG PET/CT scan and a curative operation. The mean standardized uptake value (SUVmean) of the spleen, liver, and BM and maximum SUV (SUVmax) of primary tumors were measured. The relationships between spleen, BM, and liver metabolism and clinicopathologic parameters were evaluated, and possible prognostic parameters predicting recurrence were assessed using disease-free survival (DFS).

Results

Spleen SUVmean was significantly correlated with primary tumor SUVmax, pathologic T (pT) stage, and histologic grade of primary tumor. BM SUVmean also showed a positive correlation with primary tumor SUVmax. Spleen SUVmean were significantly associated with recurrence from binary logistic regression analysis (P = 0.004). Spleen, BM, liver, and primary tumor SUVs were all significant prognostic factors for DFS in univariate Cox regression analysis (all P<0.024). Among all PET parameters analyzed, spleen SUVmean ≥ 2.21 (P = 0.032) was in the multivariable analysis the powerful poor prognostic factor predicting DFS that was independent of other clinicopathological features like T stage (pT >2; P = 0.009) and estrogen receptor (ER) status (ER negativity; P = 0.001).

Conclusion

Splenic metabolism together with pT stage and ER status was an independent prognostic factor for predicting recurrence in breast cancer. Metabolic activity of reticuloendothelial system such as spleen, liver or BM on preoperative F-18 FDG PET/CT can be a meritorious imaging factor for discriminating patients with IDC that require adjunctive therapy to prevent recurrence.

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<![CDATA[Use of statins or NSAIDs and survival of patients with high-grade glioma]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c0ed763d5eed0c484f14054

Background

High-grade glioma (HGG) is associated with a limited prognosis. Drug repurposing has become of increasing interest to improve standard therapy. Statins and NSAIDs inhibit glioma cell growth in vitro and in vivo, but data on statin and NSAID treatment in relation to survival of patients with HGG are sparse.

Methods

We performed multivariable adjusted Cox-regression analyses among 1,093 patients with HGG from a regional cancer registry to obtain Hazard Ratios (HRs) with 95% Confidence Intervals (CIs) for overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) according to treatment with statins or NSAIDs. Data on dose and duration of treatment was mostly lacking in our analysis, therefore we were not able to perform dose-response analyses.

Results

Use of statins was unrelated to OS or PFS of glioma patients. Use of aspirin was associated with prolonged OS and PFS in patients with WHO grade III, but not WHO grade IV glioma. Use of other NSAIDs (diclofenac, ibuprofen) or non-NSAID analgesics (paracetamol) was mostly unrelated to survival of glioma patients. Use of selective COX-2 inhibitors and metamizol was related to inferior patient survival in parts of the analyses.

Conclusions

Use of statins or NSAIDS, including aspirin, was not associated with prolonged OS or PFS of patients with WHO grade IV glioma in our selected cohort. There was an indication for improved survival in patients with WHO grade III glioma using aspirin, but further studies are needed to confirm our first observation.

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<![CDATA[Surgical outcomes of unilateral recession and resection in intermittent exotropia according to forced duction test results]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b694666463d7e3867f4ad0a

Purpose

To compare the surgical outcomes of unilateral lateral rectus recession–medial rectus resection (RR) according to forced duction test (FDT) results with those of conventional RR in intermittent exotropia.

Methods

A total of 129 patients aged 3 to 10 years with intermittent exotropia who underwent RR between 2006 and 2011 were included. The operator compared the tension of the lateral rectus (LR) between both eyes. When FDT results were asymmetric, RR was performed on the eye with more LR tension. RR was performed on the nondominant eye when FDT results were symmetric. Patients were divided into two groups; one group (n = 64) underwent RR without FDT (RR group) and the other group (n = 65) underwent RR considering FDT results (RR-FDT group). Success, recurrence, reoperation rates and cumulative probabilities of success were evaluated in both groups. Surgical outcome was considered satisfactory if the distance deviation in the primary position was between ≤ 10 PD of exophoria/tropia and ≤ 10 PD of esophoria/tropia. Recurrence was defined as an alignment of > 10 PD of exophoria/tropia, and overcorrection defined as > 10 PD of esophoria/tropia. Reoperation for recurrence was recommended for constant exotropia ≥ 14 PD at distance.

Results

The total follow-up periods were 4.4±2.3 years in the RR group, and 3.9±2.0 years in the RR-FDT group (P = .310). In the RR group, 50 patients (78.1%) were successful, 13 patients (20.3%) had recurrence, and 1 patient (1.6%) had overcorrection at 2 years after surgery. In the RR-FDT group, 58 patients (89.2%) were successful, 5 patients (7.7%) had recurrence, and 2 patients (3.1%) were overcorrected. The recurrence rate at 2 years after operation was significantly lower in the RR-FDT group (P = .045). Recurrence rates during the follow-up period were 5.6% per person-year in the RR group and 2.7% per person-year in the RR-FDT group. Reoperation for recurrence was performed on 7 patients (10.8%) in the RR-FDT group and 16 patients (25.0%) in the RR group (P = .035). Postoperative sensory outcomes were similar between both groups.

Conclusions

The forced duction test was useful in reducing the risk of recurrence at 2 years after surgery when RR was performed on the eye with more passive tension of the LR. Intraoperative FDT may be considered to choose which eye to operate on when planning RR in intermittent exotropia.

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<![CDATA[Consolidated mathematical growth model of the primary tumor and secondary distant metastases of breast cancer (CoMPaS)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b4a287f463d7e4513b897f8

The goal of this research is to improve the accuracy of predicting the breast cancer (BC) process using the original mathematical model referred to as CoMPaS. The CoMPaS is the original mathematical model and the corresponding software built by modelling the natural history of the primary tumor (PT) and secondary distant metastases (MTS), it reflects the relations between the PT and MTS. The CoMPaS is based on an exponential growth model and consists of a system of determinate nonlinear and linear equations and corresponds to the TNM classification. It allows us to calculate the different growth periods of PT and MTS: 1) a non-visible period for PT, 2) a non-visible period for MTS, and 3) a visible period for MTS. The CoMPaS has been validated using 10-year and 15-year survival clinical data considering tumor stage and PT diameter. The following are calculated by CoMPaS: 1) the number of doublings for the non-visible and visible growth periods of MTS and 2) the tumor volume doubling time (days) for the non-visible and visible growth periods of MTS. The diameters of the PT and secondary distant MTS increased simultaneously. In other words, the non-visible growth period of the secondary distant MTS shrinks, leading to a decrease of the survival of patients with breast cancer. The CoMPaS correctly describes the growth of the PT for patients at the T1aN0M0, T1bN0M0, T1cN0M0, T2N0M0 and T3N0M0 stages, who does not have MTS in the lymph nodes (N0). Additionally, the CoMPaS helps to consider the appearance and evolution period of secondary distant MTS (M1). The CoMPaS correctly describes the growth period of PT corresponding to BC classification (parameter T), the growth period of secondary distant MTS and the 10-15-year survival of BC patients considering the BC stage (parameter M).

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<![CDATA[The clinicopathological features and prognosis of signet ring cell carcinoma of the esophagus: A 10-year retrospective study in China]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db5aab0ee8fa60bdf65d

Objectives

The aim of this study was to analyze the clinicopathological features and prognosis of esophageal signet ring cell (SRC) carcinoma in China.

Methods

Patients with poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma were identified in two hospitals from January 2006 to June 2016. The patients were divided into three groups according to component of SRCs: SRC≥50% group, SRC < 50% group and non-SRC poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma group.

Results

Fifty-seven patients had carcinoma (SRC≥50%), and 79 patients had tumors containing <50% SRCs, and 535 patients was in non-SRC poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma group. There were no significant differences among the three groups in clinicopathological characteristics. Patients in SRC≥50% group had a lower overall survival rate (at 3-year 37.6%versus71.1%; at 5-year 0% versus 43.3%; p<0.001) compared with the control group. Even survival outcome of patients in SRC < 50%was inferior to that of in control group (at 3-year 53.0%versus71.1%; at 5-year 25.9% versus 43.3%; p<0.001). Female sex, large tumor size and increasing TNM stage were independent prognostic factors for SRC ≥50% esophageal carcinoma patients.

Conclusions

The incidence of esophageal SRC carcinoma is relatively rare and the worst outcome is observed in the SRC≥ 50% group. It is necessary to explore new therapeutic modalities to achieve further improvements in the clinical outcome of these patients.

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