ResearchPad - synthesis-phase https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Decyl caffeic acid inhibits the proliferation of colorectal cancer cells in an autophagy-dependent manner <i>in vitro</i> and <i>in vivo</i>]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13874 The treatment of human colorectal cancer (CRC) cells through suppressing the abnormal survival signaling pathways has recently become a significant area of focus. In this study, our results demonstrated that decyl caffeic acid (DC), one of the novel caffeic acid derivatives, remarkedly suppressed the growth of CRC cells both in vitro and in vivo. The inhibitory effects of DC on CRC cells were investigated in an in vitro cell model and in vivo using a xenograft mouse model. CRC cells were treated with DC at various dosages (0, 10, 20 and 40 μM), and cell survival, the apoptotic index and the autophagy level were measured using an MTT assay and flow cytometry analysis, respectively. The signaling cascades in CRC were examined by Western blot assay. The anti-cancer effects of DC on tumor growth were examined by using CRC HCT-116 cells implanted in an animal model. Our results indicated that DC differentially suppressed the growth of CRC HT-29 and HCT-116 cells through an enhancement of cell-cycle arrest at the S phase. DC inhibited the expression of cell-cycle regulators, which include cyclin E and cyclin A proteins. The molecular mechanisms of action were correlated to the blockade of the STAT3 and Akt signaling cascades. Strikingly, a high dosage of DC prompted a self-protection action through inducing cell-dependent autophagy in HCT-116 cells. Suppression of autophagy induced cell death in the treatment of DC in HCT-116 cells. DC seemed to inhibit cell proliferation of CRC differentially, and the therapeutic advantage appeared to be autophagy dependent. Moreover, consumption of DC blocked the tumor growth of colorectal adenocarcinoma in an experimental animal model. In conclusion, our results suggested that DC could act as a therapeutic agent through the significant suppression of tumor growth of human CRC cells.

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<![CDATA[Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis associated POC5 mutation impairs cell cycle, cilia length and centrosome protein interactions]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c8accc4d5eed0c48498ff55

Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis (AIS) is a spinal deformity that affects approximately 3 percent of human adolescents. Although the etiology and molecular basis of AIS is unclear, several genes such as POC5 have been identified as possible causes of the condition. In order to understand the role of POC5 in the pathogenesis of AIS, we investigated the subcellular localization of POC5 in cilia of cells over-expressing either the wild type (wt) or an AIS-related POC5 variant POC5A429V. Mutation of POC5 was found to alter its subcellular localization and to induce ciliary retraction. Furthermore, we observed an impaired cell-cycle progression with the accumulation of cells in the S-phase in cells expressing POC5A429V. Using immunoprecipitation coupled to mass spectrometry, we identified specific protein interaction partners of POC5, most of which were components of cilia and cytoskeleton. Several of these interactions were altered upon mutation of POC5. Altogether, our results demonstrate major cellular alterations, disturbances in centrosome protein interactions and cilia retraction in cells expressing an AIS-related POC5 mutation. Our study suggests that defects in centrosomes and cilia may underlie AIS pathogenesis.

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<![CDATA[Context dependent roles for RB-E2F transcriptional regulation in tumor suppression]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5ca2b7d5eed0c48441e94f

RB-E2F transcriptional control plays a key role in regulating the timing of cell cycle progression from G1 to S-phase in response to growth factor stimulation. Despite this role, it is genetically dispensable for cell cycle exit in primary fibroblasts in response to growth arrest signals. Mice engineered to be defective for RB-E2F transcriptional control at cell cycle genes were also found to live a full lifespan with no susceptibility to cancer. Based on this background we sought to probe the vulnerabilities of RB-E2F transcriptional control defects found in Rb1R461E,K542E mutant mice (Rb1G) through genetic crosses with other mouse strains. We generated Rb1G/G mice in combination with Trp53 and Cdkn1a deficiencies, as well as in combination with KrasG12D. The Rb1G mutation enhanced Trp53 cancer susceptibility, but had no effect in combination with Cdkn1a deficiency or KrasG12D. Collectively, this study indicates that compromised RB-E2F transcriptional control is not uniformly cancer enabling, but rather has potent oncogenic effects when combined with specific vulnerabilities.

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<![CDATA[CDK contribution to DSB formation and recombination in fission yeast meiosis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c466528d5eed0c484517b92

CDKs (cyclin-dependent kinases) associate with different cyclins to form different CDK-complexes that are fundamental for an ordered cell cycle progression, and the coordination of this progression with different aspects of the cellular physiology. During meiosis programmed DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) initiate recombination that in addition to generating genetic variability are essential for the reductional chromosome segregation during the first meiotic division, and therefore for genome stability and viability of the gametes. However, how meiotic progression and DSB formation are coordinated, and the role CDKs have in the process, is not well understood. We have used single and double cyclin deletion mutants, and chemical inhibition of global CDK activity using the cdc2-asM17 allele, to address the requirement of CDK activity for DSB formation and recombination in fission yeast. We report that several cyclins (Cig1, Cig2, and the meiosis-specific Crs1) control DSB formation and recombination, with a major contribution of Crs1. Moreover, complementation analysis indicates specificity at least for this cyclin, suggesting that different CDK complexes might act in different pathways to promote recombination. Down-regulation of CDK activity impinges on the formation of linear elements (LinEs, protein complexes required for break formation at most DSB hotspot sites). This defect correlates with a reduction in the capability of one structural component (Rec25) to bind chromatin, suggesting a molecular mechanism by which CDK controls break formation. However, reduction in DSB formation in cyclin deletion mutants does not always correspondingly correlate with a proportional reduction in meiotic recombination (crossovers), suggesting that specific CDK complexes might also control downstream events balancing repair pathways. Therefore, our work points to CDK regulation of DSB formation as a key conserved feature in the initiation of meiotic recombination, in addition to provide a view of possible roles CDK might have in other steps of the recombination process.

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<![CDATA[Cell-Type Specific Responses to DNA Replication Stress in Early C. elegans Embryos]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da4eab0ee8fa60b8d515

To better understand how the cellular response to DNA replication stress is regulated during embryonic development, we and others have established the early C. elegans embryo as a model system to study this important problem. As is the case in most eukaryotic cell types, the replication stress response is controlled by the ATR kinase in early worm embryos. In this report we use RNAi to systematically characterize ATR pathway components for roles in promoting cell cycle delay during a replication stress response, and we find that these genetic requirements vary, depending on the source of stress. We also examine how individual cell types within the embryo respond to replication stress, and we find that the strength of the response, as defined by duration of cell cycle delay, varies dramatically within blastomeres of the early embryo. Our studies shed light on how the replication stress response is managed in the context of embryonic development and show that this pathway is subject to developmental regulation.

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<![CDATA[Temperature-mediated biosynthesis of the phytotoxin phaseolotoxin by Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola depends on the autoregulated expression of the phtABC genes]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db5cab0ee8fa60be022f

Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola produces phaseolotoxin in a temperature dependent manner, being optimally synthesized between 18°C and 20°C, while no detectable amounts are present above 28°C. The Pht cluster, involved in the biosynthesis of phaseolotoxin, contains 23 genes that are organized in five transcriptional units. The function of most of the genes from the Pht cluster is still unknown and little information about the regulatory circuitry leading to expression of these genes has been reported. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the participation of pht genes in the regulation of the operons coded into the Pht cluster. We conducted Northern blot, uidA fusions and reverse transcription-PCR assays of pht genes in several mutants unable to produce phaseolotoxin. This allowed us to determine that, in P. syringae pv. phaseolicola NPS3121, genes phtABC are essential to prevent their own expression at 28°C, a temperature at which no detectable amounts of the toxin are present. We obtained evidence that the phtABC genes also participate in the regulation of the phtD, phtM and phtL operons. According to our results, we propose that PhtABC and other Pht product activities could be involved in the synthesis of the sulfodiaminophosphinyl moiety of phaseolotoxin, which indirectly could be involved in the transcriptional regulation of the phtA operon.

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<![CDATA[PCNA-Dependent Cleavage and Degradation of SDE2 Regulates Response to Replication Stress]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da73ab0ee8fa60b957f6

Maintaining genomic integrity during DNA replication is essential for cellular survival and for preventing tumorigenesis. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) functions as a processivity factor for DNA replication, and posttranslational modification of PCNA plays a key role in coordinating DNA repair against replication-blocking lesions by providing a platform to recruit factors required for DNA repair and cell cycle control. Here, we identify human SDE2 as a new genome surveillance factor regulated by PCNA interaction. SDE2 contains an N-terminal ubiquitin-like (UBL) fold, which is cleaved at a diglycine motif via a PCNA-interacting peptide (PIP) box and deubiquitinating enzyme activity. The cleaved SDE2 is required for negatively regulating ultraviolet damage-inducible PCNA monoubiquitination and counteracting replication stress. The cleaved SDE2 products need to be degraded by the CRL4CDT2 ubiquitin E3 ligase in a cell cycle- and DNA damage-dependent manner, and failure to degrade SDE2 impairs S phase progression and cellular survival. Collectively, this study uncovers a new role for CRL4CDT2 in protecting genomic integrity against replication stress via regulated proteolysis of PCNA-associated SDE2 and provides insights into how an integrated UBL domain within linear polypeptide sequence controls protein stability and function.

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<![CDATA[A real-time traffic control method for the intersection with pre-signals under the phase swap sorting strategy]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db5cab0ee8fa60bdff31

To deal with the conflicts between left-turn and through traffic streams and increase the discharge capacity, this paper addresses the pre-signal which is implemented at a signalized intersection. Such an intersection with pre-signal is termed as a tandem intersection. For the tandem intersection, phase swap sorting strategy is deemed as the most effective phasing scheme in view of some exclusive merits, such as easier compliance of drivers, and shorter sorting area. However, a major limitation of the phase swap sorting strategy is not considered in previous studies: if one or more vehicle is left at the sorting area after the signal light turns to red, the capacity of the approach would be dramatically dropped. Besides, previous signal control studies deal with a fixed timing plan that is not adaptive with the fluctuation of traffic flows. Therefore, to cope with these two gaps, this paper firstly takes an in-depth analysis of the traffic flow operations at the tandem intersection. Secondly, three groups of loop detectors are placed to obtain the real-time vehicle information for adaptive signalization. The lane selection behavior in the sorting area is considered to set the green time for intersection signals. With the objective of minimizing the vehicle delay, the signal control parameters are then optimized based on a dynamic programming method. Finally, numerical experiments show that average vehicle delay and maximum queue length can be reduced under all scenarios.

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<![CDATA[Synthetic lethal mutations in the cyclin A interface of human cytomegalovirus]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db53ab0ee8fa60bdce68

Generally, the antagonism between host restriction factors and viral countermeasures decides on cellular permissiveness or resistance to virus infection. Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) has evolved an additional level of self-imposed restriction by the viral tegument protein pp150. Depending on a cyclin A-binding motif, pp150 prevents the onset of viral gene expression in the S/G2 cell cycle phase of otherwise fully permissive cells. Here we address the physiological relevance of this restriction during productive HCMV infection by employing a cyclin A-binding deficient pp150 mutant virus. One consequence of unrestricted viral gene expression in S/G2 was the induction of a G2/M arrest. G2-arrested but not mitotic cells supported viral replication. Cyclin A destabilization by the viral gene product pUL21a was required to maintain the virus-permissive G2-arrest. An HCMV double-point mutant where both pp150 and pUL21a are disabled in cyclin A interaction forced mitotic entry of the majority of infected cells, with a severe negative impact on cell viability and virus growth. Thus, pp150 and pUL21a functionally cooperate, together building a cell cycle synchronization strategy of cyclin A targeting and avoidance that is essential for productive HCMV infection.

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<![CDATA[PCNA ubiquitylation ensures timely completion of unperturbed DNA replication in fission yeast]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db5cab0ee8fa60be039b

PCNA ubiquitylation on lysine 164 is required for DNA damage tolerance. In many organisms PCNA is also ubiquitylated in unchallenged S phase but the significance of this has not been established. Using Schizosaccharomyces pombe, we demonstrate that lysine 164 ubiquitylation of PCNA contributes to efficient DNA replication in the absence of DNA damage. Loss of PCNA ubiquitylation manifests most strongly at late replicating regions and increases the frequency of replication gaps. We show that PCNA ubiquitylation increases the proportion of chromatin associated PCNA and the co-immunoprecipitation of Polymerase δ with PCNA during unperturbed replication and propose that ubiquitylation acts to prolong the chromatin association of these replication proteins to allow the efficient completion of Okazaki fragment synthesis by mediating gap filling.

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<![CDATA[Expression of the NS5 (VPg) Protein of Murine Norovirus Induces a G1/S Phase Arrest]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dafbab0ee8fa60bc4d05

Murine norovirus-1 (MNV-1) is known to subvert host cell division inducing an accumulation of cells in the G0/G1 phase, creating conditions where viral replication is favored. This study identified that NS5 (VPg), is capable of inducing cell cycle arrest in the absence of viral replication or other viral proteins in an analogous manner to MNV-1 infection. NS5 expression induced an accumulation of cells in the G0/G1 phase in an asynchronous population by inhibiting progression at the G1/S restriction point. Furthermore, NS5 expression resulted in a down-regulation of cyclin A expression in asynchronous cells and inhibited cyclin A expression in cells progressing from G1 to S phase. The activity of NS5 on the host cell cycle occurs through an uncharacterized function. Amino acid substitutions of NS5(Y26A) and NS5(F123A) that inhibit the ability for NS5 to attach to RNA and recruit host eukaryotic translation initiation factors, respectively, retained the ability to induce an accumulation of cells in the G0/G1 phase as identified for wild-type NS5. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a VPg protein manipulating the host cell cycle.

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<![CDATA[A Novel Rrm3 Function in Restricting DNA Replication via an Orc5-Binding Domain Is Genetically Separable from Rrm3 Function as an ATPase/Helicase in Facilitating Fork Progression]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da27ab0ee8fa60b8135f

In response to replication stress cells activate the intra-S checkpoint, induce DNA repair pathways, increase nucleotide levels, and inhibit origin firing. Here, we report that Rrm3 associates with a subset of replication origins and controls DNA synthesis during replication stress. The N-terminal domain required for control of DNA synthesis maps to residues 186–212 that are also critical for binding Orc5 of the origin recognition complex. Deletion of this domain is lethal to cells lacking the replication checkpoint mediator Mrc1 and leads to mutations upon exposure to the replication stressor hydroxyurea. This novel Rrm3 function is independent of its established role as an ATPase/helicase in facilitating replication fork progression through polymerase blocking obstacles. Using quantitative mass spectrometry and genetic analyses, we find that the homologous recombination factor Rdh54 and Rad5-dependent error-free DNA damage bypass act as independent mechanisms on DNA lesions that arise when Rrm3 catalytic activity is disrupted whereas these mechanisms are dispensable for DNA damage tolerance when the replication function is disrupted, indicating that the DNA lesions generated by the loss of each Rrm3 function are distinct. Although both lesion types activate the DNA-damage checkpoint, we find that the resultant increase in nucleotide levels is not sufficient for continued DNA synthesis under replication stress. Together, our findings suggest a role of Rrm3, via its Orc5-binding domain, in restricting DNA synthesis that is genetically and physically separable from its established catalytic role in facilitating fork progression through replication blocks.

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<![CDATA[Nickel and cadmium-induced SLBP depletion: A potential pathway to metal mediated cellular transformation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db53ab0ee8fa60bdcd86

Both nickel and cadmium compounds have been established as group I carcinogens for several decades. Despite over-whelming evidence of these compounds’ carcinogenicity in humans, the specific underlying molecular mechanisms that govern metal induced cellular transformation remain unclear. In this study, we found that there were slightly different effects on decreased SLBP mRNA and protein as well as increased polyA H3.1 in our nickel exposed cells. This suggested that nickel and arsenic have similar effects on canonical histone mRNA transcription and translation. We also saw that the depletion of SLBP protein was reversed by inhibiting the proteosome. Finally, we showed that inhibiting the SLBP mRNA and protein levels were rescued by epigenetic modifiers suggesting that nickel’s effects on SLBP may be mediated via epigenetic mechanisms. Taken together these results suggest a similar mechanism by which both arsenic and nickel may exert their carcinogenic effects.

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<![CDATA[Loss of H3K9me3 Correlates with ATM Activation and Histone H2AX Phosphorylation Deficiencies in Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria Syndrome]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dadeab0ee8fa60bbaef1

Compelling evidence suggests that defective DNA damage response (DDR) plays a key role in the premature aging phenotypes in Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS). Studies document widespread alterations in histone modifications in HGPS cells, especially, the global loss of histone H3 trimethylated on lysine 9 (H3K9me3). In this study, we explore the potential connection(s) between H3K9me3 loss and the impaired DDR in HGPS. When cells are exposed to a DNA-damaging agent Doxorubicin (Dox), double strand breaks (DSBs) are generated that result in the phosphorylation of histone H2A variant H2AX (gammaH2AX) within an hour. We find that the intensities of gammaH2AX foci appear significantly weaker in the G0/G1 phase HGPS cells compared to control cells. This reduction is associated with a delay in the recruitment of essential DDR factors. We further demonstrate that ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) is responsible for the amplification of gammaH2AX signals at DSBs during G0/G1 phase, and its activation is inhibited in the HGPS cells that display significant loss of H3K9me3. Moreover, methylene (MB) blue treatment, which is known to save heterochromatin loss in HGPS, restores H3K9me3, stimulates ATM activity, increases gammaH2AX signals and rescues deficient DDR. In summary, this study demonstrates an early DDR defect of attenuated gammaH2AX signals in G0/G1 phase HGPS cells and provides a plausible connection between H3K9me3 loss and DDR deficiency.

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<![CDATA[Protein-Bound Polysaccharide from Corbicula fluminea Inhibits Cell Growth in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 Human Breast Cancer Cells]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da49ab0ee8fa60b8c6be

A novel protein-bound polysaccharide, CFPS-1, isolated from Corbicula fluminea, is composed predominantly of mannose (Man) and glucose (Glc) in a molar ratio of 3.1:12.7. The polysaccharide, with an average molecular weight of about 283 kDa, also contains 10.8% protein. Atomic force microscopy, high-performance liquid chromatography, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy analyses revealed that CFPS-1 has a backbone of 1,6-linked and 1,4,6-linked-α-D-Glc, which is terminated with a 1-linked-α-D-Man residue at the O-4 position of 1,4,6-linked-α-D-Glc, in a molar ratio of 3:1:1. Preliminary in vitro bioactivity tests revealed that CFPS-1 effectively and dose-dependently inhibits human breast cancer MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cell growth, with an IC50 of 243 ± 6.79 and 1142 ± 14.84 μg/mL, respectively. In MCF-7, CFPS-1 produced a significant up-regulation of p53, p21, Bax and cleaved caspase-7 and down-regulation of Cdk4, cyclin D1, Bcl-2 and caspase-7. These effects resulted in cell cycle blockade at the S-phase and apoptosis induction. In contrast, in MDA-MB-231, with limited degree of change in cell cycle distribution, CFPS-1 increases the proportion of cells in apoptotic sub-G1 phase executed by down-regulation of Bcl-2 and caspase-7 and up-regulation of Bax and cleaved caspase-7. This study extends our understanding of the anticancer mechanism of C. fluminea protein-bound polysaccharide.

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<![CDATA[Pfh1 Is an Accessory Replicative Helicase that Interacts with the Replisome to Facilitate Fork Progression and Preserve Genome Integrity]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dacfab0ee8fa60bb59b6

Replicative DNA helicases expose the two strands of the double helix to the replication apparatus, but accessory helicases are often needed to help forks move past naturally occurring hard-to-replicate sites, such as tightly bound proteins, RNA/DNA hybrids, and DNA secondary structures. Although the Schizosaccharomyces pombe 5’-to-3’ DNA helicase Pfh1 is known to promote fork progression, its genomic targets, dynamics, and mechanisms of action are largely unknown. Here we address these questions by integrating genome-wide identification of Pfh1 binding sites, comprehensive analysis of the effects of Pfh1 depletion on replication and DNA damage, and proteomic analysis of Pfh1 interaction partners by immunoaffinity purification mass spectrometry. Of the 621 high confidence Pfh1-binding sites in wild type cells, about 40% were sites of fork slowing (as marked by high DNA polymerase occupancy) and/or DNA damage (as marked by high levels of phosphorylated H2A). The replication and integrity of tRNA and 5S rRNA genes, highly transcribed RNA polymerase II genes, and nucleosome depleted regions were particularly Pfh1-dependent. The association of Pfh1 with genomic integrity at highly transcribed genes was S phase dependent, and thus unlikely to be an artifact of high transcription rates. Although Pfh1 affected replication and suppressed DNA damage at discrete sites throughout the genome, Pfh1 and the replicative DNA polymerase bound to similar extents to both Pfh1-dependent and independent sites, suggesting that Pfh1 is proximal to the replication machinery during S phase. Consistent with this interpretation, Pfh1 co-purified with many key replisome components, including the hexameric MCM helicase, replicative DNA polymerases, RPA, and the processivity clamp PCNA in an S phase dependent manner. Thus, we conclude that Pfh1 is an accessory DNA helicase that interacts with the replisome and promotes replication and suppresses DNA damage at hard-to-replicate sites. These data provide insight into mechanisms by which this evolutionarily conserved helicase helps preserve genome integrity.

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<![CDATA[Securinine from Phyllanthus glaucus Induces Cell Cycle Arrest and Apoptosis in Human Cervical Cancer HeLa Cells]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9eeab0ee8fa60b6da31

Background

The Securinega-type alkaloids occur in plants belonging to Euphorbiaceae family. One of the most widely distributed alkaloid of this group is securinine, which was identified next to allosecurinine in Phyllanthus glaucus (leafflower). Recently, some Securinega-type alkaloids have paid attention to its antiproliferative potency towards different cancer cells. However, the cytotoxic properties of allosecurinine have not yet been evaluated.

Methods

The cytotoxicity of the extract, alkaloid fraction obtained from P. glaucus, isolated securinine and allosecurinine against HeLa cells was evaluated by real-time xCELLigence system and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Apoptosis was detected by annexin V and 7-amino-actinomycin (7-AAD) staining and confirmed with fluorescent Hoechst 33342 dye. The assessment of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, the level of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2), caspase-3/7 activity and cell cycle analysis were measured by flow cytometry. The enzymatic activity of caspase-9 was assessed by a luminometric assay. The expression of apoptosis associated genes was analyzed by real-time PCR.

Results

The experimental data revealed that securinine and the alkaloid fraction were significantly potent on HeLa cells growth inhibition with IC50 values of 7.02 ± 0.52 μg/ml (32.3 μM) and 25.46 ± 1.79 μg/ml, respectively. The activity of allosecurinine and Phyllanthus extract were much lower. Furthermore, our study showed that the most active securinine induced apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner in the tested cells, increased the percentage of ROS positive cells and depolarized cells as well as stimulated the activity of ERK1/2, caspase-9 and -3/7. Securinine also induced cell cycle arrest in S phase. Real-time PCR analysis showed high expression of TNFRSF genes in the cells stimulated with securinine.

Conclusions

Securinine induces apoptosis and activates cell cycle checkpoints in HeLa cells which is associated with oxidative stress. The results indicate that the mitochondrial pathway is involved in the programmed cell death.

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<![CDATA[Small Molecule APY606 Displays Extensive Antitumor Activity in Pancreatic Cancer via Impairing Ras-MAPK Signaling]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da2dab0ee8fa60b8336c

Pancreatic cancer has been found with abnormal expression or mutation in Ras proteins. Oncogenic Ras activation exploits their extensive signaling reach to affect multiple cellular processes, in which the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling exerts important roles in tumorigenesis. Therapies targeted Ras are thus of major benefit for pancreatic cancer. Although small molecule APY606 has been successfully picked out by virtual drug screening based on Ras target receptor, its in-depth mechanism remains to be elucidated. We herein assessed the antitumor activity of APY606 against human pancreatic cancer Capan-1 and SW1990 cell lines and explored the effect of Ras-MAPK and apoptosis-related signaling pathway on the activity of APY606. APY606 treatment resulted in a dose- and time-dependent inhibition of cancer cell viability. Additionally, APY606 exhibited strong antitumor activity, as evidenced not only by reduction in tumor cell invasion, migration and mitochondrial membrane potential but also by alteration in several apoptotic indexes. Furthermore, APY606 treatment directly inhibited Ras-GTP and the downstream activation of MAPK, which resulted in the down-regulation of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2, leading to the up-regulation of mitochondrial apoptosis pathway-related proteins (Bax, cytosolic Cytochrome c and Caspase 3) and of cyclin-dependent kinase 2 and Cyclin A, E. These data suggest that impairing Ras-MAPK signaling is a novel mechanism of action for APY606 during therapeutic intervention in pancreatic cancer.

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<![CDATA[Simultaneous Maximum-Likelihood Reconstruction of Absorption Coefficient, Refractive Index and Dark-Field Scattering Coefficient in X-Ray Talbot-Lau Tomography]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db10ab0ee8fa60bcbfe6

A maximum-likelihood reconstruction technique for X-ray Talbot-Lau tomography is presented. This technique allows the iterative simultaneous reconstruction of discrete distributions of absorption coefficient, refractive index and a dark-field scattering coefficient. This technique avoids prior phase retrieval in the tomographic projection images and thus in principle allows reconstruction from tomographic data with less than three phase steps per projection. A numerical phantom is defined which is used to evaluate convergence of the technique with regard to photon statistics and with regard to the number of projection angles and phase steps used. It is shown that the use of a random phase sampling pattern allows the reconstruction even for the extreme case of only one single phase step per projection. The technique is successfully applied to measured tomographic data of a mouse. In future, this reconstruction technique might also be used to implement enhanced imaging models for X-ray Talbot-Lau tomography. These enhancements might be suited to correct for example beam hardening and dispersion artifacts and improve overall image quality of X-ray Talbot-Lau tomography.

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<![CDATA[Cell Cycle Constraints and Environmental Control of Local DNA Hypomethylation in α-Proteobacteria]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989daaaab0ee8fa60ba8f14

Heritable DNA methylation imprints are ubiquitous and underlie genetic variability from bacteria to humans. In microbial genomes, DNA methylation has been implicated in gene transcription, DNA replication and repair, nucleoid segregation, transposition and virulence of pathogenic strains. Despite the importance of local (hypo)methylation at specific loci, how and when these patterns are established during the cell cycle remains poorly characterized. Taking advantage of the small genomes and the synchronizability of α-proteobacteria, we discovered that conserved determinants of the cell cycle transcriptional circuitry establish specific hypomethylation patterns in the cell cycle model system Caulobacter crescentus. We used genome-wide methyl-N6-adenine (m6A-) analyses by restriction-enzyme-cleavage sequencing (REC-Seq) and single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing to show that MucR, a transcriptional regulator that represses virulence and cell cycle genes in S-phase but no longer in G1-phase, occludes 5’-GANTC-3’ sequence motifs that are methylated by the DNA adenine methyltransferase CcrM. Constitutive expression of CcrM or heterologous methylases in at least two different α-proteobacteria homogenizes m6A patterns even when MucR is present and affects promoter activity. Environmental stress (phosphate limitation) can override and reconfigure local hypomethylation patterns imposed by the cell cycle circuitry that dictate when and where local hypomethylation is instated.

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