ResearchPad - systematic-review Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[An Updated Systematic Review of the Therapeutic Role of Hydroxychloroquine in Coronavirus Disease-19 (COVID-19)]]> The world is currently experiencing the Coronavirus Disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic. There is no approved drug for the definitive treatment of the disease. Various drugs are being tried for the treatment of COVID-19, including hydroxychloroquine (HCQ). This study was performed to systematically review the therapeutic role of HCQ in COVID-19 from the available literature.MethodsPubMed, Embase,, ICTRP (WHO), Cochrane Library databases, and two pre-print servers ( and Research Square) were searched for clinical studies that evaluated the therapeutic role of HCQ on COVID-19 until 10 May 2020. The available studies were critically analyzed and the data were extracted.ResultsA total of 663 articles were screened and 12 clinical studies (seven peer-reviewed and published studies and five non-peer-reviewed studies from pre-print servers) with a total sample size of 3543 patients were included. Some of the clinical studies demonstrated good virological and clinical outcomes with HCQ alone or in combination with azithromycin in COVID-19 patients, although the studies had major methodological limitations. Some of the other studies showed negative results with HCQ therapy along with the risk of adverse reactions.ConclusionThe results of efficacy and safety of HCQ in COVID-19, as obtained from the clinical studies, are not satisfactory, although many of these studies had major methodological limitations. Stronger evidence from well-designed robust randomized clinical trials is required before conclusively determining the role of HCQ in the treatment of COVID-19. Clinical prudence is required in advocating HCQ as a therapeutic armamentarium in COVID-19.Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article (10.1007/s40261-020-00927-1) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. ]]> <![CDATA[Statin Use May Be Associated With Reduced Active Tuberculosis Infection: A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies]]> Background: Tuberculosis remains one of the leading causes of mortality among the infectious diseases, while statins were suggested to confer anti-infective efficacy in experimental studies. We aimed to evaluate the association between statin use and tuberculosis infection in a meta-analysis.

Method: Relevant studies were obtained via systematically search of PubMed and Embase databases. A random or a fixed effect model was applied to pool the results according to the heterogeneity among the included studies. Subgroup analyses according to the gender and diabetic status of the participants were performed. We assessed the quality of evidence with the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach.

Results: Nine observational studies were included. Significant heterogeneity was detected among the studies (p for Cochrane's Q test <0.001, I2 = 93%). The GRADE approach showed generally low quality of evidence. Pooled results showed that statin use was associated with reduced active tuberculosis infection (risk ratio [RR]: 0.60, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.45 to 0.75, p < 0.001). Subgroup analyses showed that the negative association between statin use and active tuberculosis infection was consistent in men (RR: 0.63, p = 0.01) and women (RR: 0.58, p < 0.001), in participants with (RR: 0.63, p = 0.02) and without diabetes (RR: 0.50, p < 0.001), in retrospective cohort studies (RR: 0.56, p = 0.02), prospective cohort studies (RR: 0.76, p = 0.03), nested case-controls studies (RR: 0.57, p < 0.001), and case-control studies (RR: 0.60, p < 0.001), and in studies with statin used defined as any use within 1 year (RR: 0.59, p < 0.001) or during follow-up (RR: 0.61, p < 0.001). Significant publication bias was detected (p for Egger's regression test = 0.046). Subsequent “trim and fill” analyses retrieved an unpublished study to generate symmetrical funnel plots, and meta-analysis incorporating this study did not significantly affect the results (RR: 0.72, 95% CI: 0.68 to 0.76, p < 0.001).

Conclusions: Statin use may be associated with reduced active tuberculosis infection. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are needed to confirm the potential preventative role of statin use on tuberculosis infection.

<![CDATA[Socioeconomic inequalities in hospitalizations for chronic ambulatory care sensitive conditions: a systematic review of peer-reviewed literature, 1990–2018]]> Hospitalizations for chronic ambulatory care sensitive conditions are an important indicator of health system equity and performance. Chronic ambulatory care sensitive conditions refer to chronic diseases that can be managed in primary care settings, including angina, asthma, and diabetes, with hospitalizations for these conditions considered potentially avoidable with adequate primary care interventions. Socioeconomic inequities in the risk of hospitalization have been observed in several health systems globally. While there are multiple studies examining the association between socioeconomic status and hospitalizations for chronic ambulatory care sensitive conditions, these studies have not been systematically reviewed. The objective of this study is to systematically identify and describe socioeconomic inequalities in hospitalizations for chronic ambulatory care sensitive conditions amongst adult populations in economically developed countries reported in high-quality observational studies published in the peer-reviewed literature.MethodsPeer-reviewed literature was searched in six health and social science databases: MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycInfo, CINAHL, ASSIA, and IBSS using search terms for hospitalization, socioeconomic status, and chronic ambulatory care sensitive conditions. Study titles and abstracts were first screened followed by full-text review according to the following eligibility criteria: 1) Study outcome is hospitalization for selected chronic ambulatory care sensitive conditions; 2) Primary exposure is individual- or area-level socioeconomic status; 3) Study population has a mean age ± 1 SD < 75 years of age; 4) Study setting is economically developed countries; and 5) Study type is observational. Relevant data was then extracted, and studies were critically appraised using appropriate tools from The Joanna Briggs Institute. Results were narratively synthesized according to socioeconomic constructs and type of adjustment (minimally versus fully adjusted).ResultsOf the 15,857 unique peer-reviewed studies identified, 31 studies met the eligibility criteria and were of sufficient quality for inclusion. Socioeconomic constructs and hospitalization outcomes varied across studies. However, despite this heterogeneity, a robust and consistent association between lower levels of socioeconomic status and higher risk of hospitalizations for chronic ambulatory care sensitive conditions was observed.ConclusionsThis systematic review is the first to comprehensively identify and analyze literature on the relationship between SES and hospitalizations for chronic ambulatory care sensitive conditions, considering both aggregate and condition-specific outcomes that are common to several international health systems. The evidence consistently demonstrates that lower socioeconomic status is a risk factor for hospitalization across global settings. Effective health and social interventions are needed to reduce these inequities and ensure fair and adequate care across socioeconomic groups.Trial registrationPROSPERO CRD42018088727. ]]> <![CDATA[COVID-19 in Older People: A Rapid Clinical Review]]> The COVID-19 pandemic poses a high risk to older people. The aim of this paper is to provide a rapid overview of the COVID-19 literature, with a specific focus on older adults. We frame our findings within an overview of the disease and have also evaluated the inclusion of older people within forthcoming clinical trials.MethodsWe searched PubMed and bioRxiv/medRxiv to identify English language papers describing the testing, treatment and prognosis of COVID-19. PubMed and bioRxiv/medRxiv searches took place on 20th and 24th March 2020, respectively.ResultsScreening of over 1100 peer-reviewed and pre-print papers yielded n = 22 on COVID-19 testing, n = 15 on treatment and n = 13 on prognosis. Viral-PCR and serology are the mainstays of testing but a positive diagnosis may be increasingly supported by radiological findings. The current evidence for the effectiveness of antiviral, corticosteroid and immunotherapies is inconclusive, although trial data are largely based on younger people. In addition to age, male gender and comorbidities, specific laboratory and radiology findings are important prognostic factors. Evidence suggests social distancing policies could have important negative consequences, particularly if in place for an extended period.ConclusionGiven the established association between increasing age and poor prognosis in COVID-19, we anticipate that this rapid review of the current and emergent evidence might form a basis on which future work can be established. Exclusion of older people, particularly those with comorbidities, from clinical trials is well recognised and is potentially being perpetuated in the field of current COVID-19 research. ]]> <![CDATA[Clinical evidence for repurposing chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine as antiviral agents: a systematic review]]> Repurposing hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and chloroquine (CQ) as antiviral agents is a re-emerging topic with the advent of new viral epidemics.AimsTo summarize evidence from human clinical studies for using HCQ or CQ as antiviral agents for any viral infection.SourcesPubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, Web of Science for published studies without time or language restrictions; Cochrane Clinical Trial Registry and Chinese Clinical Trials Registry for trials registered after 2015; MedRxiv for preprints within the last 12 months.ContentStudy eligibility criteria were interventional and prospective observational studies (with or without a control group). Participants were adults and children with a confirmed viral infection. Interventions included the use of CQ or HCQ as antiviral agent in one or more groups of the study. Two authors independently screened abstracts, and all authors agreed on eligible studies. A meta-analysis was planned if studies were available which were similar in terms of participants, intervention, comparator and outcomes. Nineteen studies (including two preprints) were eligible (HIV 8, HCV 2, dengue 2, chikungunya 1, COVID-19 6). Nine and ten studies assessed CQ and HCQ respectively. Benefits of either drug for viral load suppression in HIV are inconsistent. CQ is ineffective in curing dengue (high-certainty evidence) and may have little or no benefit in curing chikungunya (low-certainty evidence). The evidence for COVID-19 infection is rapidly evolving but at this stage we are unsure whether either CQ or HCQ has any benefit in clearing viraemia (very-low-certainty evidence).ImplicationsUsing HCQ or CQ for HIV/HCV infections is now clinically irrelevant as other effective antivirals are available for viral load suppression (HIV) and cure (HCV). There is no benefit of CQ in dengue, and the same conclusion is likely for chikungunya. More evidence is needed to confirm whether either HCQ or CQ is beneficial in COVID-19 infection. ]]> <![CDATA[Association of circulating cystatin C levels with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis]]> This study aimed to systemically summarize the present literature about circulating cystatin C (Cys C) levels in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and provide a more precise evaluation of Cys C levels in T2DM.Material and methodsRelevant studies about Cys C concentrations in T2DM were searched in PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library database (up to Oct 31 2018). We computed the pooled standard mean difference (SMD) with its 95% confidence interval (CI) of Cys C levels through a random-effect model. The Q test and the I2 statistic were used to assess and quantify between-study heterogeneity; publication bias was evaluated through a funnel plot and Egger’s linear regression test.ResultsAfter the literature search and screening process, 14 studies with 723 T2DM patients and 473 healthy controls were finally included in the meta-analysis. The results showed that T2DM patients had significantly higher Cys C levels compared to healthy controls (SMD = 1.39, 95% CI: 0.92–1.86, p < 0.001). Publication bias was not detected based on the symmetrical shape of the funnel plot and the results of Egger’s test (p = 0.452). Subgroup analyses suggested that variables of human race, age, gender, study sample size and disease duration have a relationship with Cys C level in T2DM patients.ConclusionsOverall, our study suggests that patients with T2DM have an elevated circulating Cys C level compared to healthy controls, and it is associated with race, age, gender, study sample size and disease duration. Further investigations are still needed to explore the causal relationship of aberrant Cys C concentrations in T2DM. ]]> <![CDATA[Assessment of selected nutrient intake by Polish preschool children compared to dietary recommendations: a meta-analysis]]> In recent years a steady increase in the number of obese people has been observed worldwide. This problem is also increasingly applicable to children and adolescents. In this study, we conducted a meta-analysis of studies carried out in Poland over ten years (2005–2015) which analysed the diet of preschool children and assessed how significantly it affects the prevention of diet-dependent disease.Material and methodsTwo of the researchers independently performed a systematic search of Medline, Embase, Google Scholar, and the Polish Medical Bibliography to find studies published between 2005 and 2015. The variance of the means of differences between selected factors in relation to dietary guidelines and standards for preschool children was estimated by summing the individual variances of means. The means of differences between selected factors across the studies were pooled using random-effects model meta-analysis.ResultsThe analysis included a total of 2095 children. Mean protein content in the diet of children studied is 111% higher than indicated in dietary recommendations for this age group; mean consumption of carbohydrates in the study group is 24% higher than recommended. In moderately high calorie diets, analysis showed that the recommended norm is exceeded by 47%, CE 0.77, p < 0.001.ConclusionsNutrient intake is not compliant with recommendations for this age group and could not only inhibit physical development, but also increase the risk of diet-dependent diseases. ]]> <![CDATA[A Systematic Umbrella Review on the Epidemiology of Modifiable Health Influencing Factors and on Health Promoting Interventions Among University Students]]> Background: Universities represent an important setting for health promotion. The unique collective of university students is of particular relevance since they are the leaders, decision-makers, and parents of tomorrow. In this context, modifiable health influencing factors as well as interventions to prevent these, play a crucial role. Therefore, the present umbrella review aims to (i) provide an overview of review articles addressing epidemiological issues (prevalence and determinants) of modifiable health influencing factors in university students and (ii) to provide an overview of review articles addressing the evidence of interventions to promote/enhance modifiable health influencing factors in university students.

Methods: A systematic literature search was performed in the databases PubMed, Cochrane Reviews Library und Web of Science according to the PRISMA guidelines. Only systematic reviews and meta-analyses were included. The AMSTAR-2-Tool was used for the quality assessment.

Result: The initial search resulted in 10,726 records of which 81 fulfilled the inclusion criteria, with a further distinction in articles with an epidemiological focus (n = 39) and in articles with interventional approaches (n = 42). Topics of the different review articles ranged from physical activity over mental health, substance use, sleep, diet and nutrition, and media consumption. Many review articles had a specific focus on medical and nursing students and originated from the U.S.A., U.K., or China.

Discussion: This umbrella review provides an overview of review articles on the epidemiology of modifiable health influencing factors and on the evidence of interventions targeting these factors among university students. Thereby, experts as well as stakeholders in the field could gain insights into crucial target points for health promotion. It identifies research gaps in terms of study region and groups of students.

<![CDATA[The Relationship Between Green Space and Prosocial Behaviour Among Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review]]> The plausible role of nearby green space in influencing prosocial behaviour among children and adolescents has been studied recently. However, no review has been conducted of the evidence testing the association between green space and prosocial behaviour. This systematic review addresses this gap among children and adolescents. Within this review, we propose a conceptual framework describing potential pathways linking green space to prosocial behaviour, discuss the direction, magnitude, moderators, and mediators of the association, and develop a narrative synthesis of future study directions. Out of 63 extracted associations from 15 studies, 44 were in the positive or expected direction, of which 18 were reported to be statistically significant (p < 0.05). Overall, the current evidence shows that exposure to green space may potentially increase prosocial behaviour among children and adolescents, with some contingencies (e.g., child's sex and ethnic background). However, the volume and quality of this evidence is not yet sufficient to draw conclusions on causality. Further, heterogeneity in the indicators of green space exposure could lead to mixed findings. In addition, none of the included studies investigated potential mediators. Nevertheless, this review provides preliminary evidence and a basis for further investigation with rigorous study methodology capable of drawing causal inferences and testing potential effect modifiers, linking pathways, and relevant green space measures.

<![CDATA[Impaired Multisensory Integration Predisposes the Elderly People to Fall: A Systematic Review]]> Background: This systematic review pooled all the latest data and reviewed all the relevant studies to look into the effect of multisensory integration on the balance function in the elderly.

Methods: PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus were searched to find eligible studies published prior to May 2019. The studies were limited to those published in Chinese and English language. The quality of the included studies was assessed against the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale or an 11-item checklist, as recommended by Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ). Any disagreement among reviewers was resolved by comparing notes and reaching a consensus.

Results: Eight hundred thirty-nine records were identified and 17 of them were included for systematic review. The result supported our assumption that multisensory integration works on balance function in the elderly. All the 17 studies were believed to be of high or moderate quality.

Conclusions: The systematic review found that the impairment of multisensory integration could predispose elderly people to fall. Accurate assessment of multisensory integration can help the elderly identify the impaired balance function and minimize the risk of fall. And our results provide a new basis for further understanding of balance maintenance mechanism. Further research is warranted to explore the change in brain areas related to multisensory integration in the elderly.

<![CDATA[Most Common Publication Types of Neuroimaging Literature: Papers With High Levels of Evidence Are on the Rise]]> Objective: This study evaluated the bibliometric data of the most common publication types of the neuroimaging literature.

Methods: PubMed was searched to identify all published papers with “neuroimaging” as their MeSH Major Topics, and they were further searched by the following publication types: case report, clinical trial, comparative study, editorial, evaluation study, guideline, meta-analysis, multicenter study, randomized controlled trial, review, technical report, and validation study. The proportion of papers belonging to each publication type published in neuroimaging journals was calculated. Year-adjusted mean citation counts for each publication type were computed using data from Web of Science. Publication trend and its correlation with citation performance were assessed.

Results: Review and comparative study were the most common publication types. Publication types with the highest proportion in neuroimaging journals were guideline, validation study, and technical reports. Since the year 2000, multicenter study, review, and meta-analysis showed the strongest linear increase in annual publication count. These publication types also had the highest year-adjusted citation counts (4.7–10.0). Publication types with the lowest year-adjusted citation counts were editorial and case report (0.5–1.0). It was estimated that 12.5% of the publications labeled as case reports were incorrectly labeled.

Conclusions: Neuroimaging literature has been expanding with papers of higher levels of evidence, such as meta-analyses, multicenter studies, and randomized controlled trials.

<![CDATA[The Effects of Workplace Nature-Based Interventions on the Mental Health and Well-Being of Employees: A Systematic Review]]> Mental health in the workplace is a societal challenge with serious economical and human costs. Most prevalent mental disorders in the workforce (e.g., depression), however, are preventable. There is widespread agreement about the favorable effects of nature exposure and consequently, nature-based interventions (NBI) in the workplace have been proposed as a cost-effective approach to promote good health among employees. The objective of the present study was to systematically review scientific evidence on the effectiveness of NBI to promote mental health and well-being among actual employees in actual workplace settings. The review was conducted and presented in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines. The literature search was performed on five databases (PubMed, Embase, CENTRAL, CINHAL, and PsycINFO), hand-searching of field-specific journals, and the reference lists of retrieved papers over the past 5 years up to November (13th, 2018). Studies were eligible for inclusion if they (i) were randomized or nonrandomized controlled trials; (ii) comprised samples of actual employees; (iii) implemented a workplace-based intervention with exposure to nature; (iv) included comparison conditions that displayed a clear contrast to NBIs; and (v) investigated the quantitative effects on mental health or well-being. No restrictions on type of employees or workplace, publication period, or language of the publication were set. Risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane’s RoB2 tool. Narrative synthesis was performed due to large heterogeneity in outcome variables. Of the 510 articles identified, 10 NBIs (nine papers) met the eligibility criteria. The outcomes were grouped in five categories: (i) mental health indices, (ii) cognitive ability, (iii) recovery and restoration, (iv) work and life satisfaction, and (v) psychophysiological indicators. Narrative synthesis indicates consistently positive effects on mental health indices and cognitive ability, while mixed results were found for the other outcome categories. Caution must be given when interpreting the current evidence in this emerging research field because of the diversity of NBIs and the overall high risk of bias in the individual studies. Although in this field often researchers have to balance scientific rigor and ecological validity, there is a need for large, well-designed and rigorously conducted trials grounded in contemporary theories.

<![CDATA[Digital Mental Health Tools for Caregivers of Older Adults—A Scoping Review]]> Aim: Informal caregivers have an important role in bridging the gap between the assistance care recipients need and what can be provided by the health care systems across Europe. The burden of the caregiving role places a significant threat to caregiver health, and the vast majority of caregiver's report stress and emotional strain, depression, and increased rates of chronic diseases. In line with this, strengthening the caregiver's mental health is one of the main goals for optimal caregiving. Caregivers already struggle with the demand of their role while coping with health problems, social, family, and work obligations. The solution for the caregiver's mental health needs to be accessible, low cost, and time-effective. This scoping review investigates digital mental health tools available as a mean of supporting the mental health of caregivers.

Method: Databases searched include Summon search box, the Cochrane Library, and PubMed. Three groups of keywords were combined: relating to digital mental health interventions for caregivers, digital mental health interventions and stress in elderly care, and digital mental health interventions and burden in elderly care.

Results: Caregivers reported that digital mental health tools have an overall positive role in their health. Coping skills, emotion regulation, skill building, and education are found to be important aspects of digital mental health tools. There was a noted lack of digital mental health apps available specifically for the caregiver of older adults. Furthermore, the digital mental health tools, divided into three categories in this review, focused either on building skills or educating caregivers and assisting with the duties rather than the mental health of the caregiver itself. As repeatedly suggested in the reviewed studies, digital mental health interventions overall contribute to reducing the caregiver burden with a limitation of addressing one aspect of caregiver needs –i.e., specific coping skills or education regarding illnesses such as Alzheimer's disease and Dementia. The lack of all-encompassing, data and theory-driven digital mental health tools for addressing and supporting the caregiver's mental health is evident.

<![CDATA[Prognostic Value of Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes Differs Depending on Lymphocyte Subsets in Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma: An Updated Meta-Analysis]]> Background: Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) play a role in the anti-tumor immune response, and are often found in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC).

Methods: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis, aiming to establish pooled estimates for survival outcomes of TILs based on their abundance and infiltrating location. A literature search of PubMed/Medline, Embase, Web of Science and the Cochrane Library was conducted. Studies that investigated the prognostic significance of generalized, CD8+, CD4+, FoxP3+, CD3+, and CD45O+ TILs in ESCC patients were included.

Results: In pooled analysis, generalized TILs infiltrating the entire tumor mass were positively associated with disease-free survival (DFS), with a univariate-related hazard ratio (HR) of 0.630 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.415–0.955], and also positively associated with overall survival (OS), with a univariate-related HR of 0.586 (0.447–0.770) and a multivariate-related HR of 0.621 (0.439–0.878). The pan-tumor, intra-tumor and peri-tumor CD8+ TILs had a favorable effect on OS, with univariate-related HRs of 0.733 (0.555–0.968), 0.797 (0.660–0.962), and 0.776 (0.635–0.948), respectively. Similar results were observed in CD8+ TILs that infiltrated the whole tumor mass, with a multivariate-related HR of 0.705 (0.524–0.947). CD4+, FoxP3+, CD3+, and CD45O+ TILs were not linked to DFS or OS. Subtypes and spatial locations of TILs seemed to influence study outcomes.

Conclusions: Experimental and analytical methods of future studies should be carefully designed to avoid overestimating the effect of TILs on prognosis. Our meta-analysis confirms the prognostic efficacy of generalized TILs and CD8+ TILs in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) patients.

<![CDATA[Tobacco Smoking During Pregnancy Is Associated With Increased Risk of Moderate/Severe Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis]]> Epidemiological evidence and animal studies support that intrauterine exposure to tobacco smoke disturbs lung development and has a negative effect in the pulmonary health of the offspring. Individual studies suggest an association between fetal exposure to maternal smoking and risk of developing bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). However, this association has not yet been systematically investigated. We aimed to conduct a systematic review of studies reporting on tobacco smoking during pregnancy as potential risk factor for BPD. PubMed/MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were searched. BPD was defined as requirement of supplemental oxygen on postnatal day 28 (BPD28; all BPD), at the postmenstrual age (PMA) of 36 weeks (BPD36; moderate/severe BPD), or as requirement of more than 30% oxygen and/or positive pressure at 36 weeks PMA (severe BPD). Pooled risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using a random-effects model. Of 2,894 potentially relevant studies, 33 met the inclusion criteria. The included studies evaluated 171,772 infants and included 30,445 cases of exposure to maternal smoking and 25,340 cases of BPD of any severity. Meta-analysis showed a significant association between tobacco smoking during pregnancy and BPD36 (17 studies, RR 1.126, 95% CI 1.008–1.259, p = 0.036), but could not demonstrate a significant association between tobacco smoking during pregnancy and BPD28 (16 studies, RR 1.021, 95% CI 0.924–1.129, p = 0.681), or severe BPD (3 studies, RR 1.143, 95% CI 0.528–2.478, p = 0.734). In conclusion, our data suggest that tobacco smoking during pregnancy increases the risk of moderate/severe BPD. Our results highlight the detrimental effects of tobacco smoking and reinforce the hypothesis of the involvement of prenatal insults in the etiopathogenesis of BPD.

<![CDATA[Risk Factors for Canine Osteoarthritis and Its Predisposing Arthropathies: A Systematic Review]]> Osteoarthritis is a common clinical and pathological end-point from a range of joint disorders, that ultimately lead to structural and functional decline of the joint with associated lameness and pain. Increasing understanding of the risk factors associated with osteoarthritis will assist in addressing the significant threat it poses to the welfare of the dog population and implementing preventive measures. Presented here, is the first comprehensive systematic review and evaluation of the literature reporting risk factors for canine osteoarthritis. This paper aimed to systematically collate, review and critically evaluate the published literature on risk factors for canine osteoarthritis and its predisposing conditions such as developmental joint dysplasias, cruciate ligament degeneration, and patellar luxation. Peer-reviewed publications were systematically searched for both osteoarthritis and predisposing arthropathies on Web of Science and PubMed following PRISMA (2009) guidelines, using pre-specified combinations of keywords. Sixty-two papers met the inclusion criteria and were evaluated and graded on reporting quality. Identified risk factors included both modifiable factors (neuter status and body weight) for which intervention can potentially affect the risk of occurrence of osteoarthritis, and unmodifiable factors (sex, breed, and age) which can be used to identify individuals most “at risk.” Osteoarthritis in dogs frequently develops from predisposing arthropathies, and therefore risk factors for these are also important to consider. Papers evaluated in this study were rated as medium to high-quality; gap analysis of the literature suggests there would be significant benefit from additional research into the interactions between and relative weighting of risk factors. There are a number of examples where research outcomes are conflicting such as age and sex; and further investigation into these factors would be beneficial to attain greater understanding of the nature of these risks. Comprehensively collating the published risk factors for osteoarthritis and its predisposing conditions offers opportunities to identify possible means for control and reduction within the population through preventative methods and control strategies. These factors are highlighted here, as well as current literature gaps where further research is warranted, to aid future research direction.

<![CDATA[Reducing falls in older adults recently discharged from hospital: a systematic review and meta-analysis]]> older adults are known to have increased falls rates and functional decline following hospital discharge, with substantial economic healthcare costs. This systematic review aimed to synthesise the evidence for effective falls prevention interventions in older adults recently discharged from hospital.Methodsliterature searches of six databases of quantitative studies conducted from 1990 to June 2017, reporting falls outcomes of falls prevention interventions for community-dwelling older adults discharged from hospital were included. Study quality was assessed using a standardised JBI critical appraisal tool (MAStARI) and data pooled using Rev-Man Review Manager®Resultssixteen studies (total sample size N = 3,290, from eight countries, mean age 77) comprising 12 interventions met inclusion criteria. We found home hazard modification interventions delivered to those with a previous falls history (1 study), was effective in reducing the number of falls (RR 0.63, 95%CI 0.43, 0.93, Low GRADE evidence). Home exercise interventions (3 studies) significantly increased the proportion of fallers (OR 1.74, 95%CI 1.17, 2.60, Moderate GRADE evidence), and did not significantly reduce falls rate (RR 1.27, 95%CI 0.99, 1.62, Very Low GRADE evidence) or falls injury rate (RR 1.16, 95%CI, 0.83,1.63, Low GRADE evidence). Nutritional supplementation for malnourished older adults (1 study) significantly reduced the proportion of fallers (HR 0.41, 95% CI 0.19, 0.86, Low GRADE evidence).Conclusionthe recommended falls prevention interventions for older adults recently discharged from hospital are to provide home hazard minimisation particularly if they have a recent previous falls history and consider nutritional supplementation if they are malnourished. ]]> <![CDATA[Systematic review and meta‐analysis of randomized controlled trials of psychological interventions to improve glycaemic control in children and adults with type 1 diabetes]]> A previous systematic review and meta‐analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCT) of psychological interventions to improve glycaemic control demonstrated an effect for children with type 1 diabetes but not adults, with a reduction in HbA1c of 5 mmol/mol (0.5%).The current review synthesized data from nine adult (n = 1102) and 20 child RCTs (n = 2567) in an aggregate meta‐analysis; there was no improvement/reduction in HbA1c for children or adults.Network meta‐analysis for adults demonstrated that cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) and attention control were associated with statistically and clinically significant HbA1c reduction.Psychological interventions are not indicated for improving glycaemic control for people with type 1 diabetes. For adults, CBT‐based interventions have the potential to be effective.

<![CDATA[Stabilization Beyond Mood: Stabilizing Patients With Bipolar Disorder in the Various Phases of Life]]> There are different ways to define stabilization and currently, the main standpoint regards it as no-depression/no-mania. Furthermore, each person is physiologically different from childhood to adulthood, and in old age, thus the meaning of stabilization should take into account both growth and maturity. We aimed to review systematically studies focusing on mood stabilization in all phases of bipolar disorder (BD) and across all life phases, including pregnancy and the perinatal period, which is still a different phase in women's life cycles.MethodsWe carried out a PubMed search focusing on studies of bipolar disorder treated with drugs and aimed at stabilization with the following search strategy stabiliz*[ti] OR stabilis*[ti] OR stable[ti] OR stability[ti]) AND mood[ti] AND bipolar. In conducting our review, we followed the PRISMA statement. Agreement on inclusion was reached by consensus of all authors through a Delphi rounds procedure.ResultsThe above search strategy produced 509 records on January 25, 2020. Of them, 58 fitted our inclusion criteria and were discussed. The eligible studies spanned from September 1983 to July 6, 2019.ConclusionsNo clear-cut indications could be drawn due to a number of limitations involving sample inconsistency and different methods of assessing mood stabilization. The evidence collected so far does not allow recommended treatments for Adolescents, pregnant or perinatal women, and aged patients. However, adults, not within these groups, better focused upon. For their manic/mixed phases, second generation antipsychotic drugs may be useful in the short-to-medium run, alone or combined with mood stabilizers (MSs). However, MSs, and especially lithium, continue to be pivotal in chronic treatment. Bipolar depression should rely on MSs, but an antidepressant may be added on and can prove to be helpful. However, there are concerns with the tendency of antidepressants to induce the opposite polarity or mood instability, rendering the need for concurrent MS prescription mandatory. ]]> <![CDATA[Using fMRI to Assess Brain Activity in People With Down Syndrome: A Systematic Review]]> Background: In the last few years, many investigations have focused on brain activity in general and in populations with different pathologies using non-invasive techniques such as electroencefalography (EEG), positron emission tomography (PET), functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, the use of non-invasive techniques to detect brain signals to evaluate the cognitive activity of people with Down syndrome (DS) has not been sufficiently addressed. The objective of this study is to describe the state-of-the-art in fMRI techniques for recording brain signals in people with DS.

Method: A systematic review was performed based on PRISMA recommendations; only nine papers on this topic have been published. Three independent researchers selected all relevant information from each paper. Analyses of information concordance showed a high value of agreement between researchers.

Results: Although few relevant works have been published, the use of fMRI in people with DS is becoming an appropriate option to study brain function in this population. Of the nine identified papers, five used task designs, and four used resting-state paradigms.

Conclusion: Thus, we emphasize the need to incorporate rigorous cognitive activity procedures in evaluations of the DS population. We suggest several factors (such as head correction movements and paired sample techniques) that must be considered when designing an fMRI study with a task or a resting-state paradigm in a DS population.