ResearchPad - systematic-reviews https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Fruit and vegetable consumption in Europe according to gender, educational attainment and regional affiliation—A cross-sectional study in 21 European countries]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13846 The purpose of the present study was to examine fruit and vegetable consumption according to gender, educational attainment and regional affiliation in Europe.DesignCross-sectional study.Setting21 European countries.Participants37 672 adults participating in the 7th round of the European Social Survey.Main outcome measuresFruit and vegetable consumption was measured using two single frequency questions. Responses were dichotomized into low (<once a day) and high (≥once a day) consumption. The association between consumption of fruit and vegetables and gender, educational level, regional affiliation was examined using logistic regression analyses.ResultsOverall, females showed increased odds of consuming fruit (OR 1.71 (95%CI:1.62, 1.79) and vegetable (1.59 (1.51, 1.67)) compared to males and high educated participants showed increased odds of consuming fruit (1.53 (1.43, 1.63)) and vegetables (1.86 (1.74, 2.00)) compared to low educated participants. Our results also showed that participants living in Eastern Europe had the lowest odds of consuming fruit and vegetables, whereas participants from Southern- and Northern Europe had the highest odds of consuming fruit and vegetables, respectively. Results from interaction analyses confirmed the positive association between fruit and vegetable consumption and educational level, although for some European regions, decreased odds of fruit and vegetables was observed among medium educated participants compared to those with low education.ConclusionsOverall, the present study showed that being female and having a high education were associated with increased consumption of fruit and vegetables. However, the direction and strength of these relationships depends on regional affiliations. ]]> <![CDATA[Interventions to improve self-management of adults living with HIV on Antiretroviral Therapy: A systematic review]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7726 Since its initial recognition, HIV has been responsible for around 35 million deaths globally. The introduction of Antiretroviral Therapy has helped to reduce mortality from HIV. However, the resulting increased longevity has influenced the experience of people living with HIV, which now manifests as a chronic condition requiring effective self-management. This review aimed to identify and evaluate the effectiveness of interventions to improve self-management of adults living with HIV on Antiretroviral therapy.MethodsThe review included published experimental studies addressing interventions to improve self-management of adults living with HIV on Antiretroviral Therapy. Studies were included if they addressed two or more outcomes of self-management, as defined by the Theory of Individual and Family Self-Management. The search covered four databases and was limited to papers published in the English language from 2001 to March 30, 2019. The reference lists of included studies were further searched for additional studies. Two independent reviewers using the Joanna Briggs Institute Meta-Analysis of Statistics Assessment and Review Instrument (JBI SUMARI) assessed the methodological quality of the reviewed papers. Data extraction was undertaken using the JBI SUMARI standardized data extraction tool. As the included papers were not homogeneous, it was not possible to conduct a meta-analysis. A narrative synthesis was undertaken to synthesize the findings of the included studies.ResultsThe search identified 337 articles from which 10 experimental and 2 quasi-experimental studies were included. The total participant sample in the included studies was 1661 adults living with HIV. The overall evidence quality of the findings was considered moderate. Many of the studies included in this review comprised multi-component interventions to improve self-management. Skills training, in conjunction with other forms of interventions, particularly phone counseling, was commonly employed and generally effective in improving self-management outcomes. Counseling with a symptom management manual was another employed and effective intervention, followed by technology-assisted self-management interventions. The most common outcomes measured were maintaining medication adherence and quality of life, followed by symptom management, self-efficacy, coping, and social support.ConclusionsInterventions to improve self-management varied across studies. However, promising outcomes achieved in the majority of studies through interventions comprising a combination of skills training, phone counseling, counseling with symptom management manuals, and technology-assisted interventions. ]]> <![CDATA[Prevalence, Severity and Mortality associated with COPD and Smoking in patients with COVID-19: A Rapid Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7662 Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an evolving infectious disease that dramatically spread all over the world in the early part of 2020. No studies have yet summarized the potential severity and mortality risks caused by COVID-19 in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and we update information in smokers.MethodsWe systematically searched electronic databases from inception to March 24, 2020. Data were extracted by two independent authors in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Study quality was assessed using a modified version of the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. We synthesized a narrative from eligible studies and conducted a meta-analysis using a random-effects model to calculate pooled prevalence rates and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI).ResultsIn total, 123 abstracts were screened and 61 full-text manuscripts were reviewed. A total of 15 studies met the inclusion criteria, which included a total of 2473 confirmed COVID-19 patients. All studies were included in the meta-analysis. The crude case fatality rate of COVID-19 was 7.4%. The pooled prevalence rates of COPD patients and smokers in COVID-19 cases were 2% (95% CI, 1%–3%) and 9% (95% CI, 4%–14%) respectively. COPD patients were at a higher risk of more severe disease (risk of severity = 63%, (22/35) compared to patients without COPD 33.4% (409/1224) [calculated RR, 1.88 (95% CI, 1.4–2.4)]. This was associated with higher mortality (60%). Our results showed that 22% (31/139) of current smokers and 46% (13/28) of ex-smokers had severe complications. The calculated RR showed that current smokers were 1.45 times more likely [95% CI: 1.03–2.04] to have severe complications compared to former and never smokers. Current smokers also had a higher mortality rate of 38.5%.ConclusionAlthough COPD prevalence in COVID-19 cases was low in current reports, COVID-19 infection was associated with substantial severity and mortality rates in COPD. Compared to former and never smokers, current smokers were at greater risk of severe complications and higher mortality rate. Effective preventive measures are required to reduce COVID-19 risk in COPD patients and current smokers. ]]> <![CDATA[Systematic review of the prevalence of current smoking among hospitalized COVID-19 patients in China: could nicotine be a therapeutic option?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N74e5f8c0-21f2-4a95-b2f4-5a40f36978e7 The effects of smoking on Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) are currently unknown. The purpose of this study was to systematically examine the prevalence of current smoking among hospitalized patients with COVID-19 in China, considering the high-population smoking prevalence in China (26.6%). A systematic review of the literature (PubMed) was performed on April 1. Thirteen studies examining the clinical characteristics of hospitalized COVID-19 patients in China and presenting data on the smoking status were found. The pooled prevalence of current smoking from all studies was calculated by random-effect meta-analysis. To address the possibility that some smokers had quit shortly before hospitalization and were classified as former smokers on admission to the hospital, we performed a secondary analysis in which all former smokers were classified as current smokers. A total of 5960 patients were included in the studies identified. The current smoking prevalence ranged from 1.4% (95% CI 0.0–3.4%) to 12.6% (95% CI 10.6–14.6%). An unusually low prevalence of current smoking was observed from the pooled analysis (6.5%, 95% CI 4.9–8.2%) as compared to population smoking prevalence in China. The secondary analysis, classifying former smokers as current smokers, found a pooled estimate of 7.3% (95% CI 5.7–8.9%). In conclusion, an unexpectedly low prevalence of current smoking was observed among patients with COVID-19 in China, which was approximately 1/4th the population smoking prevalence. Although the generalized advice to quit smoking as a measure to reduce health risk remains valid, the findings, together with the well-established immunomodulatory effects of nicotine, suggest that pharmaceutical nicotine should be considered as a potential treatment option in COVID-19.

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<![CDATA[Systematic review of reporting benefits and harms of surgical interventions in randomized clinical trials]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N5bc66241-db83-4e95-8ace-71bc9f617e7b

Background

Standardized reporting methods facilitate comparisons between studies. Reporting of data on benefits and harms of treatments in surgical RCTs should support clinical decision‐making. Correct and complete reporting of the outcomes of clinical trials is mandatory to appreciate available evidence and to inform patients properly before asking informed consent.

Methods

RCTs published between January 2005 and January 2017 in 15 leading journals comparing a surgical treatment with any other treatment were reviewed systematically. The CONSORT checklist, including the extension for harms, was used to appraise the publications. Beneficial and harmful treatment outcomes, their definitions and their precision measures were extracted.

Results

Of 1200 RCTs screened, 88 trials were included. For the differences in effect size of beneficial outcomes, 68 per cent of the trials reported a P value only but not a 95 per cent confidence interval. For harmful effects, this was 67 per cent. Only five of the 88 trials (6 per cent) reported a number needed to treat, and no study a number needed to harm. Only 61 per cent of the trials reported on both the beneficial and harmful outcomes of the intervention studied in the same paper.

Conclusion

Despite CONSORT guidelines, current reporting of benefits and harms in surgical trials does not facilitate clear communication of treatment outcomes with patients. Researchers, reviewers and journal editors should ensure proper reporting of treatment benefits and harms in trials.

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<![CDATA[Prospective methods for identifying perioperative risk‐assessment methods for patient safety over 20 years: a systematic review]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N74e2a24b-ec60-47be-8a14-c52c6a3c67da

Background

Serious preventable surgical events still occur despite considerable efforts to improve patient safety. In addition to learning from retrospective analyses, prospective risk‐assessment methods may help to decrease preventable events further by targeting perioperative hazards. The aim of this systematic review was to assess the methods used to identify perioperative patient safety risks prospectively, and to describe the risk areas targeted, the quality characteristics and feasibility of methods.

Methods

MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL and Cochrane databases were searched, adhering to PRISMA guidelines. All studies describing the development and results of prospective methods to identify perioperative patient safety risks were included and assessed on methodological quality. Exclusion criteria were interventional studies, studies targeting one specific issue, studies reporting on structural factors relating to fundamental hospital items, and non‐original or case studies.

Results

The electronic search resulted in 16 708 publications, but only 20 were included for final analysis, describing five prospective risk‐assessment methods. Direct observation was used in most studies, often in combination. Direct (16 studies) and indirect (4 studies) observations identified (potential) adverse events (P)AEs, process flow disruptions, poor protocol compliance and poor practice performance. (Modified) Healthcare Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (HFMEA™) (5 studies) targeted potential process flow disruption failures, and direct (P)AE surveillance (3 studies) identified (P)AEs prospectively. Questionnaires (3 studies) identified poor protocol compliance, surgical flow disturbances and patients' willingness to ask questions about their care. Overall, quality characteristics and feasibility of the methods were poorly reported.

Conclusion

The direct (in‐person) observation appears to be the primary prospective risk‐assessment method that currently may best help to target perioperative hazards. This is a reliable method and covers a broad spectrum of perioperative risk areas.

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<![CDATA[Acute esophageal necrosis: A systematic review and pooled analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nee6a60bf-87af-4fb5-acbc-68ed81f624b7

BACKGROUND

Acute esophageal necrosis (AEN) is a rare entity with multifactorial etiology, usually presenting with signs of upper gastrointestinal bleeding.

AIM

To systematically review all available data on demographics, clinical features, outcomes and management of this medical condition.

METHODS

A systematic literature search was performed with respect to the PRISMA statement (end-of-search date: October 24, 2018). Data on the study design, interventions, participants and outcomes were extracted by two independent reviewers.

RESULTS

Seventy-nine studies were included in this review. Overall, 114 patients with AEN were identified, of whom 83 were males and 31 females. Mean patient age was 62.1 ± 16.1. The most common presenting symptoms were melena, hematemesis or other manifestations of gastric bleeding (85%). The lower esophagus was most commonly involved (92.9%). The most widely implemented treatment modality was conservative treatment (75.4%), while surgical or endoscopic intervention was required in 24.6% of the cases. Mean overall follow-up was 66.2 ± 101.8 d. Overall 29.9% of patients died either during the initial hospital stay or during the follow-up period. Gastrointestinal symptoms on presentation [Odds ratio 3.50 (1.09-11.30), P = 0.03] and need for surgical or endoscopic treatment [surgical: Odds ratio 1.25 (1.03-1.51), P = 0.02; endoscopic: Odds ratio 1.4 (1.17-1.66), P < 0.01] were associated with increased odds of complications. A sub-analysis separating early versus late cases (after 2006) revealed a significantly increased frequency of surgical or endoscopic intervention (9.7 % vs 30.1% respectively, P = 0.04)

CONCLUSION

AEN is a rare condition with controversial pathogenesis and unclear optimal management. Although the frequency of surgical and endoscopic intervention has increased in recent years, outcomes have remained the same. Therefore, further research work is needed to better understand how to best treat this potentially lethal disease.

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<![CDATA[Immediate and delayed autologous abdominal microvascular flap breast reconstruction in patients receiving adjuvant, neoadjuvant or no radiotherapy: a meta‐analysis of clinical and quality‐of‐life outcomes]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N36d2d623-b851-47aa-af1e-e9711cecdfa3

Background

Effects of postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) on autologous breast reconstruction (BRR) are controversial regarding surgical complications, cosmetic appearance and quality of life (QOL). This systematic review evaluated these outcomes after abdominal free flap reconstruction in patients undergoing postoperative adjuvant radiotherapy (PMRT), preoperative radiotherapy (neoadjuvant radiotherapy) and no radiotherapy, aiming to establish evidence‐based optimal timings for radiotherapy and BRR to guide contemporary management.

Methods

The study was registered on PROSPERO (CRD42017077945). Embase, MEDLINE, Google Scholar, CENTRAL, Science Citation Index and ClinicalTrials.gov were searched (January 2000 to August 2018). Study quality and risk of bias were assessed using GRADE and Cochrane's ROBINS‐I respectively.

Results

Some 12 studies were identified, involving 1756 patients (350 PMRT, 683 no radiotherapy and 723 neoadjuvant radiotherapy), with a mean follow‐up of 27·1 (range 12·0–54·0) months for those having PMRT, 16·8 (1·0–50·3) months for neoadjuvant radiotherapy, and 18·3 (1·0–48·7) months for no radiotherapy. Three prospective and nine retrospective cohorts were included. There were no randomized studies. Five comparative radiotherapy studies evaluated PMRT and four assessed neoadjuvant radiotherapy. Studies were of low quality, with moderate to serious risk of bias. Severe complications were similar between the groups: PMRT versus no radiotherapy (92 versus 141 patients respectively; odds ratio (OR) 2·35, 95 per cent c.i. 0·63 to 8·81, P = 0·200); neoadjuvant radiotherapy versus no radiotherapy (180 versus 392 patients; OR 1·24, 0·76 to 2·04, P = 0·390); and combined PMRT plus neoadjuvant radiotherapy versus no radiotherapy (272 versus 453 patients; OR 1·38, 0·83 to 2·32, P = 0·220). QOL and cosmetic studies used inconsistent methodologies.

Conclusion

Evidence is conflicting and study quality was poor, limiting recommendations for the timing of autologous BRR and radiotherapy. The impact of PMRT and neoadjuvant radiotherapy appeared to be similar.

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<![CDATA[Drug induced pancreatitis: A systematic review of case reports to determine potential drug associations]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N8c4889da-2d62-467b-8b66-b271dff2cf8d

Objective

A current assessment of case reports of possible drug-induced pancreatitis is needed. We systematically reviewed the case report literature to identify drugs with potential associations with acute pancreatitis and the burden of evidence supporting these associations.

Methods

A protocol was developed a priori (PROSPERO CRD42017060473). We searched MEDLINE, Embase, the Cochrane Library, and additional sources to identify cases of drug-induced pancreatitis that met accepted diagnostic criteria of acute pancreatitis. Cases caused by multiple drugs or combination therapy were excluded. Established systematic review methods were used for screening and data extraction. A classification system for associated drugs was developed a priori based upon the number of cases, re-challenge, exclusion of non-drug causes of acute pancreatitis, and consistency of latency.

Results

Seven-hundred and thirteen cases of potential drug-induced pancreatitis were identified, implicating 213 unique drugs. The evidence base was poor: exclusion of non-drug causes of acute pancreatitis was incomplete or poorly reported in all cases, 47% had at least one underlying condition predisposing to acute pancreatitis, and causality assessment was not conducted in 81%. Forty-five drugs (21%) were classified as having the highest level of evidence regarding their association with acute pancreatitis; causality was deemed to be probable or definite for 19 of these drugs (42%). Fifty-seven drugs (27%) had the lowest level of evidence regarding an association with acute pancreatitis, being implicated in single case reports, without exclusion of other causes of acute pancreatitis.

Discussion

Much of the case report evidence upon which drug-induced pancreatitis associations are based is tenuous. A greater emphasis on exclusion of all non-drug causes of acute pancreatitis and on quality reporting would improve the evidence base. It should be recognized that reviews of case reports, are valuable scoping tools but have limited strength to establish drug-induced pancreatitis associations.

Registration

CRD42017060473.

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<![CDATA[Association between boarding in the emergency department and in-hospital mortality: A systematic review]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N48ef4c13-827b-4694-911d-7d7581473712

Importance

Boarding in the emergency department (ED) is a critical indicator of quality of care for hospitals. It is defined as the time between the admission decision and departure from the ED. As a result of boarding, patients stay in the ED until inpatient beds are available; moreover, boarding is associated with various adverse events.

Study objective

The objective of our systematic review was to determine whether ED boarding (EDB) time is associated with in-hospital mortality (IHM).

Methods

A systematic search was conducted in academic databases to identify relevant studies. Medline, PubMed, Scopus, Embase, Cochrane, Web of Science, Cochrane, CINAHL and PsychInfo were searched. We included all peer-reviewed published studies from all previous years until November 2018. Studies performed in the ED and focused on the association between EDB and IHM as the primary objective were included. Extracted data included study characteristics, prognostic factors, outcomes, and IHM. A search update in PubMed was performed in May 2019 to ensure the inclusion of recent studies before publishing.

Results

From the initial 4,321 references found through the systematic search, the manual screening of reference lists and the updated search in PubMed, a total of 12 studies were identified as eligible for a descriptive analysis. Overall, six studies found an association between EDB and IHM, while five studies showed no association. The last remaining study included both ICU and non-ICU subgroups and showed conflicting results, with a positive association for non-ICU patients but no association for ICU patients. Overall, a tendency toward an association between EDB and IHM using the pool random effect was observed.

Conclusion

Our systematic review did not find a strong evidence for the association between ED boarding and IHM but there is a tendency toward this association. Further well-controlled, international multicenter studies are needed to demonstrate whether this association exists and whether there is a specific EDB time cut-off that results in increased IHM.

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<![CDATA[Novel alternative transplantation therapy for orthotopic liver transplantation in liver failure: A systematic review]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Ne9cafa3f-d74c-420a-8880-94bda93ac538

BACKGROUND

Orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) is the only treatment for end-stage liver failure; however, graft shortage impedes its applicability. Therefore, studies investigating alternative therapies are plenty. Nevertheless, no study has comprehensively analyzed these therapies from different perspectives.

AIM

To summarize the current status of alternative transplantation therapies for OLT and to support future research.

METHODS

A systematic literature search was performed using PubMed, Cochrane Library and EMBASE for articles published between January 2010 and 2018, using the following MeSH terms: [(liver transplantation) AND cell] OR [(liver transplantation) AND differentiation] OR [(liver transplantation) AND organoid] OR [(liver transplantation) AND xenotransplantation]. Various types of studies describing therapies to replace OLT were retrieved for full-text evaluation. Among them, we selected articles including in vivo transplantation.

RESULTS

A total of 89 studies were selected. There are three principle forms of treatment for liver failure: Xeno-organ transplantation, scaffold-based transplantation, and cell transplantation. Xeno-organ transplantation was covered in 14 articles, scaffold-based transplantation was discussed in 22 articles, and cell transplantation was discussed in 53 articles. Various types of alternative therapies were discussed: Organ liver, 25 articles; adult hepatocytes, 31 articles; fetal hepatocytes, three articles; mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), 25 articles; embryonic stem cells, one article; and induced pluripotent stem cells, three articles and other sources. Clinical applications were discussed in 12 studies: Cell transplantation using hepatocytes in four studies, five studies using umbilical cord-derived MSCs, three studies using bone marrow-derived MSCs, and two studies using hematopoietic stem cells.

CONCLUSION

The clinical applications are present only for cell transplantation. Scaffold-based transplantation is a comprehensive treatment combining organ and cell transplantations, which warrants future research to find relevant clinical applications.

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<![CDATA[Hyperbaric oxygen therapy for nonischemic diabetic ulcers: A systematic review]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N65e53679-190f-4684-95bb-a8f073e97f3a

ABSTRACT

Diabetic foot ulcers are a common complication of diabetes, which affects 25% of patients and may ultimately lead to amputation of affected limbs. Research suggests hyperbaric oxygen therapy improves healing of these ulcers. However, this has not been reflected in previous reviews, possibly because they did not differentiate between patients with and without peripheral arterial occlusive disease. Therefore, we performed a systematic review of published literature in the MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane CENTRAL databases on nonischemic diabetic foot ulcers with outcome measures including complete ulcer healing, amputation rate (major and minor), and mortality. Seven studies were included, of which two were randomized clinical trials. Two studies found no difference in major amputation rate, whereas one large retrospective study found 2% more major amputations in the hyperbaric oxygen group. However, this study did not correct for baseline differences. Two studies showed no significant difference in minor amputation rate. Five studies reporting on complete wound healing showed no significant differences. In conclusion, the current evidence suggests that hyperbaric oxygen therapy does not accelerate wound healing and does not prevent major or minor amputations in patients with a diabetic foot ulcer without peripheral arterial occlusive disease. Based on the available evidence, routine clinical use of this therapy cannot be recommended. However, the available research for this specific subgroup of patients is scarce, and physicians should counsel patients on expected risks and benefits. Additional research, focusing especially on patient selection criteria, is needed to better identify patients that might profit from this therapy modality.

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<![CDATA[Splenic injuries secondary to colonoscopy: Rare but serious complication]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nc7c8c651-f707-465a-a2a5-301593250371

BACKGROUND

Colonoscopy is a safe and routine diagnostic and therapeutic procedure for evaluation of large bowel diseases. Most common procedure related complications include bleeding and perforation but rarely a splenic Injury.

AIM

To investigate the reason for colonoscopy, presentation of patient with spleen injury, types of injury, diagnosis, management and outcomes of patients

METHODS

A structured search on four databases was done and 45 articles with 68 patients were selected. The reason for colonoscopy, presentation of patient with spleen injury, types of injury, diagnosis, management and outcomes of patients were identified and analyzed using SPSS.

RESULTS

The mean age of the patients was 62.7 years with 64% females. Twenty two percent had a complete splenic rupture with colonoscopy while 63% had subcapsular hematoma, spleen laceration and spleen avulsion. The most common reason for colonoscopy was screening (46%) followed by diagnostic colonoscopy (28%). Eighty seven percent of patients presented with abdominal pain. Patients with spleen rupture mostly required splenectomy (47%), while minor spleen hematomas and lacerations were managed conservatively (38%). Six percent of the patients were managed with proximal splenic artery splenic embolization and 4% were managed with laparoscopic repair. The overall mortality was 10% while 77% had complete recovery. The reason of colonoscopy against presentation specifically, abdominal pain showed no statistical significance P = 0.69. The indication of colonoscopy had no significant impact on incidence of splenic injury (P = 0.89). Majority of the patients (47%) were managed with splenectomy while the rest were managed conservatively (P = 0.04). This association was moderately strong at a cramer’s V test (0.34). The Fisher exact test showed a higher mortality with spleen rupture (P = 0.028).

CONCLUSION

Spleen rupture due to colonoscopy is a significant concern and is associated with high mortality. The management of the patients can be individualized based on clinical presentation.

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<![CDATA[Systematic review and narrative synthesis of surgeons' perception of postoperative outcomes and risk]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N276b7dfe-f26c-4423-93ca-34b12f1deacf

Background

The accuracy with which surgeons can predict outcomes following surgery has not been explored in a systematic way. The aim of this review was to determine how accurately a surgeon's ‘gut feeling’ or perception of risk correlates with patient outcomes and available risk scoring systems.

Methods

A systematic review was undertaken in accordance with PRISMA guidelines. A narrative synthesis was performed in accordance with the Guidance on the Conduct of Narrative Synthesis In Systematic Reviews. Studies comparing surgeons' preoperative or postoperative assessment of patient outcomes were included. Studies that made comparisons with risk scoring tools were also included. Outcomes evaluated were postoperative mortality, general and operation‐specific morbidity and long‐term outcomes.

Results

Twenty‐seven studies comprising 20 898 patients undergoing general, gastrointestinal, cardiothoracic, orthopaedic, vascular, urology, endocrine and neurosurgical operations were included. Surgeons consistently overpredicted mortality rates and were outperformed by existing risk scoring tools in six of seven studies comparing area under receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves (AUC). Surgeons' prediction of general morbidity was good, and was equivalent to, or better than, pre‐existing risk prediction models. Long‐term outcomes were poorly predicted by surgeons, with AUC values ranging from 0·51 to 0·75. Four of five studies found postoperative risk estimates to be more accurate than those made before surgery.

Conclusion

Surgeons consistently overestimate mortality risk and are outperformed by pre‐existing tools; prediction of longer‐term outcomes is also poor. Surgeons should consider the use of risk prediction tools when available to inform clinical decision‐making.

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<![CDATA[Meta‐analysis and field synopsis of genetic variants associated with the risk and severity of acute pancreatitis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N35cd09b1-4c72-45f5-be2e-605965818447

Background

Genetic risk factors can provide insight into susceptibility for acute pancreatitis (AP) and disease progression towards (infected) necrotizing pancreatitis and persistent organ failure. The aim of the study was to undertake a systematic review of the genetic evidence for AP.

Methods

Online databases (MEDLINE, Embase, BIOSIS, Web of Science, Cochrane Library) were searched to 8 February 2018. Studies that reported on genetic associations with AP susceptibility, severity and/or complications were eligible for inclusion. Meta‐analyses were performed of variants that were reported by at least two data sources. Venice criteria and Bayesian false‐discovery probability were applied to assess credibility.

Results

Ninety‐six studies reporting on 181 variants in 79 genes were identified. In agreement with previous meta‐analyses, credible associations were established for SPINK1 (odds ratio (OR) 2·87, 95 per cent c.i. 1·89 to 4·34), IL1B (OR 1·23, 1·06 to 1·42) and IL6 (OR 1·64, 1·15 to 2·32) and disease risk. In addition, two novel credible single‐nucleotide polymorphisms were identified in Asian populations: ALDH2 (OR 0·48, 0·36 to 0·64) and IL18 (OR 1·47, 1·18 to 1·82). Associations of variants in TNF, GSTP1 and CXCL8 genes with disease severity were identified, but were of low credibility.

Conclusion

Genetic risk factors in genes related to trypsin activation and innate immunity appear to be associated with susceptibility to and severity of AP.

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<![CDATA[Systematic review of learning curves in robot‐assisted surgery]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nb88e7fcf-7c91-40a2-8ae6-ac8b82317a51

Background

Increased uptake of robotic surgery has led to interest in learning curves for robot‐assisted procedures. Learning curves, however, are often poorly defined. This systematic review was conducted to identify the available evidence investigating surgeon learning curves in robot‐assisted surgery.

Methods

MEDLINE, Embase and the Cochrane Library were searched in February 2018, in accordance with PRISMA guidelines, alongside hand searches of key congresses and existing reviews. Eligible articles were those assessing learning curves associated with robot‐assisted surgery in patients.

Results

Searches identified 2316 records, of which 68 met the eligibility criteria, reporting on 68 unique studies. Of these, 49 assessed learning curves based on patient data across ten surgical specialties. All 49 were observational, largely single‐arm (35 of 49, 71 per cent) and included few surgeons. Learning curves exhibited substantial heterogeneity, varying between procedures, studies and metrics. Standards of reporting were generally poor, with only 17 of 49 (35 per cent) quantifying previous experience. Methods used to assess the learning curve were heterogeneous, often lacking statistical validation and using ambiguous terminology.

Conclusion

Learning curve estimates were subject to considerable uncertainty. Robust evidence was lacking, owing to limitations in study design, frequent reporting gaps and substantial heterogeneity in the methods used to assess learning curves. The opportunity remains for the establishment of optimal quantitative methods for the assessment of learning curves, to inform surgical training programmes and improve patient outcomes.

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<![CDATA[Programmed cell death-1 inhibitor-related sclerosing cholangitis: A systematic review]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nd6a28bca-3ae4-4aca-be17-57392b5a06b0

BACKGROUND

Programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) inhibitor has been indicated for many types of malignancies. However, these inhibitors also cause immune-related adverse events. Hepatobiliary disorder is a phenotype of immune-related adverse event affecting 0%–4.5% of patients treated with PD-1 inhibitors. Recent studies have reported PD-1 inhibitor-related sclerosing cholangitis (SC); however, the associated clinical and pathological features are unclear.

AIM

To evaluate the clinical and pathological features of PD-1 inhibitor-related SC through a systematic review of the literature.

METHODS

The review, conducted using electronic databases in PubMed, was restricted to the period from January 2014 to September 2019 and focused on case reports/series on PD-1 inhibitor-related SC published in English. We scanned the references of the selected literature to identify any further relevant studies. Six cases previously studied by us, including three that have not yet been published, were included in this review.

RESULTS

Thirty-one PD-1 inhibitor-related SC cases were evaluated. Median age of patients was 67 years (range, 43–89), with a male to female ratio of 21:10. The main disease requiring PD-1 inhibitor treatment was non-small cell lung cancer. Agents that caused PD-1 inhibitor-related SC were nivolumab (19 cases), pembrolizumab (10 cases), avelumab (1 case), and durvalumab (1 case). The median number of cycles until PD-1 inhibitor-related SC onset was 5.5 (range, 1–27). Abdominal pain or discomfort (35.5%, 11/31) was the most frequent symptom. Blood serum tests identified liver dysfunction with a notable increase in biliary tract enzymes relative to hepatic enzymes, and a normal level of serum immunoglobulin G4. Biliary dilation without obstruction (76.9%, 20/26), diffuse hypertrophy of the extrahepatic biliary tract (90.5%, 19/21), and multiple strictures of the intrahepatic biliary tract (30.4%, 7/23) were noted. In 11/23 (47.8%) cases, pathological examination indicated that CD8+ T cells were the dominant inflammatory cells in the bile duct or peribiliary tract. Although corticosteroids were mainly used for PD inhibitor-related SC treatment, the response rate was 11.5% (3/26).

CONCLUSION

Some clinical and pathological features of PD-1 inhibitor-related SC were revealed. To establish diagnostic criteria for PD-1 inhibitor-related SC, more cases need to be evaluated.

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<![CDATA[Lancet Commission on Hypertension group position statement on the global improvement of accuracy standards for devices that measure blood pressure]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nd2ee98b6-b967-4ce4-9361-5a464cd4c273

The Lancet Commission on Hypertension identified that a key action to address the worldwide burden of high blood pressure (BP) was to improve the quality of BP measurements by using BP devices that have been validated for accuracy. Currently, there are over 3000 commercially available BP devices, but many do not have published data on accuracy testing according to established scientific standards. This problem is enabled through weak or absent regulations that allow clearance of devices for commercial use without formal validation. In addition, new BP technologies have emerged (e.g. cuffless sensors) for which there is no scientific consensus regarding BP measurement accuracy standards. Altogether, these issues contribute to the widespread availability of clinic and home BP devices with limited or uncertain accuracy, leading to inappropriate hypertension diagnosis, management and drug treatment on a global scale. The most significant problems relating to the accuracy of BP devices can be resolved by the regulatory requirement for mandatory independent validation of BP devices according to the universally-accepted International Organisation for Standardization Standard. This is a primary recommendation for which there is an urgent international need. Other key recommendations are development of validation standards specifically for new BP technologies and online lists of accurate devices that are accessible to consumers and health professionals. Recommendations are aligned with WHO policies on medical devices and universal healthcare. Adherence to recommendations would increase the global availability of accurate BP devices and result in better diagnosis and treatment of hypertension, thus decreasing the worldwide burden from high BP.

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<![CDATA[Women's views on screening for Type 2 diabetes after gestational diabetes: a systematic review, qualitative synthesis and recommendations for increasing uptake]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N7007d53d-7eb8-40f4-a7d4-f5e70032f746

Abstract

Aim

Many women do not attend recommended glucose testing following a pregnancy affected by gestational diabetes (GDM). We aimed to synthesize the literature regarding the views and experiences of women with a history of GDM on postpartum glucose testing, focusing on barriers and facilitators to attendance.

Methods

We systematically identified qualitative studies that examine women's experiences following GDM relating to glucose testing (diabetes screening) or experience of interventions to promote uptake of testing. We conducted a thematic synthesis to develop descriptive and then analytical themes, then developed recommendations to increase uptake based on the findings. We evaluated the quality of each study and the confidence that we had in the recommendations using published checklists.

Results

We included 16 articles after screening 23 160 citations and 129 full texts. We identified four themes of influences relating to the healthcare system and personal factors that affected both ability and motivation to attend: relationship with health care, logistics of appointments and tests, family‐related practicalities and concern about diabetes. We developed 10 recommendations addressing diabetes risk information and education, and changes to healthcare systems to promote increased attendance at screening in this population, most with high or moderate confidence.

Conclusions

We have identified a need to improve women's understanding about Type 2 diabetes and GDM, and to adjust healthcare provision during and after pregnancy to decrease barriers and increase motivation for testing. Encouraging higher uptake by incorporating these recommendations into practice will enable earlier management of diabetes and improve long‐term outcomes.

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<![CDATA[Magnetically controlled growing instrumentation for early onset scoliosis: Caution needed when interpreting the literature]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nab91e111-e704-4d05-90d6-14d1449f1c67

BACKGROUND

Magnetically controlled growing rods (MCGR) are a novel treatment option for early onset scoliosis (EOS). Although the complication profile with MCGR use has been reviewed, these reviews do not take into account important implants modifications, termed iterations, that were made due to early on postoperative complications is not well reported or understood.

AIM

To assess the effect of MCGR implant iterations on post-operative complications in EOS.

METHODS

A systematic review was performed to identify studies investigating MCGR specifically for the treatment of EOS, refined to those reporting the implant iteration, specifically the incorporation of the keeper plate to the implant design. Articles with mixed implant iteration usage were excluded. Complications following surgery were recorded as well as potential risk factors and compared between implant cohorts.

RESULTS

Although 20 articles were identified for inclusion, 5 included mixed implant iteration leaving a total of 271 patients identified through 15 clinical studies that met inclusion criteria. The average follow-up was 25.4-mo. Pre-keeper plate implants were utilized in 3 studies with a total of 49 patients. Overall, 115 (42.4%) post-operative complications were identified, with 87% defined as major. The addition of the keeper plate significantly decreased the rate of post-operative complications per study (35.7% vs 80.6%, P = 0.036), and the rate of distraction failure (8.1% vs 40.8%, P = 0.02). Unplanned reoperation occurred in 69 (26.7%) patients but was not different between implant iteration cohorts (25.5% without keeper plate vs 27.1% with keeper plate, P = 0.92).

CONCLUSION

MCGR for EOS has a cumulative complication rate of 42.4% but this is significantly reduced to 35.7% when reviewing only keeper-plate enabled implants. However, 25% of published articles included mixed implant iterations. Future studies should discern between implants iterations when reporting on the usage of MCGR for EOS.

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