ResearchPad - t-cell-receptors https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Sequence-structure-function relationships in class I MHC: A local frustration perspective]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_15751 Class I Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) binds short antigenic peptides with the help of Peptide Loading Complex (PLC), and presents them to T-cell Receptors (TCRs) of cytotoxic T-cells and Killer-cell Immunglobulin-like Receptors (KIRs) of Natural Killer (NK) cells. With more than 10000 alleles, human MHC (Human Leukocyte Antigen, HLA) is the most polymorphic protein in humans. This allelic diversity provides a wide coverage of peptide sequence space, yet does not affect the three-dimensional structure of the complex. Moreover, TCRs mostly interact with HLA in a common diagonal binding mode, and KIR-HLA interaction is allele-dependent. With the aim of establishing a framework for understanding the relationships between polymorphism (sequence), structure (conserved fold) and function (protein interactions) of the human MHC, we performed here a local frustration analysis on pMHC homology models covering 1436 HLA I alleles. An analysis of local frustration profiles indicated that (1) variations in MHC fold are unlikely due to minimally-frustrated and relatively conserved residues within the HLA peptide-binding groove, (2) high frustration patches on HLA helices are either involved in or near interaction sites of MHC with the TCR, KIR, or tapasin of the PLC, and (3) peptide ligands mainly stabilize the F-pocket of HLA binding groove.

]]>
<![CDATA[Tuning antiviral CD8 T-cell response via proline-altered peptide ligand vaccination]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14646 Viral escape mutagenesis correlates often with disease progression and represents a major hurdle for vaccination-based therapies. Here, we have designed and developed a novel generation of altered epitopes that re-establish and enhance significantly CD8+ T cell recognition of a naturally occurring viral immune escape variant. Biophysical and structural analyses provide a clear understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying this reestablished recognition. We believe that this approach can be implemented to currently available or novel vaccination approaches to efficiently restore T cell recognition of virus escape variants to control disease progression.

]]>
<![CDATA[Age-related transcriptional modules and TF-miRNA-mRNA interactions in neonatal and infant human thymus]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Ne5173bb6-5611-4e9c-b8d8-f6fe9062bcd6

The human thymus suffers a transient neonatal involution, recovers and then starts a process of decline between the 1st and 2nd years of life. Age-related morphological changes in thymus were extensively investigated, but the genomic mechanisms underlying this process remain largely unknown. Through Weighted Gene Co-expression Network Analysis (WGCNA) and TF-miRNA-mRNA integrative analysis we studied the transcriptome of neonate and infant thymic tissues grouped by age: 0–30 days (A); 31days-6 months (B); 7–12 months (C); 13–18 months (D); 19-31months (E). Age-related transcriptional modules, hubs and high gene significance (HGS) genes were identified, as well as TF-miRNA-hub/HGS co-expression correlations. Three transcriptional modules were correlated with A and/or E groups. Hubs were mostly related to cellular/metabolic processes; few were differentially expressed (DE) or related to T-cell development. Inversely, HGS genes in groups A and E were mostly DE. In A (neonate) one third of the hyper-expressed HGS genes were related to T-cell development, against one-twentieth in E, what may correlate with the early neonatal depletion and recovery of thymic T-cell populations. This genomic mechanism is tightly regulated by TF-miRNA-hub/HGS interactions that differentially govern cellular and molecular processes involved in the functioning of the neonate thymus and in the beginning of thymic decline.

]]>
<![CDATA[Casting a wider net: Immunosurveillance by nonclassical MHC molecules]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c78500bd5eed0c484007b91

Most studies of T lymphocytes focus on recognition of classical major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I or II molecules presenting oligopeptides, yet there are numerous variations and exceptions of biological significance based on recognition of a wide variety of nonclassical MHC molecules. These include αβ and γδ T cells that recognize different class Ib molecules (CD1, MR-1, HLA-E, G, F, et al.) that are nearly monomorphic within a given species. Collectively, these T cells can be considered “unconventional,” in part because they recognize lipids, metabolites, and modified peptides. Unlike classical MHC-specific cells, unconventional T cells generally exhibit limited T-cell antigen receptor (TCR) repertoires and often produce innate immune cell-like rapid effector responses. Exploiting this system in new generation vaccines for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), tuberculosis (TB), other infectious agents, and cancer was the focus of a recent workshop, “Immune Surveillance by Non-classical MHC Molecules: Improving Diversity for Antigens,” sponsored by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. Here, we summarize salient points presented regarding the basic immunobiology of unconventional T cells, recent advances in methodologies to measure unconventional T-cell activity in diseases, and approaches to harness their considerable clinical potential.

]]>
<![CDATA[Roles, function and relevance of LAG3 in HIV infection]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c61b7bcd5eed0c484937e9e

HIV causes several forms of immune dysfunction that need to be addressed in a functional cure for HIV. Immune exhaustion describes a dysfunctional phenotype caused by chronic cellular activation. Lymphocyte activation gene-3 (LAG3) is one of several negative coreceptors known as immune checkpoints that contribute to this exhaustion phenotype. Antibodies targeting immune checkpoints are now used clinically to restore immunity against cancer and hold promise in restoring immunity during HIV infection. Here, we summarize current knowledge surrounding LAG3 and discuss its relevance during HIV infection and the potential for LAG3-targeting antibodies in a functional HIV cure.

]]>
<![CDATA[Reining in the CD8+ T cell: Respiratory virus infection and PD-1-mediated T-cell impairment]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c37b7bad5eed0c484490aa4 ]]> <![CDATA[powerTCR: A model-based approach to comparative analysis of the clone size distribution of the T cell receptor repertoire]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c08418cd5eed0c484fc9f91

Sequencing of the T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire is a powerful tool for deeper study of immune response, but the unique structure of this type of data makes its meaningful quantification challenging. We introduce a new method, the Gamma-GPD spliced threshold model, to address this difficulty. This biologically interpretable model captures the distribution of the TCR repertoire, demonstrates stability across varying sequencing depths, and permits comparative analysis across any number of sampled individuals. We apply our method to several datasets and obtain insights regarding the differentiating features in the T cell receptor repertoire among sampled individuals across conditions. We have implemented our method in the open-source R package powerTCR.

]]>
<![CDATA[Characterization of T cell receptors in a novel murine model of nickel-induced intraoral metal contact allergy]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c215186d5eed0c4843fa95f

Nickel is a component of several alloy types that are widely used in our environment, including several dental alloy types that cause intraoral metal contact allergy. However, metal-specific immune responses in the oral mucosa have not been elucidated because a suitable animal model has not been established. In this study, we established a novel murine model of nickel-induced intraoral metal contact allergy and aimed to elucidate the immune response in terms of T-cell receptor repertoire and cytokine profiles in inflamed oral mucosa. The intraoral metal contact allergy model was induced by two sensitizations of nickel plus lipopolysaccharide solution into the postauricular skin followed by a single nickel challenge of the buccal mucosa. Cytokine expression profiles and T-cell phenotypes were determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. T cells accumulated in the cervical lymph nodes and inflamed oral mucosa were characterized by analyzing their T-cell receptor α- and β-chain repertoires, and the nucleotide sequences of complementary determining region 3. Significant swelling and pathological features were histologically evident at 1 day after challenge in mice with nickel allergy. At 1 day after the challenge, CD8-positive T cells producing high levels of T helper 1 type cytokines had accumulated in the allergic oral mucosa. At 7 days after the challenge, excessive nickel allergy in the oral mucosa was suppressed by regulatory T cells. Characterization of the T-cell receptor repertoire in nickel allergic mice revealed the presence of natural killer T cells and T cells bearing Trav6-6-Traj57 at 1 day after the challenge. Our murine model of nickel-induced intraoral metal contact allergy showed that natural killer T cells and T cells bearing Trav6-6-Traj57 might be involved in the immune responses of nickel-induced intraoral metal contact allergy.

]]>
<![CDATA[The ectodomains of the lymphocyte scavenger receptors CD5 and CD6 interact with tegumental antigens from Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato and protect mice against secondary cystic echinococcosis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c0ae451d5eed0c4845895e9

Background

Scavenger Receptors (SRs) from the host’s innate immune system are known to bind multiple ligands to promote the removal of non-self or altered-self targets. CD5 and CD6 are two highly homologous class I SRs mainly expressed on all T cells and the B1a cell subset, and involved in the fine tuning of activation and differentiation signals delivered by the antigen-specific receptors (TCR and BCR, respectively), to which they physically associate. Additionally, CD5 and CD6 have been shown to interact with and sense the presence of conserved pathogen-associated structures from bacteria, fungi and/or viruses.

Methodology/Principal findings

We report herein the interaction of CD5 and CD6 lymphocyte surface receptors with Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato (s.l.). Binding studies show that both soluble and membrane-bound forms of CD5 and CD6 bind to intact viable protoscoleces from E. granulosus s.l. through recognition of metaperiodate-resistant tegumental components. Proteomic analyses allowed identification of thioredoxin peroxidase for CD5, and peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase (cyclophilin) and endophilin B1 (antigen P-29) for CD6, as their potential interactors. Further in vitro assays demonstrate that membrane-bound or soluble CD5 and CD6 forms differentially modulate the pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine release induced following peritoneal cells exposure to E. granulosus s.l. tegumental components. Importantly, prophylactic infusion of soluble CD5 or CD6 significantly ameliorated the infection outcome in the mouse model of secondary cystic echinococcosis.

Conclusions/Significance

Taken together, the results expand the pathogen binding properties of CD5 and CD6 and provide novel evidence for their therapeutic potential in human cystic echinococcosis.

]]>
<![CDATA[HCMV triggers frequent and persistent UL40-specific unconventional HLA-E-restricted CD8 T-cell responses with potential autologous and allogeneic peptide recognition]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5af106cc463d7e336df9e542

Immune response against human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) includes a set of persistent cytotoxic NK and CD8 T cells devoted to eliminate infected cells and to prevent reactivation. CD8 T cells against HCMV antigens (pp65, IE1) presented by HLA class-I molecules are well characterized and they associate with efficient virus control. HLA-E-restricted CD8 T cells targeting HCMV UL40 signal peptides (HLA-EUL40) have recently emerged as a non-conventional T-cell response also observed in some hosts. The occurrence, specificity and features of HLA-EUL40 CD8 T-cell responses remain mostly unknown. Here, we detected and quantified these responses in blood samples from healthy blood donors (n = 25) and kidney transplant recipients (n = 121) and we investigated the biological determinants involved in their occurrence. Longitudinal and phenotype ex vivo analyses were performed in comparison to HLA-A*02/pp65-specific CD8 T cells. Using a set of 11 HLA-E/UL40 peptide tetramers we demonstrated the presence of HLA-EUL40 CD8 αβT cells in up to 32% of seropositive HCMV+ hosts that may represent up to 38% of total circulating CD8 T-cells at a time point suggesting a strong expansion post-infection. Host’s HLA-A*02 allele, HLA-E *01:01/*01:03 genotype and sequence of the UL40 peptide from the infecting strain are major factors affecting the incidence of HLA-EUL40 CD8 T cells. These cells are effector memory CD8 (CD45RAhighROlow, CCR7-, CD27-, CD28-) characterized by a low level of PD-1 expression. HLA-EUL40 responses appear early post-infection and display a broad, unbiased, Vβ repertoire. Although induced in HCMV strain-dependent, UL4015-23-specific manner, HLA-EUL40 CD8 T cells are reactive toward a broader set of nonapeptides varying in 1–3 residues including most HLA-I signal peptides. Thus, HCMV induces strong and life-long lasting HLA-EUL40 CD8 T cells with potential allogeneic or/and autologous reactivity that take place selectively in at least a third of infections according to virus strain and host HLA concordance.

]]>
<![CDATA[Blockade of Extracellular ATP Effect by Oxidized ATP Effectively Mitigated Induced Mouse Experimental Autoimmune Uveitis (EAU)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989daebab0ee8fa60bbf389

Various pathological conditions are accompanied by ATP release from the intracellular to the extracellular compartment. Extracellular ATP (eATP) functions as a signaling molecule by activating purinergic P2 purine receptors. The key P2 receptor involved in inflammation was identified as P2X7R. Recent studies have shown that P2X7R signaling is required to trigger the Th1/Th17 immune response, and oxidized ATP (oxATP) effectively blocks P2X7R activation. In this study we investigated the effect of oxATP on mouse experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU). Our results demonstrated that induced EAU in B6 mice was almost completely abolished by the administration of small doses of oxATP, and the Th17 response, but not the Th1 response, was significantly weakened in the treated mice. Mechanistic studies showed that the therapeutic effects involve the functional change of a number of immune cells, including dendritic cells (DCs), T cells, and regulatory T cells. OxATP not only directly inhibits the T cell response; it also suppresses T cell activation by altering the function of DCs and Foxp3+ T cell. Our results demonstrated that inhibition of P2X7R activation effectively exempts excessive autoimmune inflammation, which may indicate a possible therapeutic use in the treatment of autoimmune diseases.

]]>
<![CDATA[Increased Levels of BAFF and APRIL Related to Human Active Pulmonary Tuberculosis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da01ab0ee8fa60b743f5

Background

Despite great efforts to improve diagnosis and treatment, tuberculosis (TB) remains a major health problem worldwide, especially in developing countries. Lack of concrete immune markers is still the obstacle to properly evaluate active TB. Therefore, identification of more validated biomarkers and phenotypic signatures is imperative. In particular, T cell-related biomarkers are more significant.

Methodology

To understand the nature of CD4+ T cell-derived signatures involved in infection and disease development, we examined and analyzed whole genome expression profiles of purified CD4+ T cells from healthy individuals (HD), two distinct populations with latent infection (with low or high IFN-γ levels, LTBL/LTBH) and untreated TB patients. Following, we validated the expression profiles of genes in the peripheral CD4+ T cells from each group and examined secretion levels of distinct cytokines in serum and pleural effusion.

Principal Findings

Our bio-informatic analyses indicate that the two latent populations and clinical TB patients possess distinct CD4+ T cell gene expression profiles. Furthermore, The mRNA and protein expression levels of B cell activating factor (BAFF), which belongs to the TNF family, and a proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL) were markedly up-regulated at the disease stage. In particular, the dramatic enhancement of BAFF and APRIL in the pleural effusion of patients with tuberculosis pleurisy suggests that these proteins may present disease status. In addition, we found that the BAFF/APRIL system was closely related to the Th1 immune response. Our study delineates previously unreported roles of BAFF and APRIL in the development of tuberculosis, and these findings have implications for the diagnosis of the disease. Our study also identifies a number of transcriptional signatures in CD4+ T cells that have the potential to be utilized as diagnostic and prognostic tools to combat the tuberculosis epidemic.

]]>
<![CDATA[Age-Dependent Changes in the Sphingolipid Composition of Mouse CD4+ T Cell Membranes and Immune Synapses Implicate Glucosylceramides in Age-Related T Cell Dysfunction]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dafaab0ee8fa60bc42fc

To determine whether changes in sphingolipid composition are associated with age-related immune dysfunction, we analyzed the core sphingolipidome (i.e., all of the metabolites through the first headgroup additions) of young and aged CD4+ T cells. Since sphingolipids influence the biophysical properties of membranes, we evaluated the compositions of immune synapse (IS) and non-IS fractions prepared by magnetic immuno-isolation. Broadly, increased amounts of sphingomyelins, dihydrosphingomyelins and ceramides were found in aged CD4+ T cells. After normalizing for total sphingolipid content, a statistically significant decrease in the molar fraction of glucosylceramides was evident in both the non-IS and IS fractions of aged T cells. This change was balanced by less dramatic increases in the molar fractions of sphingomyelins and dihydrosphingomyelins in aged CD4+ T cells. In vitro, the direct or enzymatic enhancement of ceramide levels decreased CD4+ T cell proliferation without regard for the age of the responding T cells. In contrast, the in vitro inhibition of glucosylceramidase preferentially increased the proliferation of aged CD4+ T cells. These results suggest that reductions in glucosylceramide abundance contribute to age-related impairments in CD4+ T cell function.

]]>
<![CDATA[Down-Regulation of CTLA-4 by HIV-1 Nef Protein]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da02ab0ee8fa60b74a01

HIV-1 Nef protein down-regulates several cell surface receptors through its interference with the cell sorting and trafficking machinery. Here we demonstrate for the first time the ability of Nef to down-regulate cell surface expression of the negative immune modulator CTLA-4. Down-regulation of CTLA-4 required the Nef motifs DD175, EE155 and LL165, all known to be involved in vesicle trafficking. Disruption of the lysosomal functions by pH-neutralizing agents prevented CTLA-4 down-regulation by Nef, demonstrating the implication of the endosomal/lysosomal compartments in this process. Confocal microscopy experiments visualized the co-localization between Nef and CTLA-4 in the early and recycling endosomes but not at the cell surface. Overall, our results provide a novel mechanism by which HIV-1 Nef interferes with the surface expression of the negative regulator of T cell activation CTLA-4. Down-regulation of CTLA-4 may contribute to the mechanisms by which HIV-1 sustains T cell activation, a critical step in viral replication and dissemination.

]]>
<![CDATA[Spatial Association of Signaling Proteins and F-Actin Effects on Cluster Assembly Analyzed via Photoactivation Localization Microscopy in T Cells]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dac3ab0ee8fa60bb1650

Recognition of antigens by T cell receptors (TCRs) triggers cellular signaling cascades initiated by recruitment to the plasma membrane of numerous effector molecules to form signaling microclusters (MCs). Here we show that the method of high-resolution photoactivation localization microscopy (PALM) imaging can be used to analyze the spatial correlation between kinase ZAP70 and adaptor SLP76 MCs at the cell periphery and the effects of F-actin on MC assembly. We first determined the photophysical rate constants of Dronpa and tdEos fluorescence probes, which allowed us to optimize our dual-color PALM imaging method. We next analyzed the degrees of spatial association through determination of Mander's colocalization coefficients from PALM images, which revealed increasing spatial segregation of ZAP70 and SLP76 MCs at the cell periphery after initiation of signaling. We showed that this spatial segregation at the cell periphery occurred in parallel with the reduction of MC phosphorylation levels. Furthermore, we used Ripley's K function to analyze spatial randomness, and determined average radii of clusters as a function of activation time. The average radii of SLP76 and LAT MCs were found to decrease, whereas ZAP70 MC radii remained relatively constant. Finally, effects of F-actin depolymerization on MC morphology were studied by determining radial distributions of cluster circularity. Our data suggest that MC morphology is affected by actin polymerization. The quantitative analysis of sub-diffraction PALM images may provide a starting point for a molecular interpretation of cluster-cluster interactions and of the regulation of T cell signaling MCs by the cytoskeleton.

]]>
<![CDATA[Evidence that the Density of Self Peptide-MHC Ligands Regulates T-Cell Receptor Signaling]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989daedab0ee8fa60bbfdb6

Noncognate or self peptide-MHC (pMHC) ligands productively interact with T-cell receptor (TCR) and are always in a large access over the cognate pMHC on the surface of antigen presenting cells. We assembled soluble cognate and noncognate pMHC class I (pMHC-I) ligands at designated ratios on various scaffolds into oligomers that mimic pMHC clustering and examined how multivalency and density of the pMHCs in model clusters influences the binding to live CD8 T cells and the kinetics of TCR signaling. Our data demonstrate that the density of self pMHC-I proteins promotes their interaction with CD8 co-receptor, which plays a critical role in recognition of a small number of cognate pMHC-I ligands. This suggests that MHC clustering on live target cells could be utilized as a sensitive mechanism to regulate T cell responsiveness.

]]>
<![CDATA[Nitric Oxide Synthase 2 Improves Proliferation and Glycolysis of Peripheral γδ T Cells]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989daf1ab0ee8fa60bc1579

γδ T cells play critical roles in host defense against infections and cancer. Although advances have been made in identifying γδ TCR ligands, it remains essential to understand molecular mechanisms responsible for in vivo expansion of γδ T cells in periphery. Recent findings identified the expression of the inducible NO synthase (NOS2) in lymphoid cells and highlighted novel immunoregulatory functions of NOS2 in αβ T cell differentiation and B cell survival. In this context, we wondered whether NOS2 exerts an impact on γδ T cell properties. Here, we show that γδ T cells express NOS2 not only in vitro after TCR triggering, but also directly ex vivo. Nos2 deficient mice have fewer γδ T cells in peripheral lymph nodes (pLNs) than their wild-type counterparts, and these cells exhibit a reduced ability to produce IL-2. Using chemical NOS inhibitors and Nos2 deficient γδ T cells, we further evidence that the inactivation of endogenous NOS2 significantly reduced γδ T cell proliferation and glycolysis metabolism that can be restored in presence of exogenous IL-2. Collectively, we demonstrate the crucial role of endogenous NOS2 in promoting optimal IL-2 production, proliferation and glycolysis of γδ T cells that may contribute to their regulation at steady state.

]]>
<![CDATA[Characterization of Protective Human CD4+CD25+ FOXP3+ Regulatory T Cells Generated with IL-2, TGF-β and Retinoic Acid]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db13ab0ee8fa60bcc9c0

Background

Protective CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells bearing the Forkhead Foxp3 transcription factor can now be divided into three subsets: Endogenous thymus-derived cells, those induced in the periphery, and another subset induced ex-vivo with pharmacological amounts of IL-2 and TGF-β. Unfortunately, endogenous CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells are unstable and can be converted to effector cells by pro-inflammatory cytokines. Although protective Foxp3+CD4+CD25+ cells resistant to proinflammatory cytokines have been generated in mice, in humans this result has been elusive. Our objective, therefore, was to induce human naïve CD4+ cells to become stable, functional CD25+ Foxp3+ regulatory cells that were also resistant to the inhibitory effects of proinflammatory cytokines.

Methodology/Principal Findings

The addition of the vitamin A metabolite, all-trans retinoic acid (atRA) to human naïve CD4+ cells suboptimally activated with IL-2 and TGF-β enhanced and stabilized FOXP3 expression, and accelerated their maturation to protective regulatory T cells. AtRA, by itself, accelerated conversion of naïve to mature cells but did not induce FOXP3 or suppressive activity. The combination of atRA and TGF-β enabled CD4+CD45RA+ cells to express a phenotype and trafficking receptors similar to natural Tregs. AtRA/TGF-β-induced CD4+ regs were anergic and low producers of IL-2. They had potent in vitro suppressive activity and protected immunodeficient mice from a human-anti-mouse GVHD as well as expanded endogenous Tregs. However, treatment of endogenous Tregs with IL-1β and IL-6 decreased FOXP3 expression and diminished their protective effects in vivo while atRA-induced iTregs were resistant to these inhibitory effects.

Conclusions/Significance

We have developed a methodology that induces human CD4+ cells to rapidly become stable, fully functional suppressor cells that are also resistant to proinflammatory cytokines. This methodology offers a practical novel strategy to treat human autoimmune diseases and prevent allograft rejection without the use of agents that kill cells or interfere with signaling pathways.

]]>
<![CDATA[Bispecific T cell engager (BiTE®) antibody constructs can mediate bystander tumor cell killing]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b42df7c463d7e1e8fdd5f1a

For targets that are homogenously expressed, such as CD19 on cells of the B lymphocyte lineage, immunotherapies can be highly effective. Targeting CD19 with blinatumomab, a CD19/CD3 bispecific antibody construct (BiTE®), or with chimeric antigen receptor T cells (CAR-T) has shown great promise for treating certain CD19-positive hematological malignancies. In contrast, solid tumors with heterogeneous expression of the tumor-associated antigen (TAA) may present a challenge for targeted therapies. To prevent escape of TAA-negative cancer cells, immunotherapies with a local bystander effect would be beneficial. As a model to investigate BiTE®-mediated bystander killing in the solid tumor setting, we used epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) as a target. We measured lysis of EGFR-negative populations in vitro and in vivo when co-cultured with EGFR-positive cells, human T cells and an EGFR/CD3 BiTE® antibody construct. Bystander EGFR-negative cells were efficiently lysed by BiTE®-activated T cells only when proximal to EGFR-positive cells. Our mechanistic analysis suggests that cytokines released by BiTE®-activated T-cells induced upregulation of ICAM-1 and FAS on EGFR-negative bystander cells, contributing to T cell-induced bystander cell lysis.

]]>
<![CDATA[Binding of TCR Multimers and a TCR-Like Antibody with Distinct Fine-Specificities Is Dependent on the Surface Density of HLA Complexes]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da1dab0ee8fa60b7d934

Class I Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) molecules evolved to sample degraded protein fragments from the interior of the cell, and to display them at the surface for immune surveillance by CD8+ T cells. The ability of these lymphocytes to identify immunogenic peptide-MHC (pMHC) products on, for example, infected hepatocytes, and to subsequently eliminate those cells, is crucial for the control of hepatitis B virus (HBV). Various protein scaffolds have been designed to recapitulate the specific recognition of presented antigens with the aim to be exploited both diagnostically (e.g. to visualize cells exposed to infectious agents or cellular transformation) and therapeutically (e.g. for the delivery of drugs to compromised cells). In line with this, we report the construction of a soluble tetrameric form of an αβ T cell receptor (TCR) specific for the HBV epitope Env183–191 restricted by HLA-A*02:01, and compare its avidity and fine-specificity with a TCR-like monoclonal antibody generated against the same HLA target. A flow cytometry-based assay with streptavidin-coated beads loaded with Env183–191/HLA-A*02:01 complexes at high surface density, enabled us to probe the specific interaction of these molecules with their cognate pMHC. We demonstrate that the TCR tetramer has similar avidity for the pMHC as the antibody, but they differ in their fine-specificity, with only the TCR tetramer being capable of binding both natural variants of the Env183–191 epitope found in HBV genotypes A/C/D (187Arg) and genotype B (187Lys). Collectively, the results highlight the promiscuity of our soluble TCR, which could be an advantageous feature when targeting cells infected with a mutation-prone virus, but that binding of the soluble oligomeric TCR relies considerably on the surface density of the presented antigen.

]]>